Francis Hillman "Scrapper" Blackwell was an American blues guitarist and singer, best known as half of the guitar-piano duo he formed with Leroy Carr in the late 1920s and early 1930s. He was an acoustic single-note picker in the Chicago Piedmont blues styles; some critics have noted. Blackwell was born in Syracuse, South Carolina, one of sixteen children of Payton and Elizabeth Blackwell, he was part Cherokee. He spent most of his life in Indianapolis, Indiana, he was given the nickname "Scrapper" by his grandmother, because of his fiery nature. His father played the fiddle, but Blackwell was a self-taught guitarist, building his first guitar out of a cigar box and wire, he learned to play the piano performing professionally. By his teens, Blackwell was a part-time musician, he was known for being withdrawn and hard to work with, but he established a rapport with the pianist Leroy Carr, whom he met in Indianapolis in the mid-1920s, they had a productive working relationship. Carr convinced Blackwell to record with him for Vocalion Records in 1928.
Blackwell made solo recordings for Vocalion, including "Kokomo Blues", transformed into "Old Kokomo Blues" by Kokomo Arnold and reworked as "Sweet Home Chicago" by Robert Johnson. Blackwell and Carr toured throughout the American Midwest and South between 1928 and 1935 as stars of the blues circuit, recording over 100 sides. "Prison Bound Blues", "Mean Mistreater Mama", "Blues Before Sunrise" were popular tracks. Blackwell made several solo excursions. A 1931 visit to Richmond, Indiana, to record at Gennett studios is noteworthy. Blackwell was dissatisfied with the lack of credit given his contributions with Carr. Blackwell's last recording session with Carr was for Bluebird Records; the session ended bitterly, as both musicians left the studio mid-session and on bad terms, stemming from payment disputes. Two months Blackwell received a phone call informing him of Carr's death due to heavy drinking and nephritis. Blackwell soon recorded a tribute to his musical partner of seven years. After the death of Carr, Blackwell did a few recordings with piano player Dot Rice, without much success, the song "No Good Woman Blues" shows Blackwell as the singer.
A short time Blackwell retired from the music industry. Blackwell returned to music in the late 1950s, he was recorded by Colin C. Pomroy in June 1958. Soon afterwards he was recorded by Duncan P. Schiedt for Doug Dobell's 77 Records. Blackwell was recorded in 1961, in Indianapolis, by the young Art Rosenbaum for the Prestige/Bluesville Records label; the story was recounted by Rosenbaum as starting. When he was growing up in Indianapolis, Rosenbaum knew an African-American woman who said that he "had to meet a man that she knew, who played guitar, played blues and christian songs, they'll make the hairs stand up on the back of your neck." Rosenbaum subsequently met Blackwell: "I met the gentleman across the street from the Methodist hospital in Indianapolis". Blackwell's friend said, "well he hasn't got a guitar", so Rosenbaum said, "well I got a guitar." Blackwell than said that he needed some "bird food". Rosenbaum did not understand what he was referring to, so Blackwell explained, "you gotta get some bird food for the bird, before the bird sings... beer!"
Rosenbaum said, "I'm too young!" Blackwell continued, "we'll buy the beer, you just give us some money." Rosenbaum recalled, "So we did, he started playing these beautiful blues. I didn't realize he was Scrapper Blackwell til I mentioned his name to a blues collecting friend", when the friend exclaimed, "you met Scrapper Blackwell!?"Blackwell was ready to resume his blues career when he was shot and killed in a mugging in an Indianapolis alley. He was 59 years old; the police arrested his neighbor at the time for the murder. Blackwell is buried in Indianapolis. Blues Before Sunrise Mr. Scrapper's Blues The Blues of Brooks Berry & Scrapper Blackwell: My Heart Struck Sorrow The Virtuoso Guitar of Scrapper Blackwell Naptown Blues 1929–1934, Leroy Carr and Scrapper Blackwell Blues That Make Me Cry Great Piano-Guitar Duets, Leroy Carr and Scrapper Blackwell Leroy Carr & Scrapper Blackwell 1929–1935 Scrapper Blackwell with Brooks Berry Complete Recorded Works, Vols. 1 and 2 Swinton, Paul. Audio CD liner notes.
Bad Liquor Blues. KATCD162. Scrapper Blackwell at mp3.com Scrapper Blackwell at allmusic Illustrated Scrapper Blackwell discography Scrapper Blackwell at Find a Grave
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
For Decca's Vocalion label, see Disques Vogue Vocalion Records is an American record company and label active for many years in the U. S. and the U. K. Vocalion was founded in 1916 by the Aeolian Piano Company of New York City, which introduced a retail line of phonographs at the same time; the name was derived from one of the Vocalion Organ Company. The label switched to double-sided. In 1920 it switched to the more common lateral-cut system. In 1925 the label was acquired by Brunswick Records. During the 1920s Vocalion began the 1000 race series, records recorded by and marketed to African Americans. In April 1930, Warner Bros. bought Brunswick Records and. In December 1931 Warner Bros. licensed the entire Brunswick and Vocalion operation to the American Record Corporation. ARC used Brunswick as Vocalion as one of their 35-cent labels. New signings contributed to the growing popularity of the label. Starting in about 1935, Vocalion became more popular with the signing of Billie Holiday, Mildred Bailey, Stuff Smith, Putney Dandridge, Red Allen.
Coupled with other short-term signings, including Fletcher Henderson, Phil Harris, Earl Hines, Isham Jones, their healthy Race and Country releases made Vocalion a powerhouse presence. In 1935, Vocalion started reissuing titles that were still selling from the discontinued OKeh label. In 1936 and 1937 Vocalion produced the only recordings by blues guitarist Robert Johnson. From 1935 through 1940, Vocalion was one of the most popular labels for small-group swing and country. After the short-lived Variety label was discontinued, many titles were reissued on Vocalion, the label continued to release new recordings made by Master/Variety artists through 1940; this added the Duke Ellington small groups-within-his-band to the label. ARC was purchased by CBS and Vocalion became a subsidiary of Columbia Records in 1938; the popular Vocalion label was discontinued in 1940. The discontinuance of Vocalion voided the lease arrangement Warner Bros. had made with ARC in late 1931. In a complicated move, Warner Bros. got the two labels back and promptly sold them to Decca, but CBS retained control of the post-1931 Brunswick and Vocalion masters.
The name Vocalion was resurrected in the late 1950s by Decca as a budget label for back-catalog reissues. This incarnation of Vocalion ceased operations in 1973. In 1975, MCA reissued five albums on the Vocalion label. In the UK, Decca used the Vocalion label to issue US artists, replacing its Vogue label, the rights to whose name had reverted to the French Disques Vogue. In 1997 the Vocalion brand was brought back for a new series of compact discs produced by Michael Dutton, of Dutton Laboratories, in Watford, England; this label specializes in sonic refurbishments of recordings made between the 1920s and the 1970s leasing master recordings made by Decca and EMI. "Jim Jackson's Kansas City Blues" by Jim Jackson, Vocalion 1144 "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie" by Pinetop Smith, Vocalion 1245 "How Long, How Long Blues" by Leroy Carr, Vocalion 1191 "Sensational Mood" by Lloyd Hunter's Serenaders with Victoria Spivey, Vocalion 1621 "Rising Sun Blues" by Clarence Ashley and Gwen Foster, Vocalion 2576 "I Want to Be a Cowboy's Sweetheart" by Patsy Montana, Vocalion 3010 "Let Yourself Go" by Bunny Berigan and His Boys, Vocalion 3178, recorded on February 24, 1936 "I Can't Get Started" by Bunny Berigan and His Boys, Vocalion 3225, recorded on April 13, 1936 "Did I Remember?" b/w "No Regrets" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 3276, recorded on July 10, 1936 "Summertime" b/w "Billie's Blues" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 3288, recorded on July 10, 1936 "A Fine Romance" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 3333, recorded on September 29, 1936 "Cross Road Blues" by Robert Johnson, Vocalion 3519 "I've Got My Love To Keep Me Warm" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 3440, recorded on January 12, 1937 "Trust in Me" b/w "My Last Affair" by Mildred Bailey, Vocalion 3449 "Where Are You?" by Mildred Bailey, Vocalion 3456 "Doin' the Jive" b/w "Dipper Mouth Blues" by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra, Vocalion 5131 "You Go To My Head" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 4126, recorded on May 11, 1938 "So Help Me" by Mildred Bailey, Vocalion 4253 "The Very Thought of You" by Billie Holiday, Vocalion 4457, recorded on September 15, 1938 List of record labels History of Brunswick and Vocalion Vocalion album discography from BSN Pubs "Maybe it's obscure, but if it's good, we'll issue it."
Vocalion Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project
Elijah Wald is an American folk blues guitarist and music historian. He is a 2002 Grammy Award winner for his liner notes to The Arhoolie Records 40th Anniversary Box: The Journey of Chris Strachwitz. Wald was born in 1959 in Massachusetts, his parents were George Wald and Ruth Hubbard, a biologist, with whom Elijah co-authored Exploding the Gene Myth. At age 18, Wald departed for Europe to try to make a living as a folk-blues guitarist. For the next 12 years, he traveled the world, he fronted a blues band in Seville, Spain, a swing trio in Antwerp, a rock band in Colombo, Sri Lanka, studied with Congolese guitarist Jean-Bosco Mwenda. Returning to the United States, he played in "low dives and honky-tonks", recorded two albums: the LP Songster, Shirtmaker on his and Bill Morrissey's short-lived label Reckless Records and the CD Street Corner Cowboys, he arranged and played guitar on one track of Dave Van Ronk's album of Bertolt Brecht songs, performed as a sideman with Eric Von Schmidt and for several years with the legendary black string band leader Howard Armstrong.
For many years he wrote for the Boston Globe on "roots music" and "world music". In 2000, he was one of many freelancers. By the time he and the Globe parted ways, he was becoming an established writer, he had been a major collaborator in the Smithsonian Institution's multimedia project River of Song, a survey of contemporary music along the Mississippi River, had just finished Josh White: Society Blues, a biography of the folk-blues singer Josh White. Since 2000, he has written numerous books, his subject matter has included Mexican corridos and narcocorridos, the blues musician Robert Johnson and, in How the Beatles Destroyed Rock'n' Roll, American popular music for the first three-quarters of the 20th century. He co-authored Dave Van Ronk's posthumously published memoir, The Mayor of MacDougal Street, wrote the Grammy-winning liner notes for The Arhoolie Records 40th Anniversary Box: The Journey of Chris Strachwitz, made an instructional DVD for guitarists on the music of Joseph Spence, has curated and/or written liner notes for numerous CD compilations and re-releases.
After teaching on and off in the musicology department of the University of California Los Angeles for several years, he resides in Philadelphia. A recurring theme in Wald's work is to identify and confront myths but not those that have come to surround prominent figures in popular music."Myths", Wald remarked in 2002, "are marvelous things, the keys to understanding a culture. "For forty years, white folks have had this myth about Robert Johnson selling his soul to the Devil, that says a great deal about white fantasies of blackness and its links to mysterious, forbidden powers."Back in 1936, black folks in the Delta had a different blues myth. It was that a guy who got good enough on guitar and learned how to play the latest hip sounds could get the hell out of the cotton fields and make enough money to move to Chicago, wear sharp new suits, drive a Terraplane." Indeed, his first book was a collaboration with his biologist mother entitled Exploding the Gene Myth, in which they wrote that "The myth of the all-powerful gene is based on flawed science that discounts the environment in which we and our genes exist."
"There are no definitive histories," he would come to write in How the Beatles Destroyed Rock'n' Roll "because the past keeps looking different as the present changes." Dylan Goes Electric! Newport, Seeger and the Night That Split the Sixties, 2015, ISBN 9780062366689; the Dozens: A History of Rap's Mama, Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 0-19-989540-6. The Blues: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 0-19-539893-9. How the Beatles Destroyed Rock'n' Roll: An Alternative History of American Popular Music, Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-534154-6. Global Minstrels: Voices of World Music, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0-415-97929-3. Riding With Strangers: A Hitchhiker's Journey, Chicago Review Press, 2006, ISBN 1-55652-605-9. Dave Van Ronk: The Mayor of MacDougal Street, Da Capo, 2005, ISBN 0-306-81407-2. Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues, Amistad, 2005, ISBN 0-06-052423-5. Narcocorrido: A Journey into the Music of Drugs and Guerrillas, HarperCollins, 2002, ISBN 978-0-06-050510-3 published in Spanish as Narcocorrido: Un viaje dentro de la música de drogas, armas, y guerrilleros, Rayo, 2001, ISBN 978-0-06-093795-9.
Josh White: Society Blues, University of Massachusetts Press, 2000, ISBN 1-55849-269-0. River of Song: A Musical Journey Down the Mississippi, St. Martin's Press, 1998, ISBN 0-312-20059-5. Exploding the Gene Myth: How Genetic Information Is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Employers, Insurance Companies and Law Enforcers, Beacon Press, 1993, 1997, 1999. Street Corner Cowboys Dominic Kakolobango, African Acoustic. Snooks Eaglin: New Orleans Street Singer The Arhoolie Records 40th Anniversary Box: "The Journey of Chris Strachwitz" (Arhoolie
Crooner is an American epithet given to male singers of jazz standards from the Great American Songbook, backed by either a full orchestra, a big band or a piano. It was an ironic term denoting a sentimental singing style made possible by the use of microphones; some performers, such as Russ Columbo, did not accept the term: Frank Sinatra once said that he did not consider himself or Bing Crosby "crooners". This dominant popular vocal style coincided with the advent of radio broadcasting and electrical recording. Before the advent of the microphone, popular singers like Al Jolson had to project to the rear seats of a theater, as did opera singers, which made for a loud vocal style; the microphone made possible the more personal style. Al Bowlly, Gene Austin, Art Gillham and, by some historical accounts, Vaughn De Leath are credited as inventors of the crooning style, but Rudy Vallée became far more popular, beginning in 1928, he could be heard by anyone with a radio. "In his popular radio program, which began with his floating greeting,'Heigh ho, everybody,' beamed in from a New York City night club, he stood like a statue, surrounded by clean-cut collegiate band musicians and cradling a saxophone in his arms."His first film, The Vagabond Lover, was promoted with the line, "Men Hate Him!
Women Love Him!" while his success brought press warnings of the "Vallee Peril": this "punk from Maine" with the "dripping voice" required mounted police to beat back screaming, swooning females at his vaudeville shows. By the early 1930s the term "crooner" had taken on a pejorative connotation. Cardinal William O'Connell of Boston and the New York Singing Teachers Association both publicly denounced the vocal form, O'Connell calling it "base", "degenerate", "defiling" and un-American and NYSTA adding "corrupt"; the New York Times predicted that crooning would be just a passing fad. The newspaper printed, "They sing like that, their style is begging to go out of fashion…. Crooners will soon go the way of tandem bicycles, mah jongg and midget golf." Voice range shifted from tenor to baritone. Still, a 1931 record by Dick Robinson, "Crosby, Columbo & Vallee", called upon men to fight "these public enemies" brought into homes via radio. Although the term is used to describe a female singer, Vaughn De Leath, Annette Hanshaw, Mildred Bailey and Helen Rowland have been cited in the category of crooners.
Due to the country songs popularized by Bing Crosby, the crooning style of singing became an enduring part of country music. Bing Crosby achieved a million seller with his 1940 rendition of the song " San Antonio Rose" recorded by Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys. In 1942 Perry Como had a smash hit with "Deep in the Heart of Texas". Eddy Arnold, Jim Reeves and Ray Price are well known for their country crooner standards. Dean Martin is rather famous for the country music he recorded in the period when he was working for Reprise Records. Fellow Italian-American crooner Perry Como recorded several albums with country producer Chet Atkins in Nashville. Regular, non-country crooners scored hits with pop versions of country-songs: Tony Bennett had a Billboard #1 hit in 1951 with his rendition of Hank Williams' "Cold, Cold Heart", performed by Louis Armstrong. In 1970, Ray Price had a #1 U. S. country hit and a #11 Billboard Hot 100 hit with the song "For the Good Times" written by Kris Kristofferson.
List of crooners Gary Giddins, Bing Crosby: A Pocketful of Dreams: The Early Years, 1903–1940. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 2001. Allison McCracken, Real Men Don't Sing: Crooning in American Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Eric Patrick Clapton, is an English rock and blues guitarist and songwriter. He is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist and separately as a member of the Yardbirds and of Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most influential guitarists of all time. Clapton ranked second in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" and fourth in Gibson's "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time", he was named number five in Time magazine's list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players" in 2009. In the mid-1960s Clapton left the Yardbirds to play with the Bluesbreakers. After leaving Mayall, Clapton formed the power trio Cream with drummer Ginger Baker and bassist Jack Bruce, in which Clapton played sustained blues improvisations and "arty, blues-based psychedelic pop". After Cream broke up, he formed blues rock band Blind Faith with Baker, Steve Winwood, Ric Grech. Clapton's solo career began in the 1970s, where his work bore the influence of the mellow style of J. J. Cale and the reggae of Bob Marley.
His version of Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff" helped. Two of his most popular recordings were "Layla", recorded with the Dominos. Following the death of his son Conor in 1991, Clapton's grief was expressed in the song "Tears in Heaven", which appeared on his Unplugged album. Clapton has been the recipient of 18 Grammy Awards, the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2004 he was awarded a CBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music, he has received four Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, including the Lifetime Achievement Award. In his solo career, Clapton has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling musicians of all time. In 1998, Clapton, a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, founded the Crossroads Centre on Antigua, a medical facility for recovering substance abusers. Clapton was born on 30 March 1945 in Ripley, England, to 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton and Edward Walter Fryer, a 25-year-old soldier from Montreal, Quebec.
Fryer shipped off to war prior to Clapton's birth and returned to Canada. Clapton grew up believing that his grandmother and her second husband, Jack Clapp, Patricia's stepfather, were his parents, that his mother was his older sister; the similarity in surnames gave rise to the erroneous belief. Years his mother married another Canadian soldier and moved to Germany, leaving young Eric with his grandparents in Surrey. Clapton received an acoustic Hoyer guitar, made in Germany, for his thirteenth birthday, but the inexpensive steel-stringed instrument was difficult to play and he lost interest. Two years Clapton picked it up again and started playing consistently. Clapton was influenced by the blues from an early age, practised long hours to learn the chords of blues music by playing along to the records, he preserved his practice sessions using his portable Grundig reel-to-reel tape recorder, listening to them over and over until he felt he'd got it right. In 1961, after leaving Hollyfield School in Surbiton, Clapton studied at the Kingston College of Art but was dismissed at the end of the academic year because his focus remained on music rather than art.
His guitar playing was so advanced. Around this time, Clapton began busking around Kingston and the West End. In 1962, Clapton started performing as a duo with fellow blues enthusiast David Brock in pubs around Surrey; when he was seventeen years old, Clapton joined his first band, an early British R&B group, the Roosters, whose other guitarist was Tom McGuinness. He stayed with this band from January until August 1963. In October of that year, Clapton did a seven-gig stint with the Engineers. In October 1963, Clapton joined the Yardbirds, a blues-influenced rock and roll band, stayed with them until March 1965. Synthesising influences from Chicago blues and leading blues guitarists such as Buddy Guy, Freddie King, B. B. King, Clapton forged a distinctive style and became one of the most talked-about guitarists in the British music scene; the band played Chess/Checker/Vee-Jay blues numbers and began to attract a large cult following when they took over the Rolling Stones' residency at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond.
They toured England with American bluesman Sonny Boy Williamson II. Yardbirds' rhythm guitarist, Chris Dreja, recalled that whenever Clapton broke a guitar string during a concert, he would stay on stage and replace it; the English audiences would wait out the delay by doing what is called a "slow handclap". Clapton's nickname of "Slowhand" came from Giorgio Gomelsky, a pun on the slow handclapping that ensued when Clapton stopped playing while he replaced a string. In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Royal Albert Hall, with the Yardbirds. Since Clapton has performed at the Hall over 200 times, has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room". In March 1965, Clapton and the Yardbirds had their first major hit, "For Your Love", written by songwriter Graham Gouldman, who wrote hit songs for Herman's Hermits and the Hollies. In part because of its success, the Yardbirds elected to move toward a pop-oriented sound, much