Lepcha language

Lepcha language, or Róng language, is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal and Bhutan. Lepcha is spoken by minorities in the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal, as well as parts of Nepal and Bhutan. Where it is spoken, it is considered to be an aboriginal language, pre-dating the arrival of the Tibetan languages and more recent Nepali language. Lepcha speakers comprise four distinct communities: the Renjóngmú of Sikkim. Lepcha-speaking groups in India are larger than those in Bhutan; the Indian census reported 50,000 Lepcha speakers, however the number of native Lepcha speakers in India may be closer to 30,000. Lepcha is difficult to classify, but George van Driem suggests that it may be closest to the Mahakiranti languages, a subfamily of the Himalayish languages. Lepcha is internally diverse, showing lexical influences from different majority language groups across the four main Lepcha communities. According to Plaisier, these Nepali and Sikkimese Tibetan influences do not amount to a dialectical difference.

Roger Blench suggests that Lepcha has an Austroasiatic substratum, which originated from a now-extinct branch of Austroasiatic that he calls "Rongic". Lepcha is a non-tonal Sino-Tibetan language, although it does have phonemic stress or pitch that may be marked in the Lepcha script. Much of its lexicon is composed of monosyllabic elements. Notably, words that are considered obscene or taboo in other languages are not treated as such by native speakers; the Lepcha script is a syllabic script featuring a variety of special ligatures. Its genealogy is unclear. Early Lepcha manuscripts were written vertically, a sign of Chinese influence. Prior to the development of the Lepcha script, Lepcha literary works were composed in the Tibetan script. Lepcha language is romanized according to varying schemes, the prevailing system being that of Mainwaring. Most linguists, including Plaisier, whose system is used in this article, have followed modified versions of Mainwaring's system. Other linguists and historians have used systems based on European languages such as English and German.

Lepcha consonants appear in the chart below, following Plaisier: Retroflex phonemes /ʈ/, /ʈʰ/, /ɖ/ are written in Lepcha script as ᰀᰥ kr, ᰝᰥ hr, ᰃᰥ gr, respectively. Most, though not all, instances of retroflex consonants indicate. To distinguish this retroflex sound in Lepcha script, a dot may be written underneath: ᰀᰥ᰷, ᰝᰥ᰷, ᰃᰥ᰷. Native instances of non-retroflex ᰀᰥ kr, ᰝᰥ hr, ᰃᰥ gr may be pronounced either as written or as ⟨tr⟩, ⟨thr⟩, ⟨dr⟩. For example, tagrikup, "boy," may be said either or. Lepcha has three glide consonants that may occur after certain initial consonants: /r/, /j/, /l/; when the phoneme /r/ operates as a glide, it can combine with /j/ as a double-glide: ᰕᰥᰤᰩᰮmryóm, "to spread over the ground, creep." Notably, syllables with the glide /l/ are given their own independent forms in the Lepcha script. Velar consonants /k/ and /ɡ/ preceding front vowels /i/ or /e/ are palatalized as and, respectively. Fricatives /s/ and /ʃ/ are merged before /i/. Lepcha speakers tend not to distinguish between /z/ and /ʒ/, pronouncing both as ~~.

Additionally, initial /ŋ/ is realized as. Under the influence of Nepali, some Lepcha speakers have lost the distinction between /pʰ/ and /f/, between /v/ and /w/. Of the above phonemes, only /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /k/, /t/, /p/, /r/, /l/ may be syllable-final. Native speakers tend to neutralize the difference between final /n/ and /ŋ/. In syllable-final position, stops are realized as an unreleased stop pronounced with a simultaneous /ʔ/: for example, /k/ becomes. According to Plaisier, Lepcha has eight vowels: The phoneme denoted by ⟨í⟩ is shortened and appears in closed syllables; the phoneme /e/ is realized as in open syllables and in closed syllables before /ŋ/ or /k/. Closed syllables ending in /p/, /m/, /l/, /n/, /r/, /t/ show free variation between, even. Distinctions between /o/ and /ɔ/ are lost among non-literate speakers those fluent in Nepali language, which does not contrast the sounds. Lepcha grammar features nouns, adjectives and verbs. Word order is subject–object–verb. Lepcha morphology is somewhat agglutinative, though most bare Lepcha lexicon is made up of one- or two-syllable words.

Nouns are arranged into either head-last noun phrases. Relative clauses and genitive phrases precede nouns, whereas markers for demonstratives, number and other particles follow the noun. Lepcha is an ergative language, where the ergative case indicates transitivity and completedness of the event. There is no grammatical agreement between different parts of speech. Adjectives follow nouns they modify, function as predicates, or stand independently as nominal heads. Adverbs directly precede verbs, reduplication is productive for adverbs of time. According to Plaisier, Lepcha has only two true "cases" that modify the noun morphologically: the definite article -re and the dative case marker -m. All other noun markers, including for example the genitive marker, are invariable postpositions. A series noun markers may follow a single noun. Together, these cases and postpositions are: Plurals are marked differently according to whether


Rheinsberg is a town and a municipality in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated on approx. 20 km north-east of Neuruppin and 75 km north-west of Berlin. Frederick the Great, while still Crown Prince and moved into a restored chateau in Rheinsberg shortly after his 1733 marriage to Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern. Here he experienced his "Rheinsberg Period", an era marked by regular correspondence with Voltaire, boisterous celebration in the company of minor philosophers and musicians, the writing of several works of political theory, including the Anti-Machiavel. In 1870, the painter Eduard Gaertner and his family decided to leave the hectic atmosphere of Berlin and settle in Flecken Zechlin, a suburb of Rheinsberg - where he lived until his death in 1877. Großer Prebelowsee Großer Zechliner See Schwarzer See Tietzowsee Zootzensee Huber Heights Gad Granach, German writer Erhard Egidi, German cantor and organist Lothar Baumgarten, German artist Official website

Rally of the Republicans

The Rally of the Republicans is a liberal party in Ivory Coast. The party is the country's governing party; the RDR, which has most of its support in the north of the country, was formed as a liberal offshoot of the ruling party, the Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire, in mid-1994. Djéni Kobina became the new party's Secretary-General; the RDR sought for Ouattara, who had served as Prime Minister from 1990 to 1993, to become its candidate in the 1995 presidential election. However, amendments to the electoral code required presidential candidates to have lived in the country for five years and to have been born of Ivorian parents, it was thought that these provisions were intended to keep Ouattara out of the running. For this reason the RDR boycotted the election; the RDR held its first ordinary congress on July 2–3, 1995, at which Ouattara was nominated as its presidential candidate. Following Kobina's death, the party held its first extraordinary congress in January 1999 to elect a new Secretary-General.

Ouattara was elected President of the RDR on August 1, 1999 at the second extraordinary congress of the party, he was designated as the party's candidate for the next presidential election. Ouattara said that he was eligible to stand in this election, scheduled to be held in 2000, pointing to documents which he said demonstrated that he and his parents were of Ivorian birth, as required by the electoral code, he was accused of forging these papers, an investigation was begun. His nationality certificate was annulled by a court in October 1999 and an arrest warrant for Ouattara was issued a month although he was in France at the time; the RDR demonstrated in favor of Ouattara's candidacy. A number of RDR leaders, including the party's Secretary-General, Henriette Diabate, were arrested on October 27 on the grounds that they were responsible for violence occurring during protests they organized; when soldiers rebelled on December 23, 1999, one of their demands was the release of the imprisoned RDR leaders.

Ouattara returned to Ivory Coast on December 29, hailing Bédié's ouster as a "revolution supported by all the Ivorian people". Despite Ouattara's support for the coup, his candidacy in the October 2000 presidential election was rejected by the Supreme Court, on the same nationality basis, used to prevent his candidacy during Bédié's presidency; as a result, the RDR decided to boycott the presidential election. It boycotted the parliamentary election held on 10 December 2000 and 14 January 2001, but won five out of 225 seats; the RDR is a full member of the Liberal International, which it joined at the Liberal International's Dakar Congress in 2003. On May 18, 2005, despite their history of hostility, the RDR and the PDCI signed an agreement to form a coalition, the Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace, along with two smaller parties, the Union for Democracy and Peace in Côte d'Ivoire and the Movement of the Forces of the Future, ahead of the presidential election planned for October 2005.

Ouattara was designated as the RDR's presidential candidate at its Second Ordinary Congress on February 1–3, 2008 and re-elected as President of the RDR for another five years. At the congress, he invited the former rebel Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire to team up with the RDR for the election. In the first round of the 2010 presidential elections, Ouattara finished second, behind incumbent Laurent Gbagbo. In the runoff, Ouattara was announced as finishing first with 54 percent of the vote—a result recognized by the entire international community. Gbagbo, refused to step down, touching off a major political crisis that only ended with Gbagbo's capture on 11 April 2011. At the RDR's Third Ordinary Congress on 9–10 September 2017, it was expected that Ouattara would be elected as President of the RDR, but he instead proposed Henriette Diabaté for the post, she was duly elected by acclamation. Kandia Camara was designated as Amadou Gon Coulibaly as First Vice-President. Aya Virginie Toure was elected President of the Rally of Republican Women with a majority vote of 59%.

Rally of the Republicans official site