Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is a conservation organization with a mission to save species from extinction. Gerald Durrell founded the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust as a charitable institution in 1963 with the dodo as its symbol; the trust was renamed Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in its founder's honour on 26 March 1999. Its patron is the Princess Royal, its headquarters are at Les Augrès Manor on the isle of Jersey in the English Channel. The grounds of Les Augrès Manor form the Durrell Wildlife Park, established by Gerald Durrell in 1959 as a sanctuary and breeding centre for endangered species; the zoological park was known as the Jersey Zoo at that time. Gerald Durrell OBE, author and broadcaster on wildlife conservation, was the founder of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, he wrote 37 books. He featured in several other television series and one-off programmes, which documented his work in Jersey and around the world. In 1945 he became a student keeper at the Zoological Society of London's Whipsnade Park.
At 21 he inherited £3,000 and he financed and led the first of several animal collecting expeditions. It was on these expeditions that he first became aware of the desperate struggle for survival many animal species were facing in the wild, he became convinced that zoos had a responsibility to try to prevent further decline and extinctions. Despite strong resistance to his ideas from much of the zoological community as few people recognised the alarming rate at which animals were vanishing in their native habitats, in 1959 he succeeded in creating his own Zoo in Jersey, dedicating it to saving endangered animals from extinction. Gerald Durrell died aged 70, in January 1995, his wife Lee McGeorge Durrell succeeded him as Honorary Director of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and maintains an intense involvement in the Trust’s work both in Jersey and overseas. Durrell provides intensive hands-on management of endangered species at its Jersey headquarters and through 50 conservation programmes in 18 countries worldwide.
Durrell’s headquarters in Jersey is a safe-haven for endangered animals which need to be rescued from whatever is threatening their survival in their native home. Here they breed and recover in numbers while keeper-conservationists observe and study them to learn more about what they will need to thrive in the wild again; the Trust’s headquarters is a ‘window’ to the work of Durrell Wildlife around the world – where visitors can enjoy the opportunity to see some of the planet’s most endangered species and learn how the Trust is working to save them. What keeper-conservationists learn about a species while it is living in Jersey can help to save its cousins struggling for survival in the wild; some species, such as gorillas and orangutans, are well known while other species, such as the Livingstone's fruit bat, the pied tamarin, the giant jumping rat, the Madagascar teal, the echo parakeet, the mountain chicken, Round Island boa, are more obscure. Other endangered animals include the aye-aye, Alaotran gentle lemur, free-ranging black lion tamarin, pied tamarin and silvery marmoset, Andean bear, maned wolf, narrow-striped mongoose, Mauritius pink pigeon, Mauritius kestrel, Saint Lucia amazon, Bali starling, Meller's duck, Madagascar teal, Round Island boa, Lesser Antillean iguana and Mallorcan midwife toad.
Durrell worked with local governments and other conservation organisations in countries across the globe to save animals and their environments. The Trust began working in Mauritius during the 1970s. In 1998 it announced that the Mauritius kestrel – a species once reduced to only four birds – had been saved from extinction. Durrell is working to save critically endangered species such as the pink pigeon, echo parakeet, Round Island boa and Mauritius fody, it has helped in the restoration of Round Island – a small island about 12 miles north east of Mauritius. The Trust is managing several projects on the island of Madagascar, where it first became involved during the 1980s. Madagascar, like Mauritius, is home to many animals found nowhere else in the world. Project Angonoka is one of the successful breeding programmes that has seen the rarest tortoise in the world, the angonoka, brought back from the brink of extinction. One of the rarest ducks in the world, the Madagascar teal, is now breeding at the Trust’s headquarters in Jersey, the Alaotran gentle lemur is starting to make a recovery, now that hunting and burning of its habitat have been reduced thanks to an education programme targeted at local villages and schools.
In the Menabe region of Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot of great importance, the Trust is working with a cluster of endangered species, including the Malagasy giant rat, flat-tailed tortoise, Madagascar big-headed turtle, narrow-striped mongoose and Madagascar teal. In Brazil the Trust has played a major role in saving endangered lion tamarin, not only breeding them in captivity and reintroducing them into the wild, but with the purchase of a corridor of land to link two halves of a reserve where this species lives; the Trust is running an aluminium can recycling project in conjunction with local primary schools. The scheme is raising funds to purchase and plant trees in Brazil to create ‘tree corridors’, to link up fragmented areas of the tamarins’ habitat and allow isolated groups to reach each other and breed. In India the critically endangered pygmy hog is breeding in a centre designed and built by the Trust; the Trust has provided a safety net for two species living on the Caribbean island of Montserrat where a volcano erupted
Trinity is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey in the Channel Islands, located the north east of the island. Les Platons is the highest point in Jersey. Trinity has the reputation of being the most rural of Jersey's parishes, being the third-largest parish by surface area with the third-smallest population; the parish covers 6,817 vergées. It is home to the States Farm, the Durrell Wildlife Park at Les Augrès Manor, the headquarters of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society at the Royal Jersey Showground, the Pallot Heritage Steam Museum; the coat of arms of the Parish of Trinity shows the Shield of the Trinity diagram. The Parish church, with its distinctive white pyramidal spire, is a notable landmark; the Le Vesconte memorial takes the form of an obelisk at a crossroads commemorating Philippe Le Vesconte, 10 times elected Constable between 1868–1877 and 1890-1909. Trinity Manor is the home of the Seigneur of Trinity. Athelstan Riley purchased Trinity Manor in 1909. Finding the manor house in a ruined condition, he undertook an elaborate restoration.
The reconstruction was carried out 1910-1913 by C. Messervy to designs by Sir Reginald Blomfield. One of the surviving feudal duties of the holder of this fief is to present the Monarch with a pair of mallards when he or she visits the Island; the current holder of the title is Pamela Bell, as Dame of Trinity. Among prominent natives of the parish is Sir Arthur de la Mare, a retired ambassador and diplomat in Japan and Singapore, who wrote Jèrriais literature in the Trinity dialect. In folklore, the area of Bouley has been reputed to be haunted by the Tchian d'Bouôlé, a phantom dog whose appearance presages storms; the story is believed to have been encouraged by smugglers who wanted to discourage nocturnal movements by people who might witness the movement of contraband at the harbour in Bouley. The Jersey Live Music Festival has been held annually at The Royal Jersey Showground since 2004. Trinity is divided into the following vingtaines: La Vingtaine de la Ville-à-l'Évêque La Vingtaine de Rozel La Vingtaine du Rondin La Vingtaine des Augrès La Vingtaine de la CroiserieTrinity elects one Deputy.
Alan Whicker lived here from the 1960s up until his death in 2013. Trinity Official Parish website Trinity Parish Church La Trinneté at Les Pages Jèrriaises Coat of arms of Trinity
The jurats are lay people in Guernsey and Jersey who act as judges of fact rather than law, though they preside over land conveyances and liquor licensing. In Alderney, the jurats are judges of both fact and law in both civil and criminal matters; the term derives from the Latin iūrātus, "sworn ". Under the ancien régime in France, in several towns, of the south-west, such as La Rochelle and Bordeaux, the jurats were members of the municipal body; the title was borne by officials, corresponding to aldermen, in the Cinque Ports, but is now chiefly used as a title of office in the Channel Islands. There are two bodies, consisting each of twelve jurats, for the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey respectively, they form, with the bailiff as the Royal Court in each Bailiwick. In Guernsey and Jersey, the jurats, as lay people, are judges of fact rather than law, though they preside over land conveyances and liquor licensing. In Alderney, the jurats are judges of both fact and law in both civil and criminal matters.
Until the constitutional reforms introduced in the 1940s to separate legislature and judiciary, they were elected for life, in Jersey by islandwide suffrage, in Guernsey by the States of Election, were a constituent part of the legislative bodies. Although no longer a political post, the office of jurat is still considered the highest elected position to which a citizen can aspire. However, in Alderney, jurats are appointed by the Crown, following a recommendation from the President of Alderney. In Jersey, the power to raise excise duties was exercised by the Assembly of Governor and Jurats; these financial powers, along with the assets of the Assembly, were taken over by the States of Jersey in 1921, thereby enabling the States to control the budget independently of the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey. In 1948 the jurats were replaced in the legislature by directly-elected senators. Jurats now serve until retirement as non-professional judges of fact, they determine sentences in criminal matters and assess damages in civil matters.
There are twelve Jurats at any one time, who are indirectly elected by an electoral college constituted of States Members and members of the legal profession. The robes of jurats are red with black trim; the Royal Court sits either as the Superior Number. Only the Superior Number can impose sentences of imprisonment of more than four years; the Superior Number acts as a court of first appeal in respect of sentences handed down by the Inferior Number. Otherwise, Appeals from the Inferior Number and the Superior Number are heard by the Jersey Court of Appeal, in which jurats do not sit. Thereafter, any appeal would be heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council sitting in London. Jurats sit on the Island's Licensing Assembly and customarily serve as autorisés to oversee polling at public elections and declare the results; the Prison Board of Visitors, responsible for overseeing the care of prisoners in Jersey's prison system, comprises seven jurats, who inspect the prison and, whilst visiting, hear any prisoners' complaints.
In 2009, a report raised concerns about potential conflicts of interests, recommended that membership of the board should include independent members of the public. In Guernsey, the jurats are still elected by the States of Election, made up of the Island's judiciary, law officers and Anglican clergy; the Royal Court of Guernsey sits either as the Full Court. The position of Juré-Justicier Suppléant was created in 2008 whereby a Jurat with over five years service and is aged over 65 may retire and offer themselves for election as a Juré-Justicier Suppléant whereby the retirement age advances to 75; the robes of jurats are purple. The court of Alderney consists of the Judge of Alderney. Juror Lay judge Capitoul, the equivalent office in Toulouse "How to become a Jurat in Jersey". BBC News Online. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2013
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it. Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture, their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. An arch is a soft compression form, it can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action; as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases. In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.
The most common true arch configurations are the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, where the spans are short; because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate. The two-hinged arch is most used to bridge long spans; this type of arch has pinned connections at the base. Unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch; the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction.
This type of arch is thus not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is therefore said to be statically determinate, it is most used for medium-span structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the three-hinged arch is that the pinned bases are more developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow, bearing-type foundations in medium-span structures. In the three-hinged arch, "thermal expansion and contraction of the arch will cause vertical movements at the peak pin joint but will have no appreciable effect on the bases," further simplifying the foundation design. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three basic categories: circular and parabolic. Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades. Arches with a circular form referred to as rounded arches, were employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed. Pointed arches were most used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.
The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular one, is that the arch action produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture. Vaults are "adjacent arches are assembled side by side." If vaults intersect, complex forms are produced with the intersections. The forms, along with the "strongly expressed ribs at the vault intersections, were dominant architectural features of Gothic cathedrals."The parabolic arch employs the principle that when weight is uniformly applied to an arch, the internal compression resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic profile. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base, but can span the largest areas, it is used in bridge design, where long spans are needed. The catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve; the shape of the curve traced by a loose span of chain or rope, the catenary is the structurally ideal shape for a freestanding arch of constant thickness.
Types of arches displayed chronologically in the order in which they were developed: True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the ancient Near East and the Levant, but their use was infrequent and confined to underground structures, such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is diminished. An example of the latter would be the Nippur Arch. Rare exceptions are an arched mudbrick home doorway in circa 2000BC Tell Taya and the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 B. C. An early example of a voussoir arch appears in the Greek Rhodes Footbridge. Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa and the Americas. In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD. In ancient Persia, the Achaemenid Empire built small barrel vaults known as iwan, which became massive, monumental structures during the Parthian Empire.
This architectural tradition was continued by the Sasanian Empire, which built the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon in the 6th century, the largest free-standing vault until modern times. The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings: The Romans were
Lee McGeorge Durrell
Lee McGeorge Durrell is an American naturalist, author and television presenter, best known for her work at the Jersey Zoological Park in the British Channel Island of Jersey with her late husband Gerald Durrell, for co-authoring books with him. Lee was born in Memphis and showed an interest in wildlife as a child, she studied philosophy at Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia before enrolling in 1971 for a graduate programme at Duke University, to study animal behaviour. She conducted research for her PhD on the calls of birds in Madagascar, she met Gerald Durrell when he gave a lecture at Duke University in 1977, married him in 1979. Lee Durrell became involved with the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, she accompanied Durrell on his last three conservation missions: Mauritius, other Mascarene Islands and Madagascar Russia Madagascar She became the honorary director of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust after the death of her husband in 1995. She was instrumental in getting the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust renamed after Gerald Durrell, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Jersey Zoo.
She is a member of various expert groups on conservation, is fondly called "Mother Tortoise" in certain areas of Madagascar due to her work with the ploughshare tortoise. In December 2005, Lee Durrell handed over a large collection of dead animals to the National Museums of Scotland to aid genetic research of the critically rare species. Lee acted as consultant for The Durrells, a 2016 ITV six-part dramatisation of My Family and Other Animals. Durrell is the author of three books: A Practical Guide for the Amateur Naturalist ISBN 0-241-10841-1 Durrell in Russia State of the Ark – an atlas of conservation in action ISBN 0-370-30754-2 Foreword by Gerald Durrell Dedicated "To GMD for his contribution to conservation, greater than most, because he shares his delight in the natural world so well"She is the editor of: The Best of Gerald Durrell The companion book of a TV series documents the series where she was co-presenter: Ourselves and Other Animals – from the TV series with Gerald and Lee Durrell, Peter Evans Nactus serpeninsula durrelli or Durrell's night gecko is a Round Island race of Serpent Island night gecko named after Gerald and Lee Durrell for their contribution to saving the gecko and Round Island fauna in general.
Mauritius released a stamp depicting Durrell's night gecko. Lee Durrell was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in the 2011 Birthday Honours; the Amateur Naturalist, TV series, CBC / Channel 4 Ourselves & Other Animals, TV series, Primetime Television Durrell in Russia, TV series, Channel 4
A datestone is an embedded stone with the date of engraving and other information carved into it. They are not considered a reliable source for dating a house, as instances of old houses being destroyed and rebuilt have been reported, or may in some cases be the date of a renovation or alteration. Specific locations have been chosen for datestones, viz. corbel gable stone Gatepost: a large upright piece of granite set at the entrance to a driveway or a field. Keystone lintel Marriage stone Cornerstone Scotland's Marriage and Date Stones The Societe-jersiaise An essay on datestones