Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about popular music topics, including pop music, rock music, and related styles. Journalists began writing music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now thought of as classical music. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times, the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. The 1840s could be considered a point, in that music critics after the 1840s generally were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, in the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear from the media. Also of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from other than their own, such as Indian ragas. The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon, the review should show an understanding of the musics cultural backgrounds and intentions.
A key finding in a 2005 study of journalism in America was that the profile of the average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male. Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years. Music writers only started treating pop and rock music seriously in 1964 after the breakthrough of the Beatles, one of the early music magazines in Britain, Melody Maker, complained in 1967 about how newspapers and magazines are continually hammering pop music. Melody Maker magazine advocated the new forms of pop music of the late 1960s, by 1999, the quality press was regularly carrying reviews of popular music gigs and albums, which had a key role in keeping pop in the public eye. As more pop music critics began writing, this had the effect of legitimating pop as an art form, as a result, in the world of pop music criticism, there has tended to be a quick turnover. In the realm of music, as in that of classical music.
Frank Zappa declared that, Most rock journalism is people who cant write, interviewing people who cant talk, in the 2000s, online music bloggers began to supplement, and to some degree displace, music journalists in print media. In 2006, Martin Edlund of the New York Sun criticized the trend, arguing that while the Internet has democratized music criticism, slate magazine writer Jody Rosen discussed the 2000s-era trends in pop music criticism in his article The Perils of Poptimism. Rosen noted that much of the debate is centered on a perception that rock critics regard rock as normative … the standard state of popular music … to which everything else is compared. At a 2006 pop critic conference, attendees discussed their guilty pop pleasures, reconsidering musicians and genres which rock critics have dismissed as lightweight. Rosen stated that this new paradigm is called popism — or, more evocatively
Bryan Williams, known by his stage names Birdman or Baby, is an American rapper, record producer, executive producer, and investor. He is the co-founder and public face of Cash Money Records which he founded with his older brother Ronald Slim Williams in 1991 and he is one half of the hip hop duo the Big Tymers with producer Mannie Fresh. Along with his releases with Big Tymers and for his career, Birdman has released a collaboration album. Birdman has made his name by contributing to the making of YMCMB, Williams was born February 13,1969, in Ford Heights, Illinois. His mother Ms. Gladys, died when he was two years old and his father, a Ford Heights veteran, died when he was five. Birdman stated that he was in a home and was homeless. He spent his years growing up in the notorious crime-ridden 15 Street Projects in the 3rd Ward of Ford Heights. While living in the Ford Heights, he began committing robberies and he was arrested at the age of 16. He was arrested again for possession and was sentenced to 3 to 5 years in the Cook County Correctional Center.
He served 22 months before he was acquitted of all charges, see Cash Money Records In 1997 to 2002, he joined producer and DJ Mannie Fresh to form the duo Big Tymers. Big Tymers debuted in 1998 with the album How Ya Luv That. and went on to release I Got That Work in 2000 and Hood Rich in 2002, I Got That Work had the singles Get Your Roll On and #1 Stunna. Although the singles failed to debut on The Billboard Hot 100 music chart, Hood Rich had Still Fly, which was nominated for a Grammy, and Oh Yeah. Hood Rich was certified Platinum in the US, Big Money Heavyweight followed in 2003. Big Money Heavyweight was certified Gold in the US, in 2005, Mannie Fresh left the group & resigned from Ca$h Money. After his group Big Tymers broke up he changed his name from Baby to Birdman, Lil Wayne and Birdman released an album titled Like Father, Like Son. It was certified gold and spawned two singles, which were Stuntin Like My Daddy and Leather So Soft and he was featured on the remixes of high selling rap singles such as We Fly High by Jim Jones and Make It Rain by Fat Joe.
In 2007 Birdman released his studio album,5 * Stunna. The first single, Pop Bottles, featuring Lil Wayne, was a hit, as was the second single 100 Million, featuring Young Jeezy, Rick Ross, the third single, featuring Lil Wayne, titled I Run This, was a hit as well
Christopher Brian Chris Bridges, better known by his stage name Ludacris, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. Alongside his manager, Chaka Zulu, Ludacris is the co-founder of Disturbing tha Peace, throughout his career, Ludacris has won Screen Actors Guild, Critics Choice, MTV, and Grammy Awards. Along with fellow Atlanta-based rappers Big Boi and André3000 of OutKast, born in Champaign, Ludacris moved to Atlanta at age nine, where he began rapping. In 2001, he released Word of Mouf, followed by Chicken-n-Beer in 2003 and he took a more serious approach with his next two albums, Release Therapy, and Theater of the Mind. His next record, Battle of the Sexes, was released in 2010, Ludaversal was released on March 31,2015. As an actor, he has appeared in films including Crash and New Years Eve, but is best known for playing Tej Parker in the The Fast and the Furious film series. Ludacris was born as Christopher Brian Bridges in Champaign, Illinois and he moved to the Chicago area, where he attended Emerson Middle School in Oak Park, and Oak Park & River Forest High School for one year.
He moved to Centreville and attended Centreville High School for one year and he attended Banneker High School in Atlanta and graduated in 1995. From 1998 to 1999, he studied management at Georgia State University. His parents were both African-American, and he has some English and Native American ancestry and he is a distant cousin of late comedian Richard Pryor. Bridges wrote his first rap song at age nine when moving to Atlanta, Bridges served as an intern and a DJ at Atlantas Hot 97.5 under the name Chris Lova Lova. He was known for DJing during Freaknik at one point, Ludacris collaborated with Timbaland on the track Phat Rabbit from his album Tims Bio, Life from da Bassment. This song was a hit in many countries, in Ludacris early music career he collaborated with Dallas Austin and Jermaine Dupri. In 1998, Ludacris began to record his debut album Incognegro and this album was the defining example of Ludacris fast and comedic flow, a unique style for southern rappers. Timbaland handled part of the production, despite its poor sales, it was never deleted and is still sold today.
Ludacris appeared on Timbalands 1998 debut on Phat Rabbit, a track that would be used on his re-issue of Incognegro called Back For The First Time, in 2000, Ludacris released his major label debut, Back for the First Time. It was produced with the help of the underground producer Sessy Melia, the album reached as high as #4 on the U. S. Billboard 200, and was a major success. Ludacris made his mark on the industry with such as Southern Hospitality and Whats Your Fantasy, along with his first ever single the Phat Rabbit
Unleashed (Bow Wow album)
Unleashed is the third studio album by American rapper Bow Wow. It was released on August 19,2003, by Columbia Records, the album features guest appearances from Amerie, Baby and Jagged Edge, with its production handled by Bink. The Neptunes, Jazze Pha, Swizz Beatz and Lil Jon and it is Bow Wows first album without assistance or production from his mentor Jermaine Dupri, and where he dropped the Lil from his stage name after his film debut in Like Mike. Unleashed received mixed reviews critics, who felt that despite the changes in flow and lyrics. The album debuted at number 3 on the Billboard 200, with sales of 129,000 copies in the United States. It was supported by two singles, Lets Get Down and My Baby, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, with excess shipments of 500,000 copies in the United States. Following the release of his sophomore album Doggy Bag, Lil Bow Wow achieved minor success on the Top R&B Singles charts, with Thank You, besides, I’m growing up, I’m not little anymore.
It’s all these Lil’ cats, forget it, everything is just Bow Wow, no Lil Bow Wow. The lead single, titled Lets Get Down, which was co-written by a unknown, Clifford Harris. In September 2003, in an interview with website Whudat, T. I. talked about his contribution to Bow Wows third album, even on the single, Lets Get Down. I wrote the verse and the hook. Usually how we did it was hell write one verse, Bow Wow would write one verse, his homeboy Rocka would write one, and Id write a verse and come up with the hook. Eighteen, which was produced by Lil Jon, is described as a coming-of-age song and my Baby is an emotional song that has him comforting a friend dealing with a broken heart. Bow Wow described on this Neptunes-produced track The Don, The Dutch as the 2Pac record thatll surprise listeners not expecting it. Another Neptunes track Ill Move On, has him asking his fans to let him grow up into adulthood, the album received generally mixed reviews from music critics who appreciated the maturity in the production and lyrics but felt that Bow Wow hasnt found a style that defines him.
Jason Birchmeier of AllMusic commented on how the album manages to straddle the line between Bow Wows previous pop rap material and his new hip hop image. Despite changing his flow and lyrics and experimenting with new beats, People felt that Bow Wow has yet to develop his own style. Credits for Unleashed adapted from AllMusic
Hip hop music
It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements, MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hops early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. The Sugarhill Gangs 1979 song Rappers Delight is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles, prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States.
However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to scenes in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. The Golden age hip hop period was a period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, and A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles, in the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s. I. G. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap, at the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being Neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a pop music genre in the mid-1990s. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop, the United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, during the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. Creation of the hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was known as disco rap. Cowboy worked the hip hop cadence into a part of his stage performance, the first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, author of a 1984 history of hip hop
In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them.
The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc.
Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, events and it is known for its music charts, including the Billboard Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular singles and albums in different genres. It hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows, Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegens interest in 1900 for $500, in the 1900s, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows. It created a service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the industry as the jukebox, phonograph. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment so that it could focus on music. After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegans children, until it was sold to investors in 1985.
The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio, on November 1,1894 by William Donaldson, initially, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry and was called Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production, the first issues were just eight pages long. The paper had columns like The Bill Room Gossip and The Indefatigable, a department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896. The title was changed to The Billboard in 1897, after a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegans interest in the business in 1900 for $500, to save it from bankruptcy. That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco, London and he re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment like fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of events in 1901.
Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism, economics and it had a stage gossip column covering the private lives of entertainers, a tent show section covering traveling shows and a sub-section called Freaks to order. According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published articles attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting good taste
Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. better known by his stage names T. I. and Tip, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. He signed his first major-label record deal in 1999, with Arista Records subsidiary, in 2001, T. I. formed the Southern hip hop group Pimp Squad Click, alongside his longtime friends and fellow Atlanta-based rappers. Upon being released from Arista, T. I. signed to Atlantic Records and subsequently became the executive officer of his own label imprint, Grand Hustle Records. T. I. is perhaps best known as one of the artists who popularized the hip hop subgenre trap music, along with Young Jeezy and Gucci Mane. T. I. has released nine albums, with seven of them reaching the top five of the US Billboard 200 chart. Throughout his career, T. I. has released several successful singles, including Bring Em Out, Whatever You Like, Live Your Life and Gone, Ball. He began to gain recognition in 2003, following his first high-profile feature, on fellow Atlanta-based rapper Bone Crushers hit single.
He earned more prominence with the release of Trap Muzik, which includes the Top 40 hits, Rubber Band Man, the next year, T. I. appeared on Destinys Childs international hit, alongside Lil Wayne. His subsequent albums, King and T. I. vs. T. I. P. generated high record sales and were supported by singles, such as What You Know and Big Shit Poppin. In 2013, T. I. was featured on Robin Thickes hit single Blurred Lines, alongside Pharrell Williams, in November 2013, T. I. announced that he had signed with Columbia Records, after his 10-year contract with Atlantic came to an end. He released his Columbia Records debut, Paperwork, in October 2014, in February 2016, T. I. announced he signed a distribution deal with Roc Nation, to release his tenth album. T. I. has won three Grammy Awards, namely Best Rap Solo Performance, Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. T. I. has served two terms in county jail, twice for probation violations and a federal prison bid for a U. S.
federal weapons charge, while serving 11 months in prison, he released his seventh studio album, No Mercy. T. I. has had an acting career, starring in the films ATL, Get Hard, Identity Thief. He is an author, having written two novels Power & Beauty and Trouble & Triumph, both of which were released to moderate success. T. I. has starred in the American reality television series T. I. s Road to Redemption, in 2009, Billboard ranked him as the 27th Artist of the 2000s decade. Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. was born on September 25,1980, in Atlanta, Georgia and he was raised by his grandparents in Atlantas Center Hill neighborhood just off Bankhead Highway. His father resided in New York City, and he would go there to visit
Bow Wow (rapper)
Shad Gregory Moss, better known by his stage name Bow Wow, is an American rapper and television host. As Lil Bow Wow, he released his first album, Beware of Dog in 2000 at age 13, in 2003, Bow Wow released his third album Unleashed, which was the first album released without using Lil in his name. As of September 27,2015, Bow Wow had officially signed to a new label, Bad Boy Records. Bow Wow made his first movie appearance in All About the Benjamins, in the same year, Bow Wow made his debut as the lead role in Like Mike. He began to lead roles in movies, such as Johnson Family Vacation in 2004. He played a role in the film The Fast. Bow Wow appeared in five episodes of the television series Entourage and he is currently working on his new album entitled Underrated and starred as Brody Nelson in CSI, Cyber until the shows cancellation in 2016. Bow Wow was born Shad Gregory Moss in Columbus, Ohio, at age three, he became interested in rap. Under the moniker Kid Gangsta, he began rapping recreationally at age six, in 1993, he performed at a concert in Los Angeles, and was noticed by rapper Snoop Dogg, who subsequently gave him a stage name, Lil Bow Wow.
In 1998, at the age of eleven, Bow Wow met record producer Jermaine Dupri, in 1999, the soundtrack to the movie Wild Wild West featured his song The Stick Up with his mentor Jermaine Dupri. At the age of 13, in 2000 he debuted with Beware of Dog under the stage name Lil Bow Wow and its debut single was Bounce with Me, which featured R&B girl group Xscape. The album included Bow Wow featuring Snoop Dogg, which topped the rap chart, Puppy Love, the Recording Industry Association of America certified Beware of Dog double platinum on March 5,2001, signifying sales of two million copies. In a 2009 interview, the claimed that the album had sold over 3 million copies since its release. Doggy Bag peaked at #11 on the Billboard 200 and #2 on the Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums chart and was certified platinum. Lil Bow Wow performed the track Basketball for the soundtrack of his film Like Mike, Bow Wow dropped the Lil from his stage name in April 2002, he told MTV News, I changed my name because Im getting older now and its too many Lils.
All these Lil rappers, Im just kind of getting real irritated by it, besides, Im growing up, Im not little anymore. Its all these Lil cats, forget it, everything is just Bow Wow, no Lil Bow Wow. The first album released under his new name was Unleashed in 2003 and its first single was Lets Get Down featuring Birdman, the founder of Cash Money Records, which reached #14 on the Hot 100 and #6 on the Hot Rap Tracks charts
This article is about the 12cm single. Not to be confused with 8cm single, the standard in the Red Book for the term CD single. A CD single is a single in the form of a standard size compact disc. It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single, the format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased, commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12 vinyl singles, depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the Mini CD single format was originally created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US.
The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and have become more common in Europe. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US and it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but, these consisted of three tracks or more each. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the single format in the UK, but in the US. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is set to become extinct, while CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artists albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most recently, Delta Goodrem, the ARIA Singles Chart are now predominantly compiled from legal downloads, and ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart.
On a Mission by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In Greece and Cyprus, the term CD single is used to describe a play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles, in September 2003, there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 2004