Lemnos (regional unit)
Lemnos is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of North Aegean, the regional unit covers the islands of Lemnos, Agios Efstratios and a few smaller, uninhabited islands, in the Aegean Sea. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Lemnos was created out of part of the former Lesbos Prefecture and it is subdivided into 2 municipalities. These are, Lemnos Agios Efstratios The province of Lemnos was one of the provinces of the Lesbos Prefecture and it had the same territory as the present regional unit
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia, Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos, and the Greek colonies of Asia Minor. The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects, Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics, hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, by contrast, PIE *kʷ changed to Attic/Ionic and Doric t before e and i. PIE *kʷetwores → Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores four Similarly PIE/PGk *gʷ always became b, labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages. A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h and a sonorant changed to a sonorant in Aeolic by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, PIE VsR or VRs → Attic/Ionic-Doric VVR.
PIE *h₁ésmi → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Aeolic emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ēmi I am Lesbian Aeolic lost in initial h- from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-, by contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it. PIE wekʷ-es- → Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos word, epic In Aeolic and Doric, by contrast, in Attic, long ā changes to long ē in most cases, in Ionic, it changes everywhere. PIE *meh₂ter- → Aeolic, Doric mātēr ~ Attic/Ionic mētēr mother In Boeotian, Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos river Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic in Aeolic. Ionic philéō, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phílēmi I love The same is found in Irish. Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or -menai, Lesbian émmen, émmenai, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai to be In the Lesbian dialect this ending extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer, homeric agémen Proto-Greek -ans and -ons → -ais and -ois.
The participle has ois and ais for Attic ōs, ās. bastraches βλεερεῖ bleerei Cf. eleairei γάδου gadou Δεύς Deus instead of Zeus, attested in Laconian and Rhodian. ἐμπυρία empyria divination ζεκελτίδες zekeltides gourds Amerias zakeltides ἴδηφιν idephin sweet-voiced, ἰστάκη istake scythe ἰυγοδρομεῖν iugodromein ἰώ iō and hiōn Καραιός Karaios Boeotian epithet for Zeus meaning tall, head. κῦῤῥος kyrrhos or kyrros sir, master Μακετοὺν Maketoun Macedonian man (Thessalian -ουν-oun suffix for Attic ων ōn in both nominative and genitive of participles and nouns
Agiasos is a small town and a former municipality on the island of Lesbos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it became a municipality unit that is part of Lesbos, the municipal unit has an area of 79.924 km2. It is located at the slopes of mount Olympos, at a height of 475 meters,26 kilometers from Mytilene. It is known for its bright green landscape, its narrow cobbled streets lined by ranks of tiled-roof houses. Agiasos, the artistic and religious centre of the island, is a settlement that has many to offer to visitors. The reading society of Anaptixi, a cultural institution, was established in 1894. Today it has a library, a theatre hall, a folklore museum. The history of the village is identified with the history of Panayia of Ayasos, about 1,200 years ago, during the Byzantine Era, toward the end of the 8th century, it was a time of the wars of iconclasm. In Constantinople, Aghathon the Ephesian, priest of the Chapel of the Palaces, in early 802, Aghathon heard that Empress Irene of Athens, who was an iconophile, lived in exile on Lesvos island.
Meanwhile, Irene of Athens had died, Aghathon followed the current of a stream and reached a remote wooded area which was a safe environment in which to stay. This site in Carya, where the chapel of Zoodochos Pigi with the Holy Water stands today, is where Aghathon hid the Holy Relics and he became familiar with the local inhabitants of the nearby villages of Karyni and Penthili, and gained their trust and respect. He revealed his secret and vows that the icon of Panayia – measuring 0.86 ×0.62 m – was painted on wax, the icon bore the inscription Mitir Theou, Agia Sion, that is, Mother of God, Holy Sion. In those times, Jerusalem was called Agia Sion, with the passage of time, the small, humble hermitage evolved into a monastery, where devout men from the neighboring villages came to live. The elderly Aghathon died on February 2, in the year 830, the monks, respecting his last wish, continued to keep the icon of Our Lady and the other relics in the monastery crypt. The monks feared the iconoclasts and pirates who ravaged the islands, in 842, Orthodoxy triumphed and holy icons were raised all over the territory of the Byzantine Empire.
From on the hermitage of Agathon became a pilgrimage site, the icon of Panayia by Luke the Evangelist became renowned, not merely on the island, but all over facing Aeolis. Two pilgrimages to Agia Sion were equivalent to one pilgrimage to the Holy Land, a small settlement named Agia Sion developed around the church. This settlement gradually grew, becoming an important provincial town, when the island was subjugated by the Ottoman Turks, many Christian families sought refuge inside the protective walls of the Church of Panayia
Mytilene is an ancient city founded in the 11th century BC. Mytilene is the capital and port of the island of Lesbos, the seat of governor of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. Mytilene is one of 13 municipalities on the island of Lesbos, Mytilene is built on the southeast edge of the island. It is the seat of a bishop of the Orthodox church. As an ancient city, lying off the east coast, Mytilene was initially confined to an island just offshore that was joined to Lesbos. According to the writings of Homer, the island of Lesvos has been a city since 1054 B. C. The early harbor of Mytilene was united during ancient times with a channel 700 meters long and 30 meters wide, the Roman writer Longus speaks of white stone bridges linking the two sides. The Greek word Εύριπο or Euripus is a commonly used term referring to a strait. The strait allowed ancient sail boats called Triremes, with 3 tiers of rowers or more, the boats that passed were ca.6 metres wide plus oars and had depth of 2 meters. The areas of the city that were densely populated connected the two bodies of land with marble bridges and they usually followed a curved line.
The strait begin at the old market called Apano Skala and it was close to Metropolis Street and ended at the Southern Harbor. One could argue that the channel transversed what is now called Ermoy Street, over time the strait began to collect silt and earth. There was human intervention for the protection of the Castle of Mytilene, the strait eventually filled with earth. Mytilene contested successfully with Methymna in the north of the island for the leadership of the island in the 7th century BC and her most famous citizens were the poets Sappho and Alcaeus and the statesman Pittacus. The city was famed for its output of electrum coins struck from the late 6th through mid-4th centuries BC. Mytilene revolted against Athens in 428 BC but was overcome by an Athenian expeditionary force, the Athenian public assembly voted to massacre all the men of the city and to sell the women and children into slavery but changed its mind the next day. A fast trireme sailed the 186 nautical miles in less than a day, Aristotle lived on Mytilene for two years, 337-335 BC, with his friend and successor, after becoming the tutor to Alexander, son of King Philip II of Macedon.
The Romans, among whom was a young Julius Caesar, successfully defeated Mytilene in 80 BC, in AD56, Luke the Evangelist, Paul the Apostle and their companions stopped there briefly on the return trip of Pauls third missionary journey, having sailed from Assos
Argolis or the Argolid is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis. Much of the territory of region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula. Most arable land lies in the part of Argolis. Its primary agricultural resources are oranges and olives, Argolis has a coastline on the Saronic Gulf in the northeast and on the Argolic Gulf in the south and southeast. Notable mountains ranges are the Oligyrtos in the northwest and Ktenia in the west, Argolis has land borders with Arcadia to the west and southwest, Corinthia to the north, and the Islands regional unit to the east. Parts of the history of the area can be found in the articles on Argos, Epidaurus, Troezen, Kranidi, from 1833 to 1899, Argolis was part of Argolidocorinthia, which included present Corinthia, Hydra and Kythira. It joined Corinthia to form Argolidocorinthia again in 1909, forty years later, in 1949, Argolis was finally separated from Corinthia.
The regional unit Argolis is subdivided into 4 municipalities and these are, Argos-Mykines Epidaurus Ermionida Nafplio As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Argolis was created out of the former prefecture Argolis. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit
Eresos and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos. They are villages visited by number of tourists. Eresos and the village Antissa constitute the municipality Eresos-Antissa, the municipality of Eresos–Antissa contains five other villages, Vatoussa, Chidira and Pterounda located in the west and most barren part of the island. Bare rocky hills, derived from ancient volcanic activity, dominate the area, Skala Eresou is a centre for international tourism and is a favorite spot of Greek families, young people as well as gay women. With its long beach with dark volcanic sand and its crystal-clear unpolluted water. Stephanus of Byzantium, a lexicographer of the 6th century AD, claimed that the city was named after Eresos, archaeology suggests that the city of Eresos was founded in the 8th or 7th century BC. Information about Eresos before the Classical period is extremely scant, the lyric poet Sappho was born at Eresos c.620 BCE and belonged to an important family who were socially prominent at Mytilene, the islands most important city.
In addition, the oldest Greek inscription on the island, which dates to the 6th century BCE, has found in the hills above Eresos. Eresos, along with Antissa and Pyrrha, was one of the cities on Lesbos in the 5th century BCE. When Mytilene revolted from the Delian League in summer 428, Eresos supported Mytilene, the following year, it fell to the Athenian general Paches and, along with the other cities of the island except for Methymna, had an Athenian cleruchy imposed on it. In the latter part of the Peloponnesian War, Eresos went back, in summer 412, Eresos revolted from Athens and joined the Spartan admiral Astyochus in making an unsuccessful attempt to seize Methymna. When Astyochus attempt to take Lesbos failed, Eresos returned to Athenian control, the following year, exiles from Methymna again raised Eresos in revolt. The Athenian commanders, Thrasyllus at Methymna and Thrasybulus on Samos and this siege was called off when the Athenians realised they had been out-flanked by the Spartan admiral Mindarus.
Following the Athenian victory at the Battle of Arginusae in 406, whatever the case, in 405 the Spartan commander Lysander imposed garrisons and Spartan governors on the cities of Lesbos, which remained in place for the next two decades. Spartan control of Eresos ended in 389 when the Athenian commander Thrasybulus retook the city, in 377 Eresos is recorded as a member of the Second Athenian Empire. From this point down to 332, the chronology of Eresian politics is difficult to establish with any certainty, Athens is thought to have lost control of Eresos following the Social War, after which its power in the Aegean waned. It was perhaps at this point that the tyranny of Apollodorus and this family and their descendants remained in power until 336, when Attalus and Parmenion campaigned in the region against the Persians at the behest of Philip II of Macedon. It is assumed that a democracy was set up at Eresos, in 335, Memnon of Rhodes retook this region for the Persian Empire and re-installed the tyranny of Apollodorus and his brothers
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Provinces of Greece
The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the countrys prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, and after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, Provincial administration consisted of two parts, a collective Provincial Council and an eparch. Members of the Provincial Council were the councillors of the respective province. The eparch or sub-prefect was the councillor who received the most votes in the prefectural elections
Agia Paraskevi, Lesbos
Agia Paraskevi is a village and a former municipality on the island of Lesbos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lesbos and it is located in the central part of the island, on the northeast shore of the Bay of Kalloni. The village is named after the Church of Agia Paraskevi, which is found in a cave in one of the highest points of the town, the town cemetery is located here. Presumably built over an old temple, there is a well in the cave. Agia Paraskevi is an old village that is becoming a powerful cultural, the village is known for its old mansions, unique architecture and for its festivals. A monument from a date, the Early Christian basilica of St. George, restored by the noted mediaevalist, Professor A. Orlandos, may be seen at Halinados. The school building of Agia Paraskevi is of neoclassical architecture of the early 20th century has a rectangular U ground-plan shape, the formation of the school-yard area is very significant. The construction of the building, one of the most attractive on the island, was financed by revenues from the town’s oil-press.
The oil press of Agia Paraskevi is a complex of buildings that serves as a characteristic sample of exceptional industrial architecture of the early 20th century on the island. Initially, it had been operating as a complex and on, until 1967. In 1984, with the support of the Prefecture of Lesbos, the only other significant town in the municipal unit of Agía Paraskeví is Nápi, about 3 km to the northeast. In the latest census in 2011 the municipal unit had 2,497 residents and its land area is 117.697 km²
Lemnos is an island of Greece in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively the island forms a municipality within the Lemnos regional unit. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Myrina, at 477.583 square kilometres, it is the 8th-largest island of Greece. Lemnos is mostly flat, but the west, and especially the northwest part, is rough, the highest point is Mount Skopia at the altitude of 430 m. The chief towns are Myrina, on the western coast, Myrina possesses a good harbour, which is in the process of being upgraded through construction of a west-facing sea wall. It is the seat of all carried on with the mainland. Fruit and vegetables that grow on the island include almonds, melons, tomatoes, the main crops are wheat, sesame, in fact Lemnos was Constantinoples granary during Byzantine times. Lemnos produces honey, but, as is the case with most products of a nature in Greece. Muscat grapes are widely, and are used to produce an unusual table wine that is dry yet has a strong Muscat flavor.
Since 1985 the variety and quality of Lemnos wines have increased greatly, the climate in Lemnos is mainly Mediterranean. Winters are generally mild, but there will be a snowfall occasionally, strong winds are a feature of the island, especially in August and in winter time, hence its nickname the wind-ridden one. The temperature is typically 2 to 5 degrees Celsius less than in Athens, for ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, who—as he tells himself in Iliad I. 590ff—fell on Lemnos when Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus. There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad or by Thetis, sacred initiatory rites dedicated to them were performed in the island. Hephaestus forge, which was located on Lemnos, as well as the name Aethaleia, sometimes applied to it and it is said that fire occasionally blazed forth from Mosychlos, one of its mountains. The ancient geographer Pausanias relates that an island called Chryse. All volcanic action is now extinct, the earliest inhabitants are said to have been a Thracian tribe, whom the Greeks called Sintians, robbers.
The name Lemnos is said by Hecataeus to have applied in the form of a title to Cybele among the Thracians. The worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, where it had spread from Asia Minor at an early period
Kalloni is the name of a town, and since the 2011 local government reform the name of a municipal unit of the municipality Lesbos, in the west-central part of the island of Lesbos, Greece. Prior to 2011 the current municipal unit was a municipality, the name existed in ancient times, though the conventional transcription of the classical name in English is Callone. It has an area of 241.946 km². At the 2011 census it had a population of 8,504 inhabitants, the municipal seat was the town of Kalloní. The units largest other towns are Agra, Parákoila, Dáfia, Fília, Skalochóri, Kalloni was known as Kalonya during Ottoman rule, when it was a nahiya center in the Molova kaza of the Midilli sanjak. Lesbos became part of the Kingdom of Greece in 1912, Kalloni is surrounded by the gulf waters, and supplied by a plain of 100 km², through which six rivers flow. There is always enough water from the underground and spring waters for its vineyards, Kalloni was historically the crossroad where the main roads passed.
This has not changed much from ancient times, the village is surrounded by historic monasteries. In the last decade, the village of Kalloni developed in the field of trade. Kalloni was the seat of the municipality that comprised the settlements, the festival of sardines in Skala Kalloni in July, where freshly grilled sardines are offered to the visitors with plenty of ouzo accompanied with live traditional music and dance shows. On 16 August a festival takes place in the square of Kalloni in order to honor émigrés. The livestock breeding in Agra, the festival in Anemotia as well as the panigyri of Saint Trinity on 7 July in Kalloni. There are significant archaeological sites on the plain, the ancient Lesbians worshiped many of the ancient gods in great sanctuaries, parts of which are preserved today. During the early Christian period a basilica was erected over the temple, the lagoon and bay of Kalloni is a shallow, rich wetland that hosts aquatic and avian life, including flamingos and dolphins, and seals.
It is especially renowned for its yield of sardines
Mithymna is a town and former municipality on the island of Lesbos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lesbos, before 1919, its official name was Μόλυβος - Molyvos, that name dates back to the end of the Byzantine Era, but is still in common use today. The second most important town of the island, it is located NE of Eressos, N of Plomari, the town is on the northern part of the island, just some 6 km north of the popular beach town of Petra. One of the most noticeable features of the town is the old Genoese fortress on the hill in the middle of the town. The municipal unit of Míthymna stretches eastward from the town along the part of the island. Its population was 2,255 at the 2011 census, the next largest towns in the municipal unit are Árgennos and Sykaminéa. As Methymna, the city was once the second city of Lesbos, with a founding myth that identified an eponymous Methymna. Very little is known about Methymna in the Archaic period, another local historian, Hellanicus of Lesbos, writing in the mid-5th century BCE, instead simply says Assos was an Aeolian foundation and does not specify a particular city as its founder.
This has led historians to doubt Myrsilus, and instead suggest that this is an example of local Methymnaean manipulation of the past. When the Athenians put down the revolt the following year, only Methymna was spared from having its territory turned into a cleruchy. After 427, Methymna and Chios were the members of the Delian League to remain self-governing and exempt from tribute. This was likewise the case in 411, when a group of Methymnaeans who were in exile at Cyme in Aeolis attempted to return to Methymna by force, but were rebuffed by the population. When the Spartan commander Kallikratidas besieged Methymna in 406, the city stayed loyal to its Athenian garrison and our knowledge of the history of Methymna in the 4th century is limited, but its prominence as a polis is firmly attested by the citys silver and bronze coinage. By at least the 340s BCE, the tyrant Kleommis had expelled the citys democrats and we do not know what happened to Kleommis after this, although it is likely that he was expelled when the island fell to Philip IIs generals Parmenion and Attalus in 336.
However, it is not clear whether Aristonicus was made tyrant when the Persians recaptured Methymna in 335, or whether Kleommis was re-installed and Aristonicus only made tyrant in 333. Whatever the case, in 332 Alexander gave Aristonicus over to the newly restored Methymnaean democracy to try, in c.295 BCE, Methymna struck silver drachms for King Lysimachus, indicating that the city was part of his kingdom at this time. However, by the 250s BCE at the latest, Methymna had come under the sway of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. During this period, a festival in honour of the Ptolemies, the Ptolemaia, was instituted, worship of Sarapis, an Egyptian cult patronized by the Ptolemies, was probably introduced to Methymna at this period, and remained an important part of the citys life for several centuries