Avenue Victor-Hugo (Paris)
Avenue Victor-Hugo is an avenue in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. It ends at place Tattegrain, it is one of the twelve avenues beginning at the Étoile, the second longest of the twelve, after the avenue des Champs-Élysées. Its junction with the Étoile is between those of the avenue avenue Kléber, it runs along the colline de Chaillot. Halfway along it is place Victor-Hugo and the Line 2 Metro station Victor Hugo. Named avenue de Saint-Cloud, it was renamed avenue Victor Hugo in 1881. Crossing the whole northern part of the 16th arrondissement, over 1.825 km from the Étoile to the Muette, it is an average of 36m wide. Planted with trees and decorated with a statue of its namesake at the junction with avenue Henri-Martin, it is one of the most prestigious avenues in Paris, it includes several buildings by Pierre Humbert, such as numbers 122 and 167. Humbert built number 124, on the site of the hôtel particulier where Victor Hugo spent his last days; the Avenue was renamed after Hugo on 28 February 1881.
The 1907 building's magnificent façade won several prizes and includes a sculpture of Hugo's face by Fonquergne. The Haitian president Lysius Salomon died at number 3 on 19 October 1888. 16th arrondissement of Paris
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886. The Berne Convention formally mandated several aspects of modern copyright law, it enforces a requirement that countries recognize copyrights held by the citizens of all other parties to the convention. The Berne Convention requires its parties to treat the copyright of works of authors from other parties to the convention at least as well as those of its own nationals. For example, French copyright law applies to anything published or performed in France, regardless of where it was created. In addition to establishing a system of equal treatment that harmonised copyright amongst parties, the agreement required member states to provide strong minimum standards for copyright law. Copyright under the Berne Convention must be automatic. However, when the United States joined the Convention on 1 March 1989, it continued to make statutory damages and attorney's fees only available for registered works.
However, in Moberg v Leygues, a 2009 decision of a Delaware Federal District Court, decided that the protections of the Berne Convention are supposed to be "frictionless," meaning no registration requirements can be imposed on a work from a different Berne member country. This means Berne member countries can require works originating in their own country to be registered and/or deposited, but cannot require these formalities of works from other Berne member countries. Under Article 3, the protection of the Convention applies to nationals and residents of countries that are party to the convention, to works first published or published in a country, party to the convention. Under Article 4, it applies to cinematic works by persons who have their headquarters or habitual residence in a party country, to architectural works situated in a party country; the Convention relies on the concept of "country of origin". Determining the country of origin is straightforward: when a work is published in a party country and nowhere else, this is the country of origin.
However, under Article 5, when a work is published in several party countries, the country with the shortest term of protection is defined as the country of origin. For works published in a party country and one or more non-parties, the party country is the country of origin. For unpublished works or works first published in a non-party country, the author's nationality provides the country of origin, if a national of a party country. In the Internet age, unrestricted publication online may be considered publication in every sufficiently internet-connected jurisdiction in the world, it is not clear what this may mean for determining "country of origin". In Kernel v. Mosley, a U. S. court "concluded that a work created outside of the United States, uploaded in Australia and owned by a company registered in Finland was nonetheless a U. S. work by virtue of its being published online". However other U. S. courts in similar situations have reached different conclusions, e.g. Håkan Moberg v. 33T LLC.
The matter of determining the country of origin for digital publication remains a topic of controversy among law academics as well. The Berne Convention states that all works except photographic and cinematographic shall be copyrighted for at least 50 years after the author's death, but parties are free to provide longer terms, as the European Union did with the 1993 Directive on harmonising the term of copyright protection. For photography, the Berne Convention sets a minimum term of 25 years from the year the photograph was created, for cinematography the minimum is 50 years after first showing, or 50 years after creation if it hasn't been shown within 50 years after the creation. Countries under the older revisions of the treaty may choose to provide their own protection terms, certain types of works may be provided shorter terms. If the author is unknown, because for example the author was deliberately anonymous or worked under a pseudonym, the Convention provides for a term of 50 years after publication.
However, if the identity of the author becomes known, the copyright term for known authors applies. Although the Berne Convention states that the copyright law of the country where copyright is claimed shall be applied, Article 7 states that "unless the legislation of that country otherwise provides, the term shall not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work", i.e. an author is not entitled a longer copyright abroad than at home if the laws abroad give a longer term. This is known as "the rule of the shorter term". Not all countries have accepted this rule; as to works, protection must include "every production in the literary and artistic domain, whatever the mode or form of its expression". Subject to certain allowed reservations, limitations or exceptions, the following are among the rights that must be recognized as exclusive rights of authorization: the right to translate, the right to make adaptations and arrangements of the work, the right t
Marion de Lorme (Hugo)
Marion de Lorme is a play in five acts, written in 1828 by Victor Hugo. It is about the famous French courtesan of that name, who lived under the reign of Louis XIII; the play was first performed in 1831 at the Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, but was prohibited by King Charles X. The Rendezous; the play opens in 1638, in Blois, in the bedchamber of Marion De Lorme. Marion, famous Parisian courtesan, left the capital two months prior, to the despair of her lovers and admirers, took refuge in Blois. Pressed by Saverny, who found her, she confesses that she has an appointment with a man named Didier who does not know who she is, she knows nothing of his identity, she urges Saverny to leave. Didier confesses his love to Marion. To the despair of Didier, Marion hesitates, but she seems ready to yield when Didier reveals what he thinks of Marion Delorme, the famous courtesan: Do you know what Marion Delorme is? A woman, of beautiful body and deformed heart! At this moment, shouts erupt from the alley.
Saverny is attacked, Didier rushes to help him, thereby earning the Marquis' thanks. The Encounter; the scene is the door of a cabaret. They discuss the merit of the last pieces of Corneille, voice their hatred of the omnipresent and all-powerful Cardinal Richelieu, the disappearance of Marion De Lorme. One of them related that she was last seen in Blois, relating the events of the first act, but she has since disappeared. A crier appears who proclaims an order of the king: duels are henceforth forbidden under pain of death. Didier arrives at the cabaret, a quarrel sparks between him and Saverny, they begin a duel interrupted by the entry of Marion, who screams and alerts the guard. Saverny, to save himself, feigns death. Didier is arrested; the Comedians. The scene is the château de Genlis. Saverny enters, who related to the judge Laffemas the story of his own death, but during the conversation, Saverny learns that the man he fought with was Didier and that it was Marion's lover who saved his life.
Shortly afterwards, Laffemas receives a letter announcing the escape of Didier accompanied by Marion. He goes after them. Marion and Didier enter, they are given roles. Didier is desperate to flee with Marion, asks her again to marry him. Marion is spotted by Savergny, he realizes. Didier discovers that the woman he loves is none other than the courtesan. Revolted, he denounces himself to Laffemas. Saverny, in an attempt to save Didier, unmasks himself; the King. The scene opens in the guard room of Chambord Castle. Laffemas is refused. Marion determines to rely upon the king. Louis XIII enters. Marion and the Marquis de Nangis plead for a royal pardon for the two convicts, but the king is intractable. Left alone with the king, L'Angély, his jester, tries to persuade the King by convincing him that the two convicts are falconers. At his insistence, the king and undecided, relents to pardon the two men, Marion departs with the pardon in hand; the Cardinal. The scene is the dungeon of Beaugency. Marion, bearing royal pardon, arrives to have Dider released.
Confronted with Laffemas, she gives in, agrees to prostitute himself to him in exchange for Didier's freedom. The thing done, she enters the courtyard where Didier and Saverny are awaiting death, but Didier, still angry and revolted because he guesses what she had to do to get there, refuses to follow her; the guards arrive to escort them away. At the last moment, Didier confesses his love to Marion, who asks for forgiveness; the condemned march towards torture. Marion remains alone on stage, sees the litter of the cardinal, who has just been present at the execution
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre, it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur; the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source.
The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum; the Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway" the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel. The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial craft can use the river from 516 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges; the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus navigable. The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.
The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located; the distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km. The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, has 8 locks. At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine. At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes; this canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres.
Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks. Today the depth is controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is filled with water; the average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. A severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city; the Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms.
A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas. In January 2018 the Seine again flooded. An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was to cause the river to flood. By January 27, the river was rising; the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality." The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2 percent of, forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Periodically
Juliette Drouet, born Julienne Josephine Gauvain, was a French actress. She abandoned her career on the stage after becoming the mistress of Victor Hugo, to whom she acted as a secretary and travelling companion. Juliette accompanied Hugo in his exile to the Channel Islands, wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life, she was born Julienne Josephine Gauvain on 10 April 1806 in Fougères, Ille-et-Vilaine, the daughter of Julien Gauvain, a tailor, Marie Marchandet, employed as a housemaid. She had two older sisters, Renee and Thérèse, a brother Armand. Orphaned from her mother a few months after her birth, her father the following year, Gauvain was raised by her uncle, René Drouet, she was educated in Paris at a religious boarding school and considered a precocious child, having learned to read and write at the age of five. At the age of ten, Gauvain was proficient in literature and poetry. Around 1825, she became the mistress of sculptor James Pradier, who represented her in a statue symbolizing Strasbourg, at the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
They had a daughter Claire. On the advice of Pradier, she started an acting career in 1829 in Brussels in Paris, it was, Drouet. Described by those who knew her as independent and hot-tempered. Drouet had bright eyes. In 1833, while playing the role of Princess Négroni in Lucrezia Borgia, she met Victor Hugo, whose wife Adèle was having an affair with the critic Sainte-Beuve, she abandoned her theatrical career afterwards to dedicate her life to her lover. Her last stage role was of Lady Jane Grey in Hugo's Marie Tudor, she became Hugo's secretary and travelling companion. For many years she lived a cloistered life. In 1852, she accompanied him in his exile on Jersey, in 1855 on Guernsey, she wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life, which testify to her writing talent according to Henri Troyat who wrote her biography in 1997. Each year, from 16 February 1833 to 1883, they celebrated the anniversary of the first night they had spent together. Victor Hugo slipped this personal anecdote into the plot of Les Misérables: Marius and Cosette’s wedding night takes place on the same date.
Juliette Drouet died in Paris on 11 May 1883 at the age of 77. Hugo’s family dissuaded him from attending Juliette’s funeral out of concern for what people might say. Simone de Beauvoir, Patrick O'Brian; the Coming of Age. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31443-X Juliette Drouet, Evelyn Blewer, Victoria Tietze Larson. My Beloved Toto: Letters from Juliette Drouet to Victor Hugo 1833-1882. State University of New York Press ISBN 0-7914-6572-1 Graham Robb, 1999. Victor Hugo: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31899-0 Henri Troyat, 1997. Juliette Drouet: La prisonnière sur parole. Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-067403-X Works by Juliette Drouet at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Juliette Drouet at Internet Archive Archival material at Leeds University Library
Maison de Victor Hugo
Maison de Victor Hugo is a writer's house museum located where Victor Hugo lived for 16 years between 1832–1848. It is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées; the museum is in the Place des Vosges and dates from 1605 when a lot was granted to Isaac Arnauld in the south-east corner of the square. It was improved by the de Rohans family, who gave the building its current name of Hôtel de Rohan-Guéménée. Victor Hugo was 30, they rented a 280 square metre apartment on the second floor. The mansion was converted into a museum when a large donation was made by Paul Meurice to the city of Paris to buy the house; the museum consists of an antechamber leading through the Chinese living room and medieval style dining room to Victor Hugo’s bedroom where he died in 1885. Victor Hugo's House manage Hauteville House, Guernsey; the parisian museum, at 6, Place des Vosges is within easy walking distance of three Paris Metro stations: Saint-Paul Chemin-Vert BastilleOpening times are from Tuesday to Sunday from 10am to 6pm.
It is closed on public holidays. Phone numbers for the museum are 00 33 42 72 10 16 and for fax 00 33 42 72 06 64 List of museums in Paris Victor Hugo's Houses webpages on paris.fr Victor Hugo's Houses page on Paris Musées' website Paris Musées official website Gives a history of 6, Place des Vosges
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t