The Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine
The Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine is the second television special to feature the Care Bears characters. Made by Ottawa's Atkinson Film-Arts studios, it premiered in syndication in April 1984. Paul, a young boy, wants to get with his bullies as Professor Coldheart tricks him into fixing his Careless Ray Contraption after Frostbite ruined it by accident; the Care Bears must do all. Hugs and Tugs, two baby Care Bears are kidnapped by Professor Coldheart; the Care Bears have to rescue them. The special, a follow-up to the previous installment The Land Without Feelings, sees the return of the ten original Bears and the seen Cloud Keeper, as well as the villain Professor Coldheart. In addition, the special introduces Baby Hugs, Baby Tugs, Grams Bear, Professor Coldheart's sidekick, Frostbite; the Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine aired on over 100 U. S. TV stations in April 1984, was sponsored by the Kenner company; that same year, it won an award for Best Children's Program at the 13th National ACTRA Awards.
A tie-in book based on the special was written by Arthur S. Rosenblatt, illustrated by Joe Ewers and published by Parker Brothers as a part of the Tales from the Care Bears series; the special was released on VHS and Beta by Family Home Entertainment in May 1984. This, The Land Without Feelings, were among the ten best-selling children's videos on the U. S. market in 1985. It was released for the first time on DVD, as a special feature, on MGM Home Enteratainment's 2007 re-issue of The Care Bears Movie; the print featured on the disc is the syndicated edit, not the original broadcast version. In 1987, Don R. Le Duc referred to Freeze Machine as a "shallow merchandising marvel"; the Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine on IMDb The Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine at The Big Cartoon DataBase The Care Bears Battle the Freeze Machine at AllMovie
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
CHKT is a Canadian radio station, airing at 1430 AM in Toronto, Ontario. The station, owned by the Fairchild Radio service, airs Chinese language programming. CHKT's studios are located on East Beaver Creek Road in Richmond Hill, while its transmitters are located on the Toronto Islands; the station, the indirect forerunner of CHKT first aired in 1925 as AM 840 CKCL, owned by the Dominion Battery company. As with many radio stations in the early years of radio broadcasting, the station changed frequencies a number of times in its first years of operation, it settled on the permanent 580 kilohertz frequency in 1931. In 1945, the station was sold to Jack Kent Cooke's Toronto Broadcasting Co. and adopted the callsign CKEY. It was subsequently acquired by Shoreacres Broadcasting, a consortium that included Westinghouse and The Globe and Mail, in 1961, changed its frequency to 590 in 1964 as CKWW signed on at 580 that year in Windsor and CKAR, in Huntsville had to change its frequency from 590 to 630 kHz.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, CKEY was the leading Top 40 music competitor to 1050 CHUM. Another notable broadcaster was Bryan Fustukian; the station dropped its Top 40 format for "middle of the road" music in 1965, now going up against CFRB, was successful in that arena for a time. Shoreacres, in turn, was acquired by Maclean-Hunter in 1966. From 1970 to 1983, CKEY featured Charles Templeton and Pierre Berton on the commentary show Dialogue with Templeton reading the morning news for several years; the station had Stephen Lewis as a commentator in the late 1970s and early 1980s. On January 1, 1984, CKEY flipped from its long running MOR format to soft rock/oldies as "Solid Gold CKEY", on June 20, 1988, the station became "Key 590" with a full-blown oldies format, once again competing directly with a re-formatted CHUM. At 7 p.m. on March 14, 1991, CKEY began stunting with a heartbeat. The CKEY callsign was subsequently picked up by a station in Fort Erie. After Rogers Communications acquired Maclean-Hunter in 1994, CKYC was sold to Telemedia.
Telemedia subsequently swapped CKYC's frequency with that of its sports outlet CJCL. On February 6, 1995, at 10 AM, CKYC ceased airing country music, after stunting with a ticking clock for two hours, CJCL and CKYC swapped frequencies. CKYC subsequently aired only syndicated programming until it went off the air permanently in late 1996. CHKT was launched by Fairchild in 1997, over the 1430 AM frequency, occupied by CKYC prior to its signing off for the last time; the CKYC callsign was subsequently picked up by a station in Owen Sound, Ontario in 2001. CHKT airs Chinese language programming as well as programming in the following languages: Cambodian, German, Hungarian, Italian, Macedonian, Russian, Thai and Vietnamese. Fairchild Radio Remembering CKEY Radio Toronto - 580 - 590 CHKT history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC's Canadian station database for CHKT
DIC Entertainment Corporation was an international film and television production company. In 2008, DiC was folded into it. Most of the DiC library is owned by DHX Media after DHX acquired the Cookie Jar Group on October 22, 2012. In addition to animated and live-action television shows, while under Disney, DiC produced live-action feature films, including Meet the Deedles and Inspector Gadget, licensed various anime series such as Sailor Moon, Saint Seiya and Speed Racer X. Diffusion, Information Communications was formed in France in 1971 by Jean Chalopin as the production division of Radio Television Luxembourg, a long existing media company. DiC's American arm was founded in April 1982 in Burbank, California by Andy Heyward, a former story writer at Hanna-Barbera, to translate DiC productions into English; the company produced television animation for both network broadcast and syndication, outsourced its non-creative work overseas, enforced anti-union policies and hired staff on a per-program basis to cut costs.
For some in the industry, DiC stood for "Do It Cheap". With directors Bruno Bianchi and Bernard Deyriès, Chalopin and Heyward were able to make DiC an effective but restrained animation company. Soon after joining DiC, Heyward developed Inspector Gadget, which became a successful production out of the American office. DiC partnered with toy makers and greeting card companies for character based product lines that could be made into animated series, thus DiC productions came with built in some time financiers. Between Inspector Gadget and The Littles, the company became profitable; as the only non-union animation firm, in 1984 DiC faced a unionization effort. In 1985, DiC opened its own Japan-based animation facility for animation production on their shows in order to bypass overseas animation subcontractors. In April 1986, DiC launched. From late 1986 to 1987, along with investors Bear Stearns & Co. and Prudential Insurance Co, bought Chalopin and Radio Television Luxembourg's 52% stake in DiC in a $70 million leveraged buyout and made the US headquarters the company's main base of operations.
After the buyout, Bianchi, Deyriès and producer Tetsuo Katayama left the company to be replaced by Robby London and Michael Maliani as key employees. After selling his shares in DiC, Chalopin retained DIC's original offices in France and formed the company C&D in 1987 to continue producing animated shows. After the buyout, DiC was in debt and the foreign rights to the DiC library were sold in 1987 to Saban Productions, who sold the rights to Chalopin's C&D. At the time, Heyward considered Chalopin an enemy because of the purchase and the situation permanently poisoned DiC and Saban's relationship. DIC sued Saban for damages. By 1987, DiC Enterprises' parent company was known as Inc.. DiC entered the toy industry with the development of the Old MacDonald talking toyline. In December, DiC arranged a deal to merge with Computer Memories Inc. a former computer component manufacturer and public shell company. A dissident Computer Memories shareholder scuttled the deal in February 1988. With the buyout debt still a burden, the animation market beginning to soften with the rise of video tape viewing and a glut of new shows & new kids cable channels, Japanese contract animation companies rates increased 40% from 1986 to 1988 due to the yen exchange rate.
In 1987, DiC moved production of Dennis the Menace to a Canadian animation firm for grants and tax breaks from the Canadian government. The company started moving some work to Taiwan. By the 1987-1988 season, DiC had shows on all three major networks Saturday mornings: six half-hours of shows and 50 half-hours per week in syndication. Prudential Insurance Co. purchased additional equity of DiC Animation City in August 1989 while increasing DiC's debt capacity. For the 1989-1990 season, DiC provided 30% of the networks' Saturday morning schedule with a total 60 hours per week on networks, local stations and cable channels. Four new programs debuted that season on syndication. On September 11, 1989, DiC launched the 26-hours-a-week Funtown programming block on CBN Family Channel. DIC was to produce four specials, with the first launching on Funtown with the others holiday specials, for the fourth quarter of 1989. A special based on The New Archie Show was slated for the first quarter of 1990. In 1993, DIC Animation City and Capital Cities/ABC formed a joint venture called DiC Entertainment L.
P. with Heyward retaining a small ownership stake. DIC Animation City was supposed to remain independent, but was folded into the Limited Partnership a year later. With ABC in 1994, DiC programmed Dragon Club and Panda Club, in China. In October 1995, DIC Productions L. P. announced they would be opening an animation office in France in partnership with Hampster Productions. In March 1997, the studio was opened up and was named Les Studios Tex, which DIC was a shareholder in. In January 1996, DIC became part of The Walt Disney Company conglomerate following Disney's acquisition of Capital Cities/ABC. DiC launched a direct to video division in April 1998 with Riley Katherine Ellis, a Caravan Pictures producer, hired as division head; the first release planned was Madeline: Lost in Paris in spring 1999, with all the division's DVDs to be released by Buena Vista Ho
The Adventures of Teddy Ruxpin
The Adventures of Teddy Ruxpin is an American/Canadian animated television series based on Teddy Ruxpin, an animatronic teddy bear created by Ken Forsse and distributed by toy manufacturer Worlds of Wonder. It was produced for television syndication by DIC Animation City with Atkinson Film-Arts using many of the same voice actors used in the book-and-tape series, made for the eponymous animatronic toy. While some of the stories used in the TV series were adapted from the books, many were original and expanded upon the world established there; the series differed from traditional children's animation in that most of its 65 episodes were serialized rather than in traditional episodic form. In the United States, the series was syndicated by LBS Communications. Today, all international distribution rights to the series are held by Don Taffner's DLT Entertainment; the Adventures of Teddy Ruxpin follows young Teddy Ruxpin as he leaves his home on the island of Rillonia with his best friend Grubby to follow an ancient map which leads him to find a collection of crystals on the mainland of Grundo.
With the help of his new friend Dr. Newton Gimmick and Grubby discover the magical powers of what turns out to be an ancestral treasure as well as an organization with ambitions to use it for evil known as M. A. V. O.. Along the way, Teddy learns the long-lost history of his species and clues to the location of his missing father. In mid-1986, Atkinson Film-Arts of Ottawa, Canada was commissioned to co-produce a 65 episode animated television series based on the World of Teddy Ruxpin characters; the series followed a prior attempt to produce a live-action series which had proved too difficult and expensive. Atkinson was in charge of the principal casting. Of the previous voice actors associated with the Teddy Ruxpin property, only Phil Baron and Will Ryan traveled to Canada to remain part of the cast; the series was intended to continue after the first series of episodes, but because of economic problems at Worlds of Wonder, a second set of episodes was not produced while Worlds of Wonder still had rights to the property.
Interest remains among the owners of the Teddy Ruxpin property and the fanbase to continue the story originated in the animated series, which ended its 65 episode run in somewhat of a cliffhanger. The three main protagonists referred to collectively in fandom as The Trio: Teddy Ruxpin: The protagonist of the series, he is a young Illiop. He comes to Grundo to follow a treasure map. Like other Illiops, he is friendly, he loves adventure, meeting new faces, having new experiences. Grubby: Teddy's best friend, an Octopede about Teddy's age, they are best friends. Noted for his large appetite, he is fond of cooking and eating root stew and other foods made from roots. Though not the bravest or smartest of Teddy's friends, he always sticks by Teddy. Newton Gimmick: A bald Perloon inventor with a severe stuttering problem and a broad and otherwise questionable definition of "science". Most of his "inventions" don't serve any real purpose, he is somewhat absent-minded. He is referred to as Gimmick. Prince Arin: The brave Illiper son of the king and queen of Grundo.
He speaks with a British-sounding accent. He first met the heroic trio while searching for his kidnapped sister. Princess Aruzia: Prince Arin's younger sister who has a sweet demeanor. Though a princess, she does not mind doing work. Wooly has a crush on her; the Wooly Whatsit: A large furry purple creature, not bright, but helpful and good-hearted. Revealed to be a Snowzo, a legendary yeti-like species, he is referred to as Wooly. Leota: A strict but kind Woodsprite and schoolteacher. Most of her students are elves and woodsprites. Burl Ruxpin: Teddy's long-lost father. An Illiop who lost his memory a long time ago, but regained his identity toward the end of the series. There are three main antagonists: Jack W. Tweeg: A Troll/Grunge hybrid and an evil wizard-wannabe who thinks he has a recipe to turn buttermilk into gold, he is suspicious and spies on Gimmick from his tower. He is referred to as Tweeg. Tweeg has wanted to join M. A. V. O. L. B.: Short for Lead Bounder, L. B. is a sarcastic Bounder who acts as Tweeg's henchman.
L. B. does not show a high degree of loyalty or intelligence, but has enough sense to know that Tweeg's schemes never work. L. B. calls Tweeg by variations of his name, such as "Twix" or "Twizzle", much to Tweeg's annoyance. Quellor: The Supreme Oppressor of M. A. V. O, he is the main antagonist of the series who sees Illiops as an enemy to his master plan of regaining all six crystals to the one he has in The Black Box. With them, his darkness will reign supremely over the land of Grundo; the Adventures of Teddy Ruxpin features a large menagerie of sentient species for its character base: Illiops: Brown and bear-like creatures, with kind dispositions. Octopedes: Yellow and caterpillar-like creatures with eight legs & orange spots, each with formed hands; the first pair ar
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a