School of Mathematics, University of Manchester
The School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester is one of the largest mathematics departments in the United Kingdom, with around 80 academic staff and an undergraduate intake of 400 a year and another 200 postgraduate students. The school was formed in 2004 by the merger of the mathematics departments of University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. In July 2007 the school moved from the Mathematics Tower into a purpose-designed building – the first three floors of the Alan Turing Building – on Upper Brook Street; the current head of the school is Oliver Jensen. The school is divided for the purposes of teaching administration, into three groups: Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Probability and Statistics; the Manchester Institute for Mathematical Sciences is a unit of the school focusing on the organising of mathematical colloquia and conferences, research visitors. MIMS is headed by Nick Higham FRS, Director of Research.
Other high-profile mathematicians at Manchester include Sir Martin Taylor FRS and Jeff Paris Since its formation, the school has made some influential appointments including the topologist Viktor Buchstaber and model theorist Alex Wilkie FRS. Numerical analyst Jack Dongarra, famous as one of the authors of LINPACK, was appointed in 2007 as Turing Fellow. In the autumn of 2007 another corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Albert Shiryaev was appointed to a 20% chair. Shiryaev is famous for his work on financial mathematics; as might be expected from its size, the school has a wide range of research interests, including the traditionally pure areas of Algebra, Noncommutative geometry, Ergodic theory, Mathematical logic, Number theory and Topology. The school has a strong tradition in Numerical analysis and well established groups in Probability theory, Mathematical statistics. Manchester mathematicians have a long tradition of applying mathematics to industrial problems. Nowadays this involves not only the traditional applications in engineering and the physical sciences, but in the life sciences and the financial sector.
Some of the recent industrial partners include Qinetiq, Hewlett Packard, NAg, MathWorks, Philips Labs, Thales Underwater Systems, Rapiscan Systems and Schlumberger. The School of Mathematics entered research into three units of assessment. In Pure Mathematics 20% of submissions from 27 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 40% 3*. In Applied Mathematics 25% of submissions from 28.8 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. And in Statistics and Operational Research, 20% of submissions from 10.9 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. At the time of merger the two departments that came together to form the school were of equal sizes and academic strengths, had a substantial record of collaboration including shared research seminar programmes and fourth year undergraduate and MSc programmes. Many famous mathematicians have worked at the precursor departments to the school. In 1885 Horace Lamb, famous for his contribution to fluid dynamics accepted a chair at the VUM and under his leadership the department grew rapidly.
Newman wrote:'His lecture courses were numerous, his books provide a record of his methods. Many of his students were engineers, they found in him a sympathetic guide, one who understood their difficulties and shared their interest in applications of mathematics to mechanics.'In 1907 famous analyst and number theorist John Edensor Littlewood was appointed to the Richardson Lectureship which he held for three years. During 1912–1913 the pioneer of weather forecasting and numerical analysis Lewis Fry Richardson worked at Manchester College of Science and Technology. Number theorist Louis J. Mordell joined the College in 1920. During this time he discovered the result for which he is best known, namely the finite basis theorem, which proved a conjecture of Henri Poincaré. Mordell went on to become Fielden Reader in Pure Mathematics at VUM in 1922 and held the Fielden Chair in 1923. Mordell built up the department, offering posts to a number of outstanding mathematicians, forced from posts on the continent of Europe.
He brought in Reinhold Baer, G. Billing, Paul Erdős, Chao Ko, Kurt Mahler, Beniamino Segre, he recruited J. A. Todd, Patrick du Val, Harold Davenport, L. C. Young, invited distinguished visitors. Although Manchester was to be known as the birthplace of the electronic computer, Douglas Hartree made an earlier contribution building a differential analyser in 1933; the machine was used for ballistics calculations as well calculating railway timetables. Mordell was succeeded by the famous topologist and cryptanalyst Max Newman in 1945 who, as head of department, transformed it into a centre of international renown. Undergraduate numbers increased from eight per year to 40 and 60. In 1948 Newman recruited Alan Turing as Reader in the department, he worked there until his death in 1954, completing some of his profound work on the foundations of computer science including Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Newman retired in 1964. From 1949 to 1960 M. S. Bartlett held the first chair in mathematical statistics at VUM, he is known for his contribution to the analysis of data with spatial and temporal
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation for the problems of mathematical analysis. Numerical analysis finds application in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, but in the 21st century the life sciences, social sciences, medicine and the arts have adopted elements of scientific computations; as an aspect of mathematics and computer science that generates and implements algorithms, the growth in power and the revolution in computing has raised the use of realistic mathematical models in science and engineering, complex numerical analysis is required to provide solutions to these more involved models of the world. Ordinary differential equations appear in celestial mechanics. Before the advent of modern computers, numerical methods depended on hand interpolation in large printed tables. Since the mid 20th century, computers calculate the required functions instead; these same interpolation formulas continue to be used as part of the software algorithms for solving differential equations.
One of the earliest mathematical writings is a Babylonian tablet from the Yale Babylonian Collection, which gives a sexagesimal numerical approximation of the square root of 2, the length of the diagonal in a unit square. Being able to compute the sides of a triangle is important, for instance, in astronomy and construction. Numerical analysis continues this long tradition of practical mathematical calculations. Much like the Babylonian approximation of the square root of 2, modern numerical analysis does not seek exact answers, because exact answers are impossible to obtain in practice. Instead, much of numerical analysis is concerned with obtaining approximate solutions while maintaining reasonable bounds on errors; the overall goal of the field of numerical analysis is the design and analysis of techniques to give approximate but accurate solutions to hard problems, the variety of, suggested by the following: Advanced numerical methods are essential in making numerical weather prediction feasible.
Computing the trajectory of a spacecraft requires the accurate numerical solution of a system of ordinary differential equations. Car companies can improve the crash safety of their vehicles by using computer simulations of car crashes; such simulations consist of solving partial differential equations numerically. Hedge funds use tools from all fields of numerical analysis to attempt to calculate the value of stocks and derivatives more than other market participants. Airlines use sophisticated optimization algorithms to decide ticket prices and crew assignments and fuel needs; such algorithms were developed within the overlapping field of operations research. Insurance companies use numerical programs for actuarial analysis; the rest of this section outlines several important themes of numerical analysis. The field of numerical analysis predates the invention of modern computers by many centuries. Linear interpolation was in use more than 2000 years ago. Many great mathematicians of the past were preoccupied by numerical analysis, as is obvious from the names of important algorithms like Newton's method, Lagrange interpolation polynomial, Gaussian elimination, or Euler's method.
To facilitate computations by hand, large books were produced with formulas and tables of data such as interpolation points and function coefficients. Using these tables calculated out to 16 decimal places or more for some functions, one could look up values to plug into the formulas given and achieve good numerical estimates of some functions; the canonical work in the field is the NIST publication edited by Abramowitz and Stegun, a 1000-plus page book of a large number of used formulas and functions and their values at many points. The function values are no longer useful when a computer is available, but the large listing of formulas can still be handy; the mechanical calculator was developed as a tool for hand computation. These calculators evolved into electronic computers in the 1940s, it was found that these computers were useful for administrative purposes, but the invention of the computer influenced the field of numerical analysis, since now longer and more complicated calculations could be done.
Direct methods compute the solution to a problem in a finite number of steps. These methods would give the precise answer. Examples include Gaussian elimination, the QR factorization method for solving systems of linear equations, the simplex method of linear programming. In practice, finite precision is used and the result is an approximation of the true solution. In contrast to direct methods, iterative methods are not expected to terminate in a finite number of steps. Starting from an initial guess, iterative methods form successive approximations that converge to the exact solution only in the limit. A convergence test involving the residual, is specified in order to decide when a sufficiently accurate solution has been found. Using infinite precision arithmetic these methods would not reach the solution within a finite number of steps. Examples include Newton's method, the bisection method, Jacobi iteration. In computational matrix algebra, iterative methods are generall
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
The Open University is a public distance learning and research university, the biggest university in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus. There are a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48-hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as more than 1,000 members of academic and research staff and over 2,500 administrative and support staff; the OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971. The university administration is based at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, in Buckinghamshire, but has administration centres in other parts of the United Kingdom, it has a presence in other European countries. The university awards undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, as well as non-degree qualifications such as diplomas and certificates or continuing education units. With more than 174,000 students enrolled, including around 31% of new undergraduates aged under 25 and more than 7,400 overseas students, it is the largest academic institution in the United Kingdom by student number, qualifies as one of the world's largest universities.
Since it was founded, more than 2 million students have studied its courses. It was rated top university in England and Wales for student satisfaction in the 2005, 2006 and 2012 United Kingdom government national student satisfaction survey, second in the 2007 survey. Out of 132 universities and colleges, the OU was ranked 43rd in the Times Higher Education Table of Excellence in 2008, between the University of Reading and University of the Arts London, it was ranked 36th in the country and 498th in the world by the Center for World University Rankings in 2018. The Open University is one of only three United Kingdom higher education institutions to gain accreditation in the United States of America by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, an institutional accrediting agency, recognized by the United States Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the BSc Computing and IT course is accredited by BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT and quality assured by the European Quality Assurance Network for Informatics Education.
The OU won the Teaching Excellence and Digital Innovation categories in The Guardian University Awards 2018. The Open University was founded by the Labour government under Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Wilson was a strong advocate. Planning commenced in 1965 under Minister of State for Education Jennie Lee, who established a model for the OU as one of widening access to the highest standards of scholarship in higher education, set up a planning committee consisting of university vice-chancellors and television broadcasters, chaired by Sir Peter Venables; the British Broadcasting Corporation Assistant Director of Engineering at the time James Redmond, had obtained most of his qualifications at night school, his natural enthusiasm for the project did much to overcome the technical difficulties of using television to broadcast teaching programmes. Wilson envisioned The Open University as a major marker in the Labour Party's commitment to modernising British society, he believed that it would help build a more competitive economy while promoting greater equality of opportunity and social mobility.
The planned utilisation of television and radio to broadcast its courses was supposed to link The Open University to the technological revolution underway, which Wilson saw as a major ally of his modernization schemes. However, from the start Lee encountered widespread scepticism and opposition from within and without the Labour Party, including senior officials in the DES; the Open University was realized due to Lee's unflagging determination and tenacity in 1965–67, the steadfast support from Wilson, the fact that the anticipated costs, as reported to Lee and Wilson by Arnold Goodman, seemed modest. By the time the actual, much higher costs became apparent, it was too late to scrap the fledgling open university; the university was granted a Royal Charter by the Privy Council on 23 April 1969. The majority of staff are part-time Associate Lecturers and, as of the 2009–10 academic year 8,000 work for the OU. There are 1,286 salaried academic employees who are research active and responsible for the production and presentation of teaching materials, 1,931 who are academic-related and 1,902 support staff.
Salaries are the OU's main cost—over £275 million for the 2009–2010 academic year. In 2010 the OU became one of the Sunday Times' Best Places to Work in the Public Sector. Open University Employees Credit Union Limited is a savings and loans co-operative established by the University for staff in 1994. A member of the Association of British Credit Unions Limited, it is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the PRA. Like the banks and building societies, members’ savings are protected against business failure by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme. In 2016, the university reorga
Dewsbury is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England. It is to east of Huddersfield and south of Leeds, it lies by an arm of the Calder and Hebble Navigation. A part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, after undergoing a period of major growth in the 19th century as a mill town, Dewsbury went through a period of decline. More there has been redevelopment of derelict mills into flats, regenerating of city areas. According to the 2011 census the Dewsbury urban sub-area had a population of 62,945. Dewsbury is the largest town in a conurbation of small mill towns; the Domesday Book of 1086 records the name as Deusberie, Deusbereia, or Deubire "Dewi's fort", Dewi being an old Welsh name and "bury" coming from the old English word "burh", meaning fort. Other, less supported, theories exist as to the name's origin. For example, that it means "dew hill", from Old English dēaw, "dew", beorg, "hill", it has been suggested. Other origins were proposed, such as "God's fort", from Welsh Duw, "God".
"Antiquarians supposed the name, Dewsbury, to be derived from the original planter of the village, Dui or Dew, who … had fixed his abode and fortified his "Bury". Another conjecture holds, that the original name is Dewsborough, or God's Town" In Anglo-Saxon times, Dewsbury was a centre of considerable importance; the ecclesiastical parish of Dewsbury encompassed Huddersfield and Bradford. Ancient legend records that in 627 Paulinus, the first Bishop of York, preached here on the banks of the River Calder. Numerous Anglian graves have been found in Thornhill. Dewsbury Minster lies near the River Calder, traditionally on the site; some of the visible stonework in the nave is Saxon, parts of the church date to the 13th century. The tower houses "Black Tom", a bell, rung each Christmas Eve, one toll for each year since Christ's birth, known as the "Devil's Knell", a tradition dating from the 15th century; the bell was given by Sir Thomas de Soothill, in penance for murdering a servant boy in a fit of rage.
The tradition was commemorated on a Royal Mail postage stamp in 1986. Dewsbury market was established in the 14th century for local clothiers. Occurrences of the plague in 1593 and 1603 closed the market and it reopened in 1741. Throughout the Middle Ages, Dewsbury retained a measure of importance in ecclesiastical terms, collecting tithes from as far away as Halifax in the mid-14th century. John Wesley visited the area five times in the mid-18th century, the first Methodist Society was established in 1746. Centenary Chapel on Daisy Hill commemorates the centenary of this event, the Methodist tradition remained strong in the town. In 1770, a short branch of the Calder and Hebble Navigation was completed, linking Dewsbury to the canal system giving access to Manchester and Hull. By the time of the Industrial Revolution, Dewsbury was a centre for the shoddy and mungo industries which recycled woollen items by mixing them with new wool and making heavy blankets and uniforms; the town benefited economically from the canal, its location at the heart of the Heavy Woollen District, its proximity to coal mines.
The railway arrived in 1848 when Dewsbury Wellington Road railway station on the London and North Western Railway opened. Other stations were Dewsbury Central on the Great Northern Railway which closed in 1964 and Dewsbury Market Place on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway which closed in 1930. In 1985 a bypass road was built on the site of Central Station and its adjacent viaduct, nothing remains of Market Place railway station; the 19th century saw a great increase in population, rising from 4,566 in 1801 to around 30,000 by 1890. The town's rapid expansion and commitment to industrialisation resulted in social instability. In the early 19th century, Dewsbury was a centre of Luddite opposition to mechanisation in which workers retaliated against the mill owners who installed textile machinery and smashed the machines which threatened their way of life. In the 1830s, Dewsbury was a centre of Chartist agitation. In August 1838, after a speech by Chartist leader Feargus O'Connor, a mob of between five and seven thousand people besieged the Dewsbury Poor Law Guardians in the town's Royal Hotel.
The mob was dispersed by troops. Trouble flared in 1840 when radical agitators seized control of the town, troops were stationed to maintain order; this radical tradition left a legacy in the town's political life, its first elected MP in 1867 was John Simon, a Jewish lawyer from Jamaica and a Liberal. The tradition of firing the "Ten o'Clock" gun dates from 1815 and was a hangover from the Luddite problems, it was fired from Walker's Mill to reassure that all was well. It could be heard all over the area; the actual gun was replaced with a specially made firework but the tradition was discontinued in 1983 with the closure of the mill. The mills were family businesses and continued manufacturing after the wool crisis in 1950–51, which saw Australian sheep farmers begin to charge higher prices. However, the recovery of the late 1960s was reversed by the 1973 oil crisis, the textile industry in Dewsbury declined, with only bed manufacturing remaining a large scale employer. After 2005, Dewsbury was labelled a troubled town after negative press reports and became "the town that dare not speak its name" after high-profile crimes brough
National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The National Physical Laboratory is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, England. It comes under the management of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the National Physical Laboratory was established in 1900 at Bushy House "to bring scientific knowledge to bear upon our everyday industrial and commercial life". It grew to fill a large selection of buildings on the Teddington site. NPL procured a large state-of-the-art laboratory under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 1998; the construction, being undertaken by John Laing, the maintenance of this new building, being undertaken by Serco, was transferred back to the DTI in 2004 after the private sector companies involved made losses of over £100m. The laboratory was run by the UK government, with members of staff being part of the civil service. Administration of the NPL was contracted out in 1995 under a Government Owned Contractor Operated model, with Serco winning the bid and all staff transferred to their employ.
Under this regime, overhead costs halved, third party revenues grew by 16% per annum, the number of peer-reviewed research papers published doubled. It was decided in 2012 to change the operating model for NPL from 2014 onward to include academic partners and to establish a postgraduate teaching institute on site; the date of the changeover was postponed for up to a year. The candidates for lead academic partner were the Universities of Edinburgh, Southampton and Surrey with an alliance of the Universities of Strathclyde and Surrey chosen as preferred partners. In January 2013 funding for a new £25m Advanced Metrology Laboratory was announced that will be built on the footprint of an existing unused building; the operation of the laboratory transferred back to the Department for Business and Skills ownership on 1 January 2015. The National Physical Laboratory is involved with new developments in metrology, such as researching metrology for, standardising, nanotechnology, it is based at the Teddington site, but has a site in Huddersfield for dimensional metrology and an underwater acoustics facility at Wraysbury Reservoir.
Notable researchers at NPL Researchers who have worked at NPL include: D. W. Dye who did important work in developing the technology of quartz clocks; the inventor Sir Barnes Wallis did early development work there on the "Bouncing Bomb" used in the "Dam Busters" wartime raids. H. J. Gough, one of the pioneers of research into metal fatigue, worked at NPL for 19 years from 1914 to 1938. Sydney Goldstein and Sir James Lighthill worked in NPL's aerodynamics division during World War II researching boundary layer theory and supersonic aerodynamics respectively. Dr Clifford Hodge worked there and was engaged in research on semiconductors. Others who have spent time at NPL include Robert Watson-Watt considered the inventor of radar, Oswald Kubaschewski, the father of computational materials thermodynamics and the numerical analyst James Wilkinson. NPL research has contributed to physical science, materials science and bioscience. Applications have been found in ship design, aircraft development, computer networking and global positioning.
The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen and Jack Parry in 1955 at NPL. Calibration of the caesium standard atomic clock was carried out by the use of the astronomical time scale ephemeris time; this led to the internationally agreed definition of the latest SI second being based on atomic time. NPL has undertaken computer research since the mid-1940s. From 1945, Alan Turing led the design of the Automatic Computing Engine computer; the ACE project was floundered, leading to Turing's departure. Donald Davies took the project over and concentrated on delivering the less ambitious Pilot ACE computer, which first worked in May 1950. Among those who worked on the project was American computer pioneer Harry Huskey. A commercial spin-off, DEUCE was manufactured by English Electric Computers and became one of the best-selling machines of the 1950s. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Donald Davies and his team at the NPL pioneered packet switching, now the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.
Davies designed and proposed a national data network based on packet switching in his 1965 Proposal for the Development of a National Communications Service for On-line Data Processing. Subsequently, the NPL team developed the concept into a local area network which operated from 1969 to 1986, carried out work to analyse and simulate the performance of packet switching networks, their research and practice influenced the ARPANET in the United States, the forerunner of the Internet, other researchers in the UK and Europe. Directors of NPL Directors of NPL include a number of notable individuals. Sir Richard Tetley Glazebrook, 1900–1919 Sir Joseph Ernest Petavel, 1919–1936 Sir Frank Edward Smith, 1936–1937 Lawrence Bragg, 1937–1938 Sir Charles Galton Darwin, 1938–1949 Sir Edward Victor Appleton, 1941 Sir Edward Crisp Bullard, 1948–1955 Dr Reginald Leslie Smith-Rose, 1955–1956 Sir Gordon Brims Black McIvor Sutherland, 1956–1964 Dr John Vernon Dunworth, 1964–1977 Dr Paul Dean, 1977–1990 Dr Peter Clapham, 1990–1995Managing Directors Dr John Rae, 1995–2000 Dr Bob McGuiness, 2000–2005 Steve McQuillan, 2005–2008 Dr Martyn Sené, 2008–2009, 2015 Dr Brian Bowsher, 2009–2015Chief Executive Officers Dr Peter Thompson, 2015–presentN