Kirundi known as Rundi, is a Bantu language spoken by 9 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Uganda. It is the official language of Burundi. Kirundi is mutually intelligible with Kinyarwanda, an official language of Rwanda, the two form part of the wider dialect continuum known as Rwanda-Rundi; the inhabitants of Rwanda and Burundi belong to several different ethnic groups: Hutu, including Bakiga and other related ethnicities. Kirundi is natively spoken by the Hutu, although the other ethnic groups present in the country such as Tutsi and Hima among others have adopted the language. Neighbouring dialects of Kirundi are mutually intelligible with Ha, a language spoken in western Tanzania. Kirundi is one of the languages where Meeussen's rule, a rule describing a certain pattern of tonal change in Bantu languages, is active. Although the literature on Rundi agrees on 5 vowels, the number of consonants can vary anywhere from 19 to 26 consonants.
The table below is compiled from a survey of academic acceptance of Rundi consonants. The table below gives the vowel sounds of Rundi. All five vowels occur in short forms; the distinction is phonemic. Rundi is a tonal language. There are two essential tones in Rundi: low. Since Rundi has phonemic distinction on vowel length, when a long vowel changes from a low tone to a high tone it is marked as a rising tone; when a long vowel changes from a high tone to a low tone, it is marked as a falling tone. Rundi is used in phonology to illustrate examples of Meeussen's rule In addition, it has been proposed that tones can shift by a metrical or rhythmic structure; some authors have expanded these more complex features of the tonal system noting that such properties are unusual for a tone system. Syllable structure in Rundi is considered to be CV, having no clusters, no coda consonants, no complex vowel nuclei, it has been proposed that sequences that are CVV in the surface realization are CV in the underlying deep structure, with the consonant coalescing with the first vowel.
Rundi has been shown to have properties of consonant harmony when it comes to sibilants. Meeussen described this harmony in his essay and it is investigated further by others. One example of this harmony is triggered by /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ and targets the set of /s/ and /z/ in preceding adjacent stem syllables. Broselow, E. & Niyondagara, A. "Feature geometry of Kirundi palatalization". Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 20: 71-88. De Samie. Dictionnaire Francais-Kirundi. L'Harmattan. Paris. Goldsmith, J. & Sabimana, F. The Kirundi Verb. Modèles en tonologie. Editions du CNRS. Paris. Meeussen, A. E. Essai de grammaire Rundi. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge, Série Sciences Humaines – Linguistique, vol. 24. Tervuren. Myers, S. Tone and the structure of words in Shona. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Garland Press. New York. Ntihirageza, J. Kirundi Palatization and Sibilant Harmony: Implications for Feature Geometry. Master thesis, Southern Illinois University, Illinois. Philippson, G. Tone reduction vs. metrical attraction in the evolution of Eastern Bantu tone systems.
INALCO. Paris. Sagey, E; the Representation of Features and Relations in Non-Linear Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Mass. Zorc, R. D. & Nibagwire, L. Kinyarwanda and Kirundi Comparative Grammar. Dunwoody Press. Hyattsville. Online English-Kirundi Dictionary with Sound and Images Free English-Kirundi Dictionary Free Kirundi-English Dictionary PanAfrican L10n page on Kirundi... Learning Kirundi Online Kirundi/English dictionary USA Foreign Service Institute Kirundi basic course
African French is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries. This includes those who speak French as a first or second language in these 31 francophone African countries, but it does not include French speakers living in non-francophone African countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived in Africa as a colonial language; these African French speakers are now a large part of the Francophonie. In Africa, French is spoken alongside indigenous languages, but in a number of urban areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in the urban areas of Douala and Yaoundé in Cameroon, or in Libreville, Gabon. In some countries it is a first language among some classes of the population, such as in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria where French is a first language among the upper classes, but only a second language among the general population.
In each of the francophone African countries, French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. There are many different varieties of African French, but they can be broadly grouped into four categories: the French spoken by people in West and Central Africa – spoken altogether by about 75 million people as either a first or second language; the French variety spoken by Maghrebis and Berbers in Northwest Africa, which has about 36 million first and second language speakers. The French variety spoken in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa; the French variety spoken by Creoles in the Indian Ocean, which has around 1.6 million first and second language speakers. The French spoken in this region is not to be confused with the French-based creole languages, which are spoken in the area. All the African French varieties differ from standard French both in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, but the formal African French used in education and legal documents is based on standard French vocabulary.
In the colonial period, a vernacular form of creole French known as Petit nègre was present in West Africa. The term has since, become a pejorative term for poorly spoken African French. V. Y. Mudimbe describes African French as possessing "approximate pronunciation, repressed syntax, bloated or tortured vocabulary, intonation and accent stuck in the original African language flow; the differences from European French are due to influence from the mother tongues and the complexity of French grammatical rules, which inhibit its learning by most non-native speakers. The difficulty linguists have in describing African French comes from variations, such as the "pure" language used by many African intellectuals and writers versus the mixtures between French and African languages. For this, the term "creolization" is used in a pejorative way, in the areas where French is on the same level with one or more local languages. According to G. Manessy, "The consequences of this concurrency may vary according to the social status of the speakers, to their occupations, to their degree of acculturation and thus to the level of their French knowledge."Code-switching, or the alternation of languages within a single conversation, takes place in both Senegal and Congo-Kinshasa, the latter having four "national" languages – Kikongo, Lingala and Swahili – which are in a permanent opposition to French.
Code-switching has been studied since colonial times by different institutions of linguistics. One of these, located in Dakar, Senegal spoke of the creolization of French in 1968, naming the result "franlof": a mix of French and Wolof which spreads by its use in urban areas and through schools, where teachers speak Wolof in the classroom despite official instructions; the omnipresence of local languages in francophone African countries – along with insufficiencies in education – has given birth to a new linguistic concept: le petit français. Le petit français is the result of a superposition of the structure of a local language with a narrowed lexical knowledge of French; the specific structures, though different, are juxtaposed, marking the beginning of the creolization process. In the urban areas of francophone Africa, another type of French has emerged: Français populaire africain or FPA, it is used in the entirety of sub-Saharan Africa, but in cities such as Abidjan, Ivory Coast. At its emergence, it was associated with the ghetto.
It has become a symbol of social acceptance. FPA can be seen as a progressive evolution of Ivorian French. After diffusing out of Ivory Coast, it became Africanized under the influence of young Africans and cinema and dance. FPA has lexicon. For example, "Il ou elle peut me tuer!" or "Il ou elle peut me dja!" can either mean "This person annoys me much" or "I'm dying for him/her" depending on the circumstances. "Il ou elle commence à me plaire" signifies a feeling of exasperation, friendship can be expressed with "c'est mon môgô sûr" or "
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue