Leprosy known as Hansen's disease, is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Infection can lead to damage of the nerves, respiratory tract and eyes; this nerve damage may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, which can lead to the loss of parts of a person's extremities from repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds. An infected person may experience muscle weakness and poor eyesight. Leprosy symptoms may begin within one year, for some people symptoms may take 20 years or more to occur. Leprosy is spread between people. About 95% of people who contract M. leprae do not develop the disease. Spread is thought to occur through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of a person infected by leprosy. Genetic factors and immune function play a role in how a person catches the disease. Leprosy does not spread during pregnancy through sexual contact. Leprosy occurs more among people living in poverty; the two main types of disease – paucibacillary and multibacillary – differ in the number of bacteria present.
A person with paucibacillary disease has five or fewer poorly pigmented numb skin patches while a person with multibacillary disease has more than five skin patches. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding acid-fast bacilli in a biopsy of the skin. Leprosy is curable with multidrug therapy. Treatment of paucibacillary leprosy is with the medications dapsone and clofazimine for six months. Treatment for multibacillary leprosy uses the same medications for 12 months. A number of other antibiotics may be used; these treatments are provided free of charge by the World Health Organization. People with leprosy can go to school and work. In 2018, there were 209,000 leprosy cases down from 5.2 million in the 1980s. The number of new cases in 2016 was 216,000. Most new cases occur with India accounting for more than half. In the past 20 years, 16 million people worldwide have been cured of leprosy. About 200 cases per year are reported in the United States. Leprosy has affected humanity for thousands of years.
The disease takes its name from the Greek word λέπρᾱ, from λεπῐ́ς, while the term "Hansen's disease" is named after the Norwegian physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen. Leprosy has been associated with social stigma, which continues to be a barrier to self-reporting and early treatment. Separating people affected by leprosy by placing them in leper colonies still occurs in some areas of India and Africa. However, most colonies have closed, since leprosy is not contagious; some consider the word "leper" offensive, preferring the phrase "person affected with leprosy". Leprosy is classified as a neglected tropical disease. World Leprosy Day was started in 1954 to draw awareness to those affected by leprosy. Common symptoms present in the different types of leprosy include a runny nose. In addition, atrophy of the testes and impotence may occur. Leprosy can affect people in different ways; the average incubation period is 5 years. People may begin to notice symptoms within up to 20 years after infection; the first noticeable sign of leprosy is the development of pale or pink coloured patches of skin that may be insensitive to temperature or pain.
Patches of discolored skin are sometimes accompanied or preceded by nerve problems including numbness or tenderness in the hands or feet. Secondary infections can result in tissue loss, causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body. A person's immune response differs depending on the form of leprosy. 30% of people affected with leprosy experience nerve damage. The nerve damage sustained is reversible when treated early, but becomes permanent when appropriate treatment is started after a delay of several months. Damage to nerves may cause loss of muscle function, it may lead to sensation abnormalities or numbness, which may lead to additional infections and joint deformities. M. leprae and M. lepromatosis are the mycobacteria. M. lepromatosis is a newly identified mycobacterium isolated from a fatal case of diffuse lepromatous leprosy in 2008. M. lepromatosis is indistinguishable clinically from M. leprae. M. Leprae is an intracellular, acid-fast bacterium, aerobic and rod-shaped.
M. leprae is surrounded by the waxy cell envelope coating characteristic of the genus Mycobacterium. Genetically, M. leprae and M. lepromatosis lack the genes. M. leprae and M. lepromatosis are obligate intracellular pathogens, can not be grown in the laboratory. The inability to culture M. leprae and M. lepromatosis has resulted in a difficulty definitively identifying the bacterial organism under a strict interpretation of Koch's postulates. While the causative organisms have to date been impossible to culture in vitro, it has been possible to grow them in animals such as mice and armadillos. Occurring infection has been reported in nonhuman primates and red squirrels. Multilocus sequence typing of the armadillo M. leprae strains suggests that they were of human origin for at most a few hundred years. Thus, it is sus
Red Christmas is a 2016 Australian horror film written and produced by Craig Anderson. A family gathers together to celebrate Christmas. Amidst the celebrations, a mysterious, cloaked stranger, "Cletus" is taken in. Due to his strange behaviour, he is forced to leave, it is revealed that 20 years ago, the matriarch of the family, travelled north to have an abortion. During the procedure a religious fanatic take Dianes child. Diane and her child, survived the procedure and has now returned to the family home to violently exact revenge on her entire family. During the night, Cletus kills Hope with an ax, proceeds to strangle Joe in a car. Cletus smashes Scotts head. On, Cletus forces Peter's head into a blender. Diane accidentally shoots Jerry. Ginny gives birth to the baby. Cletus stabs Suzy with an umbrella. Cletus stabs Ginny in the back and rests her newborn baby onto a table. Diane stabs Cletus with an anchor chained around her neck leaps out the window of the second-floor room, hanging herself and ripping out Cletus' insides, leaving Ginny's newborn baby as the sole survivor of the night.
Dee Wallace as Diane Geoff Morrell as Joe Sarah Bishop as Suzy David Collins as Peter Janis McGavin as Ginny Sam Campbell as Cletus Deelia Meriel as Hope Gerard Odwyer as Jerry Bjorn Stewart as Scott On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 47% based on 19 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 5.41/10. On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 52 out of 100, based on 5 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Eddie Cockrell from Variety called it, "An energetic, candy-colored romp through genre tropes that manages to take its subject matter while poking fun at itself at the same time." Noel Murray from Los Angeles Times wrote in his review on the film, "Red Christmas doesn't have any specific political point of view. It's a constructed, unapologetically nasty little thriller, given depth and weight by Wallace's interpretation of a sweet woman suffering for her past." John DeFore called the film "Gory and offensive, but lacking in the scare department.".
DeFore criticized the film's pacing, lack of humor. Craig Anderson made a 100 minute making of documentary, Horror Movie: A Low Budget Nightmare. Red Christmas on IMDb Red Christmas at Metacritic Red Christmas at Rotten Tomatoes
In 1939, a four room school building was erected in the outlying Brownville, Alabama community on land donated by a man named Richard Montgomery, consolidating several smaller community schools into Montgomery School, it is now behind the Samantha Volunteer Fire Dept. on Mormon Road, off of highway 171 in the western part of Tuscaloosa County. The school received accreditation status in 1951, allowing it to become Montgomery Senior High School and allowing the older students to cut down extensive time in commuting to Tuscaloosa County High School in Northport, Alabama. At that point the school had expanded to a dozen rooms with a faculty of 13 and a total enrollment of 364 students. In 1958, citing that both Montgomery High and Gorgas High schools would lose accreditation based on declining enrollment, the Tuscaloosa County Board of Education announced plans to build Northside High School in the community of Samantha; the entire board of Montgomery High School trustees resigned and three hundred petitioners fought the closure of Montgomery High in court, but lost.
Northside High was opened in 1958, in the building that houses Northside Middle School. Montgomery Elementary School continued to operate, but was closed; as of 2016, the six acre site of the historic school was just leased by the school board to the Tuscaloosa Parks and Recreation for the next 25 years and is slated to become the Brownville Community Park. Revival of the old baseball field and basketball courts are the first planned improvements announced