Henry Christy was an English banker and collector, who left his substantial collections to the British Museum. Trained to business by his father, Henry Christy became a partner in the house of Christy & Co. in Gracechurch Street and he was still a board member of the bank at the end of his life, despite other activities. Henry contributed to the success of the firm, known as W. M. Christy & Sons Ltd. once his father took it over. Christy innovated with woven silk rather than beaver for the manufacture of top hats, Christy was a philanthropist, active in the Great Famine and other causes. With other Quakers Christy took the approach of buying seeds for other vegetable crops, with committee members Robert Forster and Samuel Fox, he lobbied the government for practical help in improving Irish fisheries. He was one of the founders of the Aborigines Protection Society and he was a committee member of the British and Foreign School Society. Christy was involved in numerous learned societies and he belonged to both the Ethnological Society of London and the Anthropological Society of London, representing different strands arising from early ethnology.
He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1856, and he took part in both the archaeological societies of the period, and the Royal Geographical Society. In 1850 Christy began to visit foreign countries, among the fruits of his first expedition to the East were an extensive collection of Eastern fabrics, and a large series of figures from Cyprus, which are now in the British Museum. After the Great Exhibition of 1851, Christy began the study of tribal peoples, in 1852, and again in 1853, he travelled in Denmark and Norway. The public collections of antiquities at Stockholm and Copenhagen were a revelation to him, the year 1856 was devoted to America. Travelling over Canada, the United States, and British Columbia, Christy met Edward Burnett Tylor in Cuba, and they went on together to Mexico and their Mexican travels were described by Tylor in his Anahuac. In 1858, the antiquity of man was proved by the discoveries of Boucher de Perthes on flint implements in France, Christy joined the Geological Society that year.
He went with the French palæontologist Edouard Lartet in the examination of the caves along the valley of the Vézère, remains are embedded in the stalagmites of these caves. Thousands of specimens were obtained, some of them being added to Christys collection, the sites they investigated included Le Moustier, the Abri de la Madeleine, both important type sites. In April 1865, Christy left England with a party of geologists to examine some caves which had recently been discovered in Belgium. While at work he caught a severe cold, a subsequent journey with M. and Mme. Lartet to La Palisse brought on inflammation of the lungs, of which he died on 4 May 1865 and he left £5000 which established the Christy fund that allowed the British Museum to purchase many more artefacts, with a sum of money to be applied to public exhibition
Dordogne is a department in southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux. The department is located in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine between the Loire Valley and the Pyrenees, and is named after the great Dordogne river that runs through it and it roughly corresponds with the ancient county of Périgord. The county of Périgord dates back to when the area was inhabited by the Gauls and it was originally home to four tribes, the name for four tribes in the Gaulish language was Petrocore. The area eventually known as the county of Le Périgord. The Petrocores took part in the resistance against Rome, the earliest cluzeaux, artificial caves either above or below ground, can be found throughout the Dordogne. These subterranean refuges and lookout huts were large enough to shelter entire local populations, according to Julius Caesar the Gauls took refuge in these caves during the resistance. After Guienne province was transferred to the English Crown under the Plantagenets following the remarriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, the county had been torn apart and, as a consequence, that modeled its physiognomy.
During the calmer periods of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the finest Gothic and Renaissance residences were built in Périgueux and Sarlat. In the countryside, the nobility had the majority of the more than 1200 chateaux, manors, at the time, Bergerac was one of the most powerful Huguenot strongholds, along with La Rochelle. and even Josephine Baker. A number of ruins have retained the memory of the tragedies took place within their walls. Several of the castles and châteaux are open to visitors and some of such as Bourdeilles and Mareuil. Saint-Léon-sur-Vézère, Saint-Jean-de-Côle, La Roque-Gageac and many others are real jewels of architecture, as for the old quarters of Périgueux or Bergerac and developed into pedestrian areas, they have regained their former charm. A number of towns, such as Brantôme, Eymet. A special mention should be made in respect to Sarlat. Dordogne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution and it was included from the former province of Périgord, the county of Périgord.
Its borders would continue to change over the subsequent decades, in 1793 the communes of Boisseuilh, Coubjours, Génis, Saint-Cyr-les-Champagnes, Saint-Mesmin, Savignac, Saint-Trié and Teillots were transferred from Corrèze to Dordogne. In 1794 Dordogne ceded Cavarc to Lot-et-Garonne, in 1794 Dordogne gained Parcoul from Charente-Inférieure. Following the restoration, in 1819, the commune of Bonrepos was suppressed and merged with the adjacent commune of Souillac in Lot, but at some stage the victim died, and following a trial four individuals identified as culpable were in turn condemned to die by guillotine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions, Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has approximately 5,800,000 inhabitants, the new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015. It is the largest region in France by area, with a slightly larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants. The region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, after Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast, in terms of culture, the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Occitan and Oïl cultures.
Historically, it is the successor to medieval Aquitaine. In June 2016, a group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula. The decision came after the favorite, faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin. The other popular favorite, Grande Aquitaine, was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority, alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working groups conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym ALPC no choice at all. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, frances Conseil dÉtat approved New-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016. Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three communities in Spain to the south, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory.
It is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean, Charente and Dordogne and Adour, giving rivers bordering land dedicated mostly to viticulture and to agriculture. This diverse area is the area of the oyster, the Landes forest, by far the most extensive, covering almost one million hectares, making it the largest artificial forest of Western Europe. The Landes forest is included in the Landes de Gascogne Regional Natural Park
Les Combarelles is a cave in Les Eyzies de Tayac, France, which was inhabited by Cro-Magnon people between approximately 13,000 to 11,000 years ago. Formed by a river, the cave is approximately 300 m long with an average width of 1 m. Long used as a stable by local peasants who regularly found Magdalenian artifacts in the cave and it was officially discovered in September 1901 by pre-historians Denis Peyrony, Abbé Breuil, and Louis Capitan. The entrance of the cave and the gallery had already been excavated by Émile River between 1891 and 1894. Abbé Breuil described 291 drawings divided into 105 separate sets — a discovery he himself called an enormous firecracker in the world of prehistory, radiocarbon dating of bones found in the cave indicate the cave was inhabited by Cro-Magnon people 13, 680–11,380 years before the present. During that period, these people produced hundreds of drawings on the cave walls. Scientists have identified 600–800 drawings of isolated animals and undecipherable tectiforms in the cave, other animals include cave bears, cave lions, and mammoths.
List of Stone Age art Art of the Upper Paleolithic Hitchcock, Don
European early modern humans
European early modern humans is a general term for pre-modern early modern humans of the European Upper Paleolithic. The two terms differ somewhat in composition, a number of finds in Europe are referable to early modern humans. These include the classical Cro-Magnon 1 and other skeletons found at the site, the oldest known finds of anatomically modern are from Peștera cu Oase near the Iron Gates in Romania, dated to at least 37,800 years old. Genetic work on the Siberian finds that group with the early modern Europeans indicate the earliest modern people in Europe had a larger share of Neanderthal DNA than do modern peoples. The term early when applied to modern European finds is usually restricted to finds from earlier than the Mesolithic and this coincides with the end of the last ice age, which saw the end of the ice age megafauna. At this point the population of the world switched from a culture of big game hunting to smaller game. With less demands for strength, people all over the world became less robust.
Thus, the early European modern humans are the big-game, more robustly built Ice-Age sample as opposed to the more gracile post-glacial populations, the process leading to the development of smaller and more fine-boned humans seems to have begun at least 50, 000–30,000 years ago. While anatomically modern humans from Europe contrast with their Neanderthal contemporaries, the older remains are mostly from Eastern Europe, and many show a combination of modern and archaic traits not seen in the newer material. None of these finds contain tools, making it hard to fit them into the traditional archaeological stratigraphy of Europe, finds associated with the Aurignacian and related cultures are somewhat and shows anatomy similar to that of the original Cro-Magnon find. At the very end of the Upper Palaeolithic, finds are associated with the Magdalenian culture, Peștera cu Oase The oldest modern human remains from Southeast Europe are the finds from Peștera cu Oase near the Iron Gates in Romania.
The site is situated in the Danubian corridor, which may have been the Cro-Magnon entry point into Central Europe, the cave appears to be a cave bear den, the human remains may have been prey or carrion. No tools are associated with the finds, Oase 1 holotype is a robust mandible which combines a variety of archaic, derived early modern, and possibly Neanderthal features. The modern attributes place it close to European early modern humans among Late Pleistocene samples, the fossil is one of the few finds in Europe which could be directly dated and is at least 37,800 years old. The Oase 1 mandible was discovered on February 16,2002, a nearly complete skull of a young male Oase 2 and fragments of another were found in 2005, again with mosaic features, some of which are paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible. Later, during 2005, the Oase 3 fragments were assigned as being part of the individual as Oase 2. Radiocarbon dating yielded an age of 30,150 ±800 years, muierii Cave and the CioclovinaCioclovina 1 is a complete neurocranium from a robust individual lacking all facial bones.
The find is from a bear den, Cioclovina Cave
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to civil townships incorporated municipalities in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany, the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and have received significant powers of governance to manage the populations, the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. A French commune may be a city of 2.2 million inhabitants like Paris, communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, a commune is a town, city, or municipality. Use of commune in English is a habit, and one that might be corrected. There is nothing in commune in French that is different from town in English.
The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, as of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France,36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. This is a higher total than that of any other European country. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes and this is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions, COM of Saint-Martin and it was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007, COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. It was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe region, the commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan Frances communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, the median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the area of communes is 22 km2, in Belgium it is 40 km2, in Spain it is 35 km2, and in Germany. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. The communes of Frances overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards and they usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals. They date to the Middle Paleolithic, the part of the European Old Stone Age. The culture was named after the site of Le Moustier. Similar flintwork has been all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East. Handaxes and points constitute the industry, sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes, Mousterian tools that have been found in Europe were made by Neanderthals and date from around 160,000 BP and 40,000 BP. In North Africa and the Near East, Mouseterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans, possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B. The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45, Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.
Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton, located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, gorhams Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites of Mousterian culture, including Teshik-Tash, siberia has many sites with Mousterian style implements, eg Denisova Cave. Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Synoptic table of the old world prehistoric cultures Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Human taxonomy is the classification of the species Homo sapiens, or the modern hominin, humans. Homo, the genus, includes the past genetic tree of humanity, with Neanderthals, Denisovans. H. sapiens is the surviving species of the genus Homo. Extinct Homo species include archaic humans, current humans have been designated as subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, differentiated from the direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu. Prior to the current scientific classification of humans and scientists have made attempts to classify humans. They offered definitions of the human being and schemes for classifying types of humans, biologists once classified races as subspecies, but today anthropologists reject the concept of race and view humanity as an interrelated genetic continuum. Taxonomy of the hominins continues to evolve, humans are considered the only surviving representatives of the genus Homo. Scientists have debated whether any other branches of Homo, such as Neanderthals and these distinctions are connected with two competing theories of human origins, the more common recent single-origin hypothesis and the multiregional hypothesis.
Modern humans have some genes that originally arose in archaic human populations, human taxonomy has involved both placing humans within the hominid family and classifying types of humans within the species. As recorded in the Hebrew Bible, ancient Hebrews classified humans as a kind of living soul, living things were said to beget their own kind, a group broader than the scientific species. Humans were said to comprise a single kind, humans have long been considered animals. Plato referred to humans as featherless biped animals, and Aristotle defined the human being as the animal or the political animal. Classic and medieval taxonomy grouped living things according to characteristics, modern taxonomy, on the other hand, classifies organisms according to evolutionary lines of descent. Current opposition to classifying humans as animals arises from this definition of what it means to be an animal. When Linnaeus defined humans as Homo sapiens in 1758, they were the members of the genus Homo. The first other species to be classified a Homo was H.
neanderthalensis, since then, ten additional extinct species have been classified as Homo. In a common misunderstanding of evolutionary theory, each represents a stage in the evolutionary track, some more evolved. Based on this misunderstanding, scientists thought of humans as having descended from apes and expected to find the missing link