4 × 400 metres relay
The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the longer 4 × 440 yards relay was run British and American meetings, until metrication was completed in the 1970s. Relay race runners carry a relay baton which they must transfer between teammates. Runners have a 20 m box in; the first transfer is made within the staggered lane lines. This prevents confusion and collisions during transfer. Unlike the 4 × 100 m relay, runners in the 4 × 400 look back and grasp the baton from the incoming runner, due to the fatigue of the incoming runner, the wider margins allowed by the longer distance of the race. Disqualification is rare; as runners have a running start, split times cannot be compared to individual 400 m performances.
Internationally, the U. S. men's team has dominated the event, but have been challenged by Jamaica in the 1950s and Britain in the 1990s. The current men's Olympic champions are from the United States. According to the IAAF rules, world records in relays can only be set if all team members have the same nationality. Mixed-gendered 4 × 400 metres relays were introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, but the IAAF has yet to recognize any world records in that event. Note: On 12 August 2008, the IAAF rescinded a time of 2:54.20 set by the USA at Uniondale on 22 July 1998 after Pettigrew admitted to using human growth hormone and EPO between 1997 and 2003. Note: A time of 3:00.77 by the USC runners at the 2018 NCAA Division I Championship was rejected as a record as Benjamin was a citizen of Antigua & Barbuda while the others are US citizens. US runners Ilolo Izu, Robert Grant, Devin Dixon, Mylik Kerley recorded a 3:01.39 at the same race also unable for record proposes. Correct as of August 2017.
Correct as of August 2017. Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and received medals. Note: † Indicates athlete who did not run in any rounds and received medal. Note: Marion Jones was stripped of all her Olympic medals in 2000. Crystal Cox was stripped of her Olympic medal in both being found guilty of doping violations. Dominique Blake was accidentally given her Olympic medal and she returned it in 2017. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Dq1 The United States team won the 1997 World Championships in a time of 2:56.47 minutes, but were disqualified in 2009 after Pettigrew admitted to doping during the period. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Herb McKenley ran a 44.6 split in the 1952 Helsinki Olympic final. Ron Freeman ran a 43.2 split in the 1968 Mexico Olympic final. Julius Sang ran a 43.6 split in the 1972 Munich Olympic final.
Alberto Juantorena ran a 43.7 split in the 1977 IAAF World Cup event as part of the Americas team. Quincy Watts ran Steve Lewis ran a 43.4 split in the 1992 Barcelona Olympic final. Butch Reynolds ran a 43.23 split and Michael Johnson ran a 42.91 split in the 1993 Stuttgart World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.10 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championship final. Jeremy Wariner ran a 43.18 split in the 2008 Beijing Olympic final. Michael Norman ran a 43.06 split in the 2018 NCAA West Preliminaries final. Jarmila Kratochvílová ran a 47.6 split in the 1982 Athens European Championship final, a 47.75 split in the 1983 Helsinki World Championship final, a 47.9 split in the 1983 Europa Cup in London. Marita Koch ran a 47.70 split in Erfurt 1984, a 47.9 split in the 1982 European Championship final, a 47.9 split at the 1985 Canberra World Cup. Allyson Felix ran a 47.72 split in the 2015 Beijing World Championships final, a 48.01 split in the 2007 Osaka World Championships final, a 48.20 split in the 2012 London Olympic final.
Olga Nazarova and Olga Bryzgina both ran a 47.80 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. Florence Griffith-Joyner ran a 48.08 split in the 1988 Seoul Olympic final. IAAF list of 4x400-metres-relay records in XML
Kelly Jeromy Willie is an American former track and field athlete who specialized in the 400-meter dash. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, he attended Sterling High School and competed in track while there. Willie attended Louisiana State University and ran for their LSU Tigers team, being a three-time NCAA champion in the relay and the 400 m runner-up in 2004, he ran for the American 4×400-meter relay team at the 2004 Olympics, but only in the qualifying heats as Otis Harris and Jeremy Wariner were rested to be fit for the final. With strong American 400 metre runners like Andrew Rock, Derrick Brew, Darold Williamson and Wariner, LaShawn Merritt, Jamel Ashley and Terry Gatson, Willie has faced tough competition in terms of qualifying for major international events where only three participants from each state are allowed. Kelly Willie at IAAF Evans, Hilary. "Kelly Willie". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC
2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay
The men's 4x400 metres relay competition at the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships was held at the ASPIRE Dome on 13 and 14 March. In the first heat the United States and Jamaica took the top two spots as expected, shortly followed by the Dominican Republic in a national record time of 3:06.30. In the second heat, a clash between Vladimir Antmanis and Marcin Marciniszyn resulted in a baton drop by Russia, which cost them a place in the final. Belgium won heat two but the initial second placers Botswana were disqualified for a baton exchange outside of the legal zone; the Bahamas benefited from the disqualification and the Dominican Republic and Great Britain entered the final as the fastest losers. In the final the following day, the United States eased to victory courtesy of strong running from Jamaal Torrance on the first leg and a series of good changeovers – their world leading time of 3:03.40 was three seconds ahead of the rest of the field. Belgium were the next team to finish, scoring a national record 3:06.94 on the way to the country's first medal in the event.
The other teams suffered a more hectic race: the Bahamas' chances were spoilt when Andretti Bain went down on the track with an injury and Jamaica had a similar fate as Sanjay Ayre pulled up with an injury at the same moment. A poor, late baton exchange between Félix Sánchez and Yoel Tapia on the anchor leg caused them to be disqualified although they finished behind third Great Britain in any case. Qualification: First 2 of each heat plus the 2 fastest times advance to the final. Heats Results Final Result
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Tyree Washington is a retired American sprinter. Born in Riverside, Washington attended both La Sierra High School and San Bernardino Valley College, his coach during 2003 was Antonio Pettigrew, who ran alongside Washington, Michael Johnson and Jerome Young in breaking the 4 × 400 metres world record in 1998 with a time of 2:54.20. However, both Young and Pettigrew were found to have violated doping regulations during their careers, the IAAF now list the 1993 US quartet of Andrew Valmon, Quincy Watts, Butch Reynolds and Michael Johnson as the world record holders. At the 2003 World Championships, Washington finished first in the 4 × 400 metres relay with Young, Calvin Harrison and Derrick Brew. Calvin Harrison was found guilty of a doping violation in June 2003, leading to the quartet being stripped of the 4 × 400 m medals. Young was given a lifetime ban for a second offence in 2004, his last major win was at the 2006 world indoor championships. He retired in 2008 after failing to qualify at the US Olympic trials.
All information from IAAF Profile 1997 Junior College State Champion 400 meters. World Championships – Athens, Greece. 400 m bronze medal 4 × 400 m relay gold medal 1998 Goodwill Games Silver medalist 400 meters. 400 m gold medal 4 × 400 m relay disqualified due to a doping of one of his teammates IAAF World Indoor Championships – Birmingham, England. 400 m gold medal 4 × 400 m relay gold medal 2005 World Athletic Final 400 meter Champion 2006 IAAF World Indoor Championships – Moscow, Russia. 4 × 400 m relay gold medalHe ran the fastest time in 2001 and again in 2003. Official website Tyree Washington at USATF Tyree Washington at IAAF
2004 IAAF World Indoor Championships
The 10th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations were held in the Budapest Arena, Hungary between March 5 and March 7, 2004. A total off 139 countries were represented by 677 athletes at the championships, it was the second visit of the championships to Budapest having visited there 15 years earlier in 1989. The newly built 13,000 capacity arena was built on the site of a former stadium, destroyed by fire in 1999; this was the last World Indoor Championships. The event was discontinued as the tight bends involved in running indoors left athletes drawn to run on the inside lanes with minimal or no chance of winning. 1997 | 1999 | 2001 | 2003 | 2004 2001 | 2003 | 2004 | 2006 | 2008 IAAF Official website