Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Don't Let the Man Get You Down
"Don't Let the Man Get You Down" is a song by English electronic music producer Fatboy Slim, released on 4 July 2005 as the fourth and final single from his fourth studio album Palookaville. It samples the opening line of the song "Signs" by Five Man Electrical Band; the song peaked at number 153 on the UK Singles Chart. The music video is in the style of a white public service announcement, it starts off with the title'A film by Neighborhood Watch' it switches to a white man named Don, it states that'Don likes to fish' and'Don is a racist'. Throughout the video, it shows Don living a day in his life showing hatred and distrust of non-whites. A figure in black, thought to be the figure on the'This is a Neighborhood Watch Community' sign, is seen stalking Don in the background during the scenes in the parking lot, water fountain and Mexican restaurant scenes. After shooing some dark-skinned kids off of his boat, he furiously marches across the street and is hit by a car, dropping his prized fishing trophy.
As an Asian man sees him and calls 911. It can be argued that the Asian man hangs up when he realizes it is Don, as there are no subtitles of the Asian man talking to the 911 services, white lettering states'Look both ways before crossing the street','And don't be a racist', and'or else'. There are five other alternate endings of the music video, which feature on The Greatest Hits – Why Make Videos DVD:'Always wait 30 minutes after you eat before swimming','And don't be a racist, or else.' This ending featured a cameo from Paris Hilton.'Don't talk to strangers','And don't be a racist, or else."Always pay your debts','And don't be a racist, or else."This is Hollywood, anything is possible','And don't be a racist, or else you die by a horse."Always take small bites','And don't be a racist, or else you die.' "Don't Let the Man Get You Down" – 4:01 "Don't Let the Man Get You Down" – 4:01 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Norman Quentin Cook, known by his stage name Fatboy Slim, is an English DJ, record producer who helped to popularise the big beat genre in the 1990s. In the 1980s, Cook was the bassist for the Hull-based indie rock band the Housemartins, who achieved a UK number-one single with their a cappella cover of "Caravan of Love". After the Housemartins split, Norman Cook formed the electronic band Beats International in Brighton, who produced the number-one single "Dub Be Good to Me". Cook joined acts including Freak Power and the Mighty Dub Katz to moderate success. In 1996, Cook adopted the name Fatboy Slim and released Better Living Through Chemistry to critical acclaim. Follow-up albums You've Come a Long Way, Halfway Between the Gutter and the Stars, Palookaville, as well as singles such as "The Rockafeller Skank", "Praise You", "Right Here, Right Now", "Weapon of Choice", "Wonderful Night", achieved commercial and critical success. In 2008, Cook formed the Brighton Port Authority with David Byrne.
Cook has been responsible for successful remixes for Cornershop, Beastie Boys, A Tribe Called Quest, Groove Armada, Wildchild. In 2010, in partnership with Byrne, he released. Cook holds the Guinness World Record for the most top 40 hits under different names; as a solo act, he has won ten MTV Video Music Awards and two Brit Awards. Quentin Leo Cook was born in Bromley, raised in Reigate, Surrey and educated at Reigate Grammar School, he played drums in a British new wave-influenced rock band. When frontman Charlie Alcock was told by his parents that he had to give up the band to concentrate on his O levels, Cook took over as lead vocalist. At The Railway Tavern in Reigate, Cook met Paul Heaton. At 18, Cook went to Brighton Polytechnic to read a B. A. in English and sociology, where he achieved a 2:1 in the British Studies honours course. Although he had begun DJing some years before, it was at this time that he began to develop his skills on the thriving Brighton club scene appearing at the Brighton Belle and the students' favourite The Basement, where known as DJ Quentox he began laying the base for Brighton's hip hop scene.
In 1985, Cook's friend Paul Heaton had formed a guitar band called The Housemartins. Their bassist left on the eve of their first national tour, so Cook agreed to move to Hull to join them; the band soon had a hit single with "Happy Hour", their two albums, London 0 Hull 4 and The People Who Grinned Themselves to Death, peaked in the Top 10 of the UK Albums Chart. They reached number one just before Christmas 1986 with a version of "Caravan of Love" a hit the year before for Isley-Jasper-Isley. However, by 1988 they had split up. Heaton and the band's drummer Dave Hemingway went on to form The Beautiful South, while Cook moved back to Brighton to pursue his interest in the style of music he preferred, it was at this time that he first started working with young studio engineer Simon Thornton, with whom he continues to make records. All of Cook's records released from that point onwards have involved both of them to varying degrees. Cook achieved his first solo hit in 1989, featuring his future Beats International member MC Wildski, called "Blame It on the Bassline".
Credited to "Norman Cook feat. MC Wildski", the song followed the basic template of what was to come in the style of the music of Beats International, it became a modest hit in the UK Singles Chart, reaching number 29. Cook formed Beats International, a loose confederation of studio musicians including vocalists Lindy Layton and Lester Noel, rappers D. J. Baptiste and MC Wildski, keyboardist Andy Boucher, their first album, Let Them Eat Bingo, included the number one single "Dub Be Good to Me", which caused a legal dispute revolving around allegations of infringement of copyright through the liberal use of unauthorised samples: the bassline was a note-for-note lift from "The Guns of Brixton" by The Clash and the lyrics borrowed from "Just Be Good to Me" by The S. O. S. Band; this bankrupted Cook as he lost the case and was ordered to pay back twice the royalties made on the record. The 1991 follow-up album Excursion on the Version, an exploration of dub and reggae music, failed to repeat the success of its predecessor, as it did not chart.
Cook formed Freak Power with horn player Ashley Slater and singer Jesse Graham. They released their debut album Drive-Thru Booty in 1994, which contained the single "Turn On, Tune In, Cop Out"; the cut was picked up by the Levi's company for use in a multimillion-dollar advertising campaign. In 1996, Cook re-joined Freak Power for More of Everything for Everybody. Cook enlisted help from producer friends Tim Jeffery and JC Reid to create a house music album as Pizzaman; the 1995 Pizzamania album spawned three UK Top 40 hits: "Trippin' on Sunshine", "Sex on the Streets", "Happiness". "Happiness" was picked up by the Del Monte Foods corporation for use in a UK fruit juice ad. The music videos for the three singles were all directed by Michael Dominic. Cook formed the group The Mighty Dub Katz along with Gareth Hansome, Cook's former flatmate. Together they started the Boutique Nightclub in Brighton known as the Big Beat Boutique, their biggest song together was "Magic Carpet Ride". Cook adopted the pseudonym Fatboy Slim in 1996.
Cook says of the name: "It doesn't mean anything. I've told so many different lies over the years about it I can't remember the truth. It's just an oxymoron -- a word, it kind of suits me – it's kind of goofy and ironic."The Fatboy Slim album and Cook's second solo album, Be
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Tesla is an American rock band formed in Sacramento, California in late 1981 by bassist Brian Wheat and guitarist Frank Hannon as Earthshaker, City Kidd. Lead vocalist Jeff Keith, drummer Troy Luccketta, guitarist Tommy Skeoch joined them by 1984. By 1986, the band had changed from its glam-derived sound to a'rootsier' direction under a new name: "Tesla". In 1996, the band disbanded, with members devoting themselves to solo projects. In 2000, they reformed, they have sold 14 million albums in the United States. The band City Kidd was renamed Tesla during the recording of their first album, 1986's Mechanical Resonance, on the advice of their manager that City Kidd was not a great name; the band derived their name, certain album and song titles, some song content from events relating to inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla. Along with the band's next two studio albums, Mechanical Resonance was produced by Michael Barbiero and Steve Thompson The band's original lineup consisted of lead vocalist Jeff Keith, guitarists Frank Hannon and Tommy Skeoch, bassist Brian Wheat, drummer Troy Luccketta.
Tesla's music is referred to as hard rock or glam metal. The band's lyrics strayed from the themes popular in hard rock in the 1980s at the beginning of their career. In the early days of their career, Tesla toured with David Lee Roth, Alice Cooper, Def Leppard, Poison which resulted in the band being categorized as a glam metal band; the band's members resented this labelling. The band released Mechanical Resonance LIVE on August 26, 2016 featuring live versions of every song from the original album. Including a bonus track Save That Goodness, produced by Def Leppard guitarist Phil Collen; the band released their second album, The Great Radio Controversy, in 1989. The album helped solidify the band's growing reputation and fan base, produced five hit singles, including the power ballad "Love Song". In 1990, Tesla released Five Man Acoustical Jam, a live album featuring acoustic renditions of hits such as "Comin' Atcha Live", "Gettin' Better", "Modern Day Cowboy", "Love Song"; the album featured a number of covers most notably a version of "Signs", a 1971 hit by the Five Man Electrical Band.
In 1991 the band released their third studio album Psychotic Supper. The band itself considers this to be their best album according to their official web site; the 1998 Japanese reissue import of Psychotic Supper contains one unreleased song, "Rock the Nation", as well as the songs "I Ain't Superstitious", "Run Run Run", both of which had only been available as b-sides to two singles from The Great Radio Controversy. In 1994 the band released their fourth studio album Bust a Nut; the 1998 Japanese reissue import of Bust a Nut contains the unreleased cover of Led Zeppelin's "The Ocean". After the release of Bust a Nut, Skeoch departed because of his struggle with substance abuse, he rejoined after completing rehab, only to depart again months later. The band moved forward as a four-piece for a short while. However, it wasn't long before Skeoch joined up with solo artist Marshall Coleman's band to support his solo career, only to see a departure of Marshall soon after; this band morphed to include Jeff Keith and resurfaced as Bar 7 with a single "Four Leaf Clover", from the album The World Is a Freak.
Brian Wheat formed Soulmotor and Frank Hannon Moon Dog Mane, while Troy Luccketta worked with several local artists including the Bay Area's One Thin Dime. After a break of six years, the Sacramento Bee reported that the band had reformed in 2000 with the help of local radio personality Pat Martin of KRXQ; the band played an emotional sold out show at ARCO Arena in Sacramento on October 25, 2000. Soon after they recorded the double live album Replugged Live. In 2002 they were featured in the Rock Never Stops Tour alongside other 1980s rock bands. 2002 saw the release of a further live album Standing Room Only, just a single CD version of Replugged Live. In 2004 they released their fifth studio album Into the Now which debuted on the Billboard album chart at number 30; the album was well received by fans and the band was featured on Jimmy Kimmel Live!. In the summer of 2006, the band embarked on the Electric Summer Jam Tour without guitarist Tommy Skeoch. Skeoch had left the band indefinitely to spend time with his family, and, as he revealed on "The Classic Metal Show", other reasons.
Scott Johnson of the Sacramento band Rogue filled in for a time on this tour. Dave Rude replaced Skeoch permanently. Tesla recorded a two-volume collection of cover songs titled Real to Reel, released on June 5, 2007; the recording is available as a 2-CD set. The first CD is sold in a case with a blank slot for the second CD; the second CD will be available to concert goers in the USA at no additional charge beyond the cost of a ticket. The second CD was given away with the August edition of Classic Rock magazine in Europe. At the end of August Tesla announced their first world tour in 16 years with dates in Australia and Europe in October and November 2007. In June and July 2008, Tesla played a few shows in Europe and the USA, including Sweden Rock Festival, Graspop Metal Meeting and Rocklahoma. On July 15, 2008 "Tesla- Comin' Atcha Live! 2008" was released from a live concert filmed February 22, 2008 at the sold out Myth Nightclub in Maplewood, Minnesota. The 2 hour show included hits "Modern Day Cowboy", "Love Song" and "Song and Emotion" along with additional backstage footage.
On August 11, 2008, it was reported
Signs (Five Man Electrical Band song)
"Signs" is a song by the Canadian rock group Five Man Electrical Band. It was written by the band's frontman, Les Emmerson and popularized the unknown band, who recorded it for their second album, Good-byes and Butterflies, in 1970. "Signs" was released that year as the B-side to the unsuccessful single "Hello Melinda Goodbye". Re-released in 1971 as the A-side, "Signs" reached No. 4 in Canada and No. 3 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Billboard ranked it as the No. 24 song for 1971. It became a gold record; the song's narrator describes four instances of encountering signs that anger or concern him, as follows: A notice that "long-haired freaky people need not apply" for a job opening. He stuffs his hair into his hat in order to get an interview contemptuously reveals it once he has been offered the job. A "no trespassing" warning outside a house, he climbs onto the perimeter fence and berates the owners for keeping people out and fencing in the land's natural beauty. Being told to leave a restaurant because he does not meet its dress code or have a membership card, both of which are displayed on a sign.
A sign inviting people to worship at a church. When an offering is taken up at the end of the service, he makes a sign telling God that he is doing well, as he has no money to contribute. "Signs" was covered and recorded live by Tesla for their Five Man Acoustical Jam album in 1990, peaking at number 8 on the Pop charts. This cover had some minor changes to the lyrics: the line "blockin' out the scenery" was changed to "fuckin' up the scenery," and "made up my own little sign" was changed to "made up my own fuckin' sign". A studio version recorded in 2007, which appeared on the EP A Peace of Time, used the original lyrics. 7" single12" singleCD single The opening line of the song, "And the sign said long haired freaky people need not apply", was sampled by Fatboy Slim for his song "Don't Let The Man Get You Down", from his Palookaville album. ApologetiX recorded a parody of the song titled "Lions", telling a Biblical story of a character named Daniel in a lion's den, it was included on the cassette of Radical History Tour, was re-issued on the "Director's Cut" edition of Isn't Wasn't Ain't.
The Evolution Control Committee used only part of the song's opening line "the sign said long haired freaky people" on the track "Freaky People" from their 2011 album All Rights Reserved. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th