In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin that does not undergo strong interactions. Two main classes of leptons exist, charged leptons, neutral leptons. Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos interact with anything, are rarely observed; the best known of all leptons is the electron. There are six types of leptons, grouped in three generations; the first-generation leptons called electronic leptons, comprise the electron and the electron neutrino. Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons; the heavier muons and taus will change into electrons and neutrinos through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Thus electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus can only be produced in high energy collisions. Leptons have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge and mass.
Unlike quarks, leptons are not subject to the strong interaction, but they are subject to the other three fundamental interactions: gravitation, the weak interaction, to electromagnetism, of which the latter is proportional to charge, is thus zero for the electrically neutral neutrinos. For every lepton flavor, there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as an antilepton, that differs from the lepton only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. According to certain theories, neutrinos may be their own antiparticle, it is not known whether this is the case. The first charged lepton, the electron, was theorized in the mid-19th century by several scientists and was discovered in 1897 by J. J. Thomson; the next lepton to be observed was the muon, discovered by Carl D. Anderson in 1936, classified as a meson at the time. After investigation, it was realized that the muon did not have the expected properties of a meson, but rather behaved like an electron, only with higher mass.
It took until 1947 for the concept of "leptons" as a family of particles to be proposed. The first neutrino, the electron neutrino, was proposed by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain certain characteristics of beta decay, it was first observed in the Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment conducted by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines in 1956. The muon neutrino was discovered in 1962 by Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger, the tau discovered between 1974 and 1977 by Martin Lewis Perl and his colleagues from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; the tau neutrino remained elusive until July 2000, when the DONUT collaboration from Fermilab announced its discovery. Leptons are an important part of the Standard Model. Electrons are one of the components of atoms, alongside neutrons. Exotic atoms with muons and taus instead of electrons can be synthesized, as well as lepton–antilepton particles such as positronium; the name lepton comes from the Greek λεπτός leptós, "fine, thin".
Lepton was first used by physicist Léon Rosenfeld in 1948: Following a suggestion of Prof. C. Møller, I adopt—as a pendant to "nucleon"—the denomination "lepton" to denote a particle of small mass; the etymology incorrectly implies. When Rosenfeld named them, the only known leptons were electrons and muons, whose masses are indeed small compared to nucleons—the mass of an electron and the mass of a muon are fractions of the mass of the "heavy" proton. However, the mass of the tau is nearly twice that of the proton and about 3,500 times that of the electron; the first lepton identified was the electron, discovered by J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists in 1897. In 1930, Wolfgang Pauli postulated the electron neutrino to preserve conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, conservation of angular momentum in beta decay. Pauli theorized that an undetected particle was carrying away the difference between the energy and angular momentum of the initial and observed final particles.
The electron neutrino was called the neutrino, as it was not yet known that neutrinos came in different flavours. Nearly 40 years after the discovery of the electron, the muon was discovered by Carl D. Anderson in 1936. Due to its mass, it was categorized as a meson rather than a lepton, it became clear that the muon was much more similar to the electron than to mesons, as muons do not undergo the strong interaction, thus the muon was reclassified: electrons and the neutrino were grouped into a new group of particles—the leptons. In 1962, Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger showed that more than one type of neutrino exists by first detecting interactions of the muon neutrino, which earned them the 1988 Nobel Prize, although by the different flavours of neutrino had been theorized; the tau was first detected in a series of experiments between 1974 and 1977 by Martin Lewis Perl with his colleagu
Jacob Spon was a French doctor and archaeologist, was a pioneer in the exploration of the monuments of Greece and a scholar of international reputation in the developing "Republic of Letters". His father was Charles Spon, a doctor and Hellenist, of a wealthy and cultured Calvinist banking family from Ulm, established since 1551 at Lyon, where they were members of the bourgeois élite. Following medical studies at Strasbourg, the younger Spon first met the son of a friend of his father, Charles Patin, who introduced him to antiquarian interests and the study of numismatics as now a window into the world of Classical Antiquity. In Paris, Jacob Spon lodged with Guy Patin. At Montpellier he received his doctorate in medicine and subsequently practiced in Lyon to a wealthy clientele. There his first publication appeared, a Recherche des antiquités et curiosités de la ville de Lyon and he entered into correspondence with a wider circle of savants: the abbé Claude Nicaise at Dijon, du Cange at Paris, the erudite circles that gravitated to le Grand Dauphin and the duc d'Aumont.
Among his correspondents were the courtier-theologian Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, the philosopher Pierre Bayle, Pierre Carcavy, the Jesuit scholar François d'Aix de la Chaise, confessor to the King, François Charpentier. He met Jean Mabillon when Mabillon passed through Lyon in 1682. Spon travelled to Italy, to Greece, to Constantinople and the Levant in 1675–1676 in the company of the English connoisseur and botanist Sir George Wheler, whose collection of antiquities was afterwards bequeathed to Oxford University, they were among the first knowledgeable Western European antiquaries to see the antiquities of Greece at first hand. Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grèce et du Levant remained a useful reference work in the time of Chateaubriand, who employed it in his trip to the East. Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins and manuscripts. In January 1680, he quarreled with Père de La Chaise; that year Spon published his Histoire de la république de Genève, followed by his Récherches curieuses d'antiquité and in 1685 a collection of transcriptions of Roman inscriptions gleaned over the years, Miscellanea eruditae antiquitatis, in the preface to which he offered one of the earliest definitions of "archaeologia" to describe the study of antiquities in which he was engaged.
In 1681 Spon published a brief treatise on fevers, being well-received, he expanded to 264 pp. to include the latest remedies, including "Quinquina" from "Perou," which he considers effective, but which, he says, the "Ameriquains" did not recognize: "le quinquina n'etoit pas connu pour la guerison des fievres par les Ameriquains meme...". "Observations sur les Fievres et les Febrifuges" was published by Thomas Amaulry at Lyon in 1684 and posthumously in 1687. Spon points out that he is an expert on fevers because Lyon includes a swampy area that produces "mauvais air" responsible for fevers—probably malaria; as Spon's book illustrates, in the 17th century a whole range of diseases were classified as different "fevers." In its time, "Observations sur les Fievres" was a learned, technical manual for a physician who wanted to be current. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 1685, was indirectly the cause of Spon's death. Rather than abjure his Calvinist faith he preferred to leave for an illegal move.
His money and baggage stolen from him, in fragile health, he died of tuberculosis in the canton hospital at Vevey, Christmas Day 1685, at the age of 38. Histoire de la ville et de l'Estat de Genève, Lyon, 1620, ibid. Amaulry, 1680, 1682, Utrecht: Halma, 1685 The history of the city and state of Geneva, London: White, 1687 Historie van de Stad en Staat van Geneve, Amsterdam: Oossaan, 1688 Histoire de Genève rectifiée et augmentée, Genève: Fabri et Barrillot, 1730 De l'origine des estrenes, 1673, Paris: Didot et de Bure, 1781 Recherche des antiquités et curiosités de la ville de Lyon, Lyon, 1673 Relation de l'état présent de la ville d'Athènes, Lyon, 1674 Réponse à la critique publiée par M. de Guillet sur le Voyage de Grèce, Lyon, 1679 Ignotorum atque obscurorum quorundam deorum arae, Lugduni: Faeton, 1676 Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grèce et du Levant, Lyon: Cellier, 1678, Amsterdam: Boom, 1679 Viaggi per la Dalmazia, Grecia, e Levante, Bologna: Monti, 1688 Italiänische, Griechische und Orientalische Reise-Beschreibung, Nürnberg: Hofmann, 1690, 1713 Lettres sur l'antiquité de la véritable religion, Lausanne:, 1681 Lettres curieuses touchant la religion, Cologne, 1682 Recherches curieuses d'antiquité, Lyon: Amaulry, 1683 Miscellanea eruditae antiquitatis, Lugduni:, 1685 Observations sur les fievres et les febrifuges, Lyon: Amaulry, 1684, 1687 Novi tractatus de potu caphé, de Chinensium thé et de chocolata, Genavæ: Cramer et Perachon, 1699 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
The College of Letters and Science is the largest college at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The College, which offers 80 majors and 38 minors to over 17,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students, has about 700 faculty members; the college offers the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Forty-seven academic departments and programs within the College of Letters and Science are grouped into three academic divisions: the Division of Humanities and Fine Arts; the College’s Division of Undergraduate Education offers academic services to the undergraduates and administers the Honors Program. The Division of Humanities and Fine Arts includes 22 academic departments and programs: Department of Art Department of Classics Comparative Literature Program Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural Studies Department of English English for Multilingual Students Program Department of Film and Media Studies Department of French and Italian Department of Germanic and Semitic Studies Department of History Department of the History of Art and Architecture Program in Latin American and Iberian Studies Department of Linguistics Graduate Program in Media Arts and Technology Program in Medieval Studies Department of Music Department of Philosophy Department of Religious Studies Renaissance Studies Program Department of Spanish and Portuguese Department of Theater and Dance Writing ProgramThe Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences includes 14 academic departments and programs: Graduate Program in Biomolecular Science and Engineering Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Department of Earth Science Department of Ecology and Marine Biology Program in Environmental Studies Program in Financial Mathematics and Statistics Department of Geography Graduate Program in Marine Science Department of Mathematics Department of Molecular and Developmental Biology Department of Physics Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences Department of Statistics and Applied ProbabilityThe Division of Social Sciences includes 11 academic departments and programs: Department of Anthropology Department of Asian American Studies Department of Black Studies Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies Department of Communication Department of Economics Department of Feminist Studies Global and International Studies Program Department of Military Science Department of Political Science Department of Sociology The college has about 700 faculty members engaged in teaching and research.
The L&S faculty includes four Nobel Prize laureates and 29 members of the National Academy of Sciences. Convergence is the magazine of Engineering and the Sciences at UC Santa Barbara. Sponsored by the College of Engineering, the Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences in the College of Letters and Science, the California NanoSystems Institute, Convergence was begun in early 2005 as a three-times-a-year print publication, it is available online and in print. University of California, Santa Barbara UCSB College of Letters and Science
D. N. Angel is a Japanese manga series illustrated by Yukiru Sugisaki; the manga premiered in Japan in the Kadokawa Shoten shōjo magazine Monthly Asuka in November 1997. The series went on an extended hiatus after the August 2005 issue, returning in the April 2008 issue. Kadokawa Shoten has collected the individual chapters and published them in 15 tankōbon and 2 e-books so far; the manga series is licensed for English language release in North America and the United Kingdom by Tokyopop, which has released 13 volumes of the series as of 2011. Xebec adapted the manga into a 26-episode anime series which aired in Japan on TV Tokyo from April 3, 2003 until September 25, 2003; the anime was adapted into second two volume manga series, a PlayStation 2 video game, a series of drama CDs. D. N. Angel follows the adventures of an average teenage boy. At the story's opening, Daisuke declares love for his crush, a girl named Risa Harada, on his fourteenth birthday, she rejects him, that day, the heart-broken Daisuke undergoes a strange mutation that changes him into another person.
He is told calmly by his mother Emiko that, because of a strange genetic condition, all the males in Daisuke's family gain the countenance of Dark Mousy, a famous phantom thief. The transformation occurs every time Daisuke has romantic feelings for his crush or whenever he thinks too long about her. Dark changes back into Daisuke the same way. Daisuke is forced to keep his family's secret and control his alter ego, while dashing his way out of being caught by the commander of the police. Daisuke learns; the aforementioned commander of the police is a classmate of Daisuke's named Satoshi Hiwatari. Hiwatari suffers from his own version of the phantom-thief curse, a bond forms between Hiwatari and Daisuke because of their similar afflictions. Hiwatari carries the alter-ego named Krad. However, though Dark and Krad hate one another and Daisuke maintain a strained but genuine friendship, despite Dark's constant moaning. Dark steals certain artistic objects of value, works made by Satoshi's ancestors, because they contain dangerous magical properties.
Some of them, such as "The Second Hand of Time" and "Argentine" have personalities of their own. Some of the objects that he steals are quite dangerous. Dark's method of stealing is based on garnering attention. Written and illustrated by Yukiru Sugisaki, D. N. Angel premiered in Japan in the November 1997 issue of the Kadokawa Shoten magazine Monthly Asuka. New chapters were serialized monthly until Sugisaki put the series on an extended hiatus after the August 2005 issue; the series returned to serialization, starting in the April 2008 issue of Monthly Asuka, where it continues to run. The individual chapters are published in tankōbon volumes by Kadokawa Shoten; the first volume was released on November 13, 1997. Tokyopop licensed the series for an English-language release in North America and the United Kingdom, with the first volume of the series released there on April 6, 2004. On November 8, 2005, Tokyopop released. A total of 13 volumes have been translated and released as of December 8, 2009.
However, Tokyopop announced that its North American division would close on May 31, 2011, leaving the fate of the manga's localization in question. In 2014, Viz Media picked up the digital publication rights to the manga for Kindle. In August 2003, while the primary series was on hiatus, a second manga series, D. N. Angel TV Animation Series began serialization in Monthly Asuka. Written by Sugisaki, the short series was based on the anime adaptation, which had diverged from the storyline of the manga series. D. N. Angel TV Animation Series finished its serialization in the October 2003 issue, it was published in two tankōbon volumes by Kadokawa Shoten. On March 24, 2018, Monthly Asuka announced that the series would return in their May issue, with details to come after the June issue. D. N. Angel was adapted into a 26-episode anime series produced by TV Tokyo and Xebec which aired in Japan on TV Tokyo from April 3 to September 25, 2003; the series was directed by Nobuyoshi Habara. The series was licensed for release in North America and the United Kingdom by ADV Films.
While in the UK the series is no longer licensed, in North America Discotek Media have announced the rescue-licensing of the series. The series is licensed in New Zealand by Madman Entertainment. Five pieces of theme music are used in the anime adaptation; the song Byakuya -True Light-, by Shunichi Miyamoto, is used for the opening for twenty four episodes. Vic Mignogna, the English voice actor for Dark Mousy, covered the opening for the English dub. For the ending theme, Yasashii Gogo is used for the first twelve episodes, Hajimari no Hi is used for episodes 13-23 and episode 25. Both songs are performed by Minawo. Episode 24 uses the song "Caged Bird", by Shunichi Miyamoto, for its ending, while the final episode of the series uses Miyamoto's song Michishirube. A PlayStation 2 video game, D. N. Angel: Kurenai no Tsubasa, was published by Takara; the game was released in Japan on September 25, 2003 to coincide with the conclusion of the anime adaptation. However, the game storyline is closer to the manga, mentions past
The Staffordshire County League was an English football league that existed from 1892 until 1996 and catered for clubs in the South Staffordshire area. It was known at various times as the Walsall & District Junior League, Walsall & District League, Walsall Senior League; the league was formed as the Walsall & District Junior League in May 1892 following a meeting of representatives of various local clubs at the People's Coffee House in Walsall. The nine founder members were Bloxwich Strollers, Brownhills Albion, Cannock Town, Cotterill's, Lichfield Leomansley, Tettenhall Wood, Walsall Rangers, Wolverhampton Presbyterians and Wolverhampton St Chad's, but Lichfield Leomansley and Walsall Rangers withdrew during the 1892–93 season and their playing records were removed. Brownhills Albion won the inaugural championship. In 1897 the league dropped the word "Junior" from its title, as its member clubs were felt to be of a higher standard than the name suggested. A new Walsall & District Junior League was formed the following year for lesser clubs.
As with many other leagues in this era, clubs left the league and new clubs joined every season, with the league fluctuating in size every year. In 1908 a Second Division was added; the league began to decline in size until in the 1913–14 season only five teams competed, one of those resigned after only three matches. After that season, the league shut down for the duration of the First World War; the league resumed in 1920 with 15 member clubs, including the reserve teams of a number of more senior clubs, a year was renamed the Walsall Senior League. Following the 1922–23 season, however, a number of clubs resigned to join the Birmingham Combination and the league closed down once again, owing to insufficient numbers, it resumed play in 1930, once again as the Walsall & District League, but once again declined in size, as clubs found it hard to continue during the difficult economic conditions of the 1930s. The league once again shut down during the Second World War. After the war the league once again adopted the Walsall Senior League name, but in 1950 adopted its final name of the Staffordshire County League.
In the early 1950s the competition was dominated by Shelfield Athletic, who won the league for five consecutive seasons. A Second Division was again added in 1956. Walsall & District Junior LeagueWalsall & District LeagueDivision Two was added in 1908. Division Two was abandoned after one season; the League was inactive between 1914 and 1920. Walsall Senior LeagueThe League was inactive between 1923 and 1930. Walsall & District LeagueThe League was inactive from 1939 until 1945 Walsall Senior LeagueStaffordshire County League Division Two was added in 1956. Division Two was abandoned after one season. Division Two was added in 1964. Division Two was abandoned after one season. Division Two was added in 1969. In 1974 Division One was renamed Division Two was renamed Division One; the League was reduced to a single division in 1993. The League folded in 1996. General Robinson, Michael. Non-League Football Tables 1889–2013. Soccerbooks. ISBN 978-1-86223-273-0. Specific
The New Citizen Party was a political party in New Zealand that aimed to represent Chinese New Zealanders and had a focus on economic and law-and-order issues. Auckland businessman Paul Young, former New Zealand Labour Party list-candidate Stephen Ching, Chinese businessman Jack Chen were organisers for the party. On 2 December 2010 the Electoral Commission registered the party, making it eligible to contest the party vote in general elections. Paul Young came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, based on provisional figures. On 18 October 2011 the party announced that it would withdraw from the 2011 election, that Young would instead stand for the Conservative Party of New Zealand. At about the same time, authorities in Hong Kong laid charges against Jack Chen and issued a warrant for his arrest. On 29 February 2012 the Electoral Commission cancelled the party's registration at its own request; as of March 2012 the Party website no longer operated. New Zealand portal Official site