William Henry Kerr was a South African-born entertainer, who had a successful career in Britain and Australia as an actor and vaudevillian. Beginning as a child performer in Australia, he emigrated to Britain after the Second World War, developed a career as a performer in comedy gaining notice in the radio version of Hancock's Half Hour. In 1979 Kerr developed a second career as a character actor. Kerr was born in Cape Town, South Africa, on 10 June 1922 to an Australian performing arts family, growing up in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, his career in show business began when he was young. Wilton, his son, recalled: "His mum used him instead of using a prop, a baby prop, she used her son, her newborn son, so he was kind of born to do it."Kerr began to work in radio for ABC in 1932, continued performing child parts for about eight years. His first screen appearance was in Harmony Row, where he gives a feisty performance as a juvenile delinquent alongside the great Australian vaudeville comedian George Wallace.
Kerr's first dramatic role on screen was a high-profile one in the Cinesound film The Silence of Dean Maitland, where he displays striking presence as a blind child. Kerr is one of the most important child performers in early Australian film, he saw service in the Australian army during the Second World War, performed in theatrical shows at home and abroad and toured with his friend, the actor Peter Finch. After the war, Kerr moved to Britain in 1947. During the next few years he was featured in the BBC radio series Variety Bandbox, part of the BBC Light Programme. Retaining his accent, an unusual choice for performers moving to Britain at this time, he was billed as "the boy from Wagga Wagga." A spokesman for the Australian town's museum said that this "struck an instant chord with the post-war British audience, who thought of'Wagga Wagga' as a comically surreal, end of the earth, magical place somewhere left of Narnia." Harry Secombe described Kerr as having a "very laconic act" on the show, beginning his spots with the catchphrase "I'm only here for four minutes."From 1954 to 1959, he had a regular role as an Australian lodger in the BBC radio comedy series Hancock's Half Hour.
The series, with comedian Tony Hancock as the eponymous lead and featuring Sid James, ran for six series. Sharper than Hancock's characterisation, Kerr's portrayal developed into a more dim-witted character who became the butt of Hancock's jokes. Unlike James, Kerr did not feature in the television version of the Hancock series. Kerr starred in the entertaining Sunday afternoon radio drama series "The Flying Doctor" in the 1950s flying in and out of the fictitious Wollumboola base as he and his "doctor" colleague brought reprobates to justice in the outback. After Hancock had ended his professional partnership with Sid James, Kerr resumed working with him in the first series of the television comedy Citizen James. Kerr's other television appearances in Britain include a Doctor Who serial called The Enemy of the World, with Patrick Troughton, a long-running part in the early 1960s BBC-TV soap, Compact. Kerr had much theatrical success in Britain, playing the Devil disguised as Mr Applegate in the first West End production of Damn Yankees, directed by Bob Fosse and first performed in March 1957.
He appeared in a touring production of the play The Teahouse of the August Moon in 1956. He worked with Spike Milligan and appeared in Milligan and John Antrobus's stage play The Bed-Sitting Room, which opened at the Mermaid Theatre on 31 January 1963. A subsequent production opened on 3 May 1967 at the Saville Theatre, "a cast containing an unusually high proportion of Australian actors including Bill Kerr and David Nettheim." In the 1969 London production of Play It Again, Sam at the Globe Theatre, Kerr played Humphrey Bogart. In 1972 he co-starred with Anthony Newley in the Newley/Bricusse musical, The Good Old Bad Old Days, which enjoyed a run lasting 309 performances, he had a role in the musical play Cole, dedicated to the work of Cole Porter and first staged at the Mermaid Theatre, London in July 1974. Kerr took the part of Bluey Notts, described as "an Australian bookie's clerk, a crude racialist", in The Melting Pot; this was a sitcom written by Spike Milligan and Neil Shand, cancelled by the BBC after just one episode had been broadcast.
He appeared in several British films, such as The Dam Busters and The Wrong Arm of the Law. In 1979, Kerr settled in Perth, Western Australia. Now concentrating on character roles, he played serious roles in Australian films, including Peter Weir's films Gallipoli and The Year of Living Dangerously. In 1982 Kerr acted in the film The Pirate Movie, he worked on the Australian stage during the 1980s, in musicals such as My Fair Lady, where he received excellent reviews as Alfred Doolittle. Kerr played real-life Australian military personalities on three occasions, appearing as bomber pilot Micky Martin in The Dam Busters, as General John Monash in the TV mini-series Anzacs and as General Harry Chauvel in the film The Lighthorsemen. In addition to his serious roles, he continued to appear in comedies including the film The Coca-Cola Kid and Let's Get Skase. Kerr appeared in Glenview High and the television comedy series Minty and played the part of Douglas Kennedy in the soap opera The Young Doctors.
He was seen as Dave Welles in the Australian mini-series Return To Eden where he helped Stephanie Harper after she was attacked by a crocodile. He r
Cinema of Australia
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film made. Since many films have been produced in Australia, a number of which have received international recognition. Many actors and filmmakers started their careers in Australian films, a large number of whom have acquired international reputations, a number of whom have found greater financial benefits in careers in larger film producing centres, such as in the United States; the first public screenings of films in Australia were in October 1896, within a year of the world's first screening in Paris by Lumière brothers. The first Australian exhibition took place at the Athenaeum Hall in Collins Street, Melbourne, to provide alternative entertainment for the dance hall patrons; the venue would continue screenings, but these were all Commercially successful Australian films have included: Crocodile Dundee, Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge!, Chris Noonan's Babe. Other award-winning productions include Picnic at Hanging Rock, The Tracker and Ten Canoes.
Australian actors of renown include Errol Flynn, Peter Finch, Rod Taylor, Paul Hogan, Jack Thompson, Bryan Brown, Judy Davis, Jacki Weaver, Geoffrey Rush, Mel Gibson, Hugo Weaving, Russell Crowe, Nicole Kidman, Eric Bana, Guy Pearce, Naomi Watts, Hugh Jackman, Cate Blanchett, Ben Mendelsohn, Toni Collette, Sam Worthington, Heath Ledger, Abbie Cornish, Chris Hemsworth, Ruby Rose, Mia Wasikowska and Margot Robbie. The Australian film history has been characterized as one of'boom and bust' due to the unstable and cyclical nature of its industry; the Athanaeum Hall in Collins Street, was a dance hall from the 1880s, which from time to time would provide alternative entertainment to patrons. In October 1896, it exhibited the first movie shown in Australia, within a year of the first public screening of a film in Paris on 28 December 1895 by the French Lumière brothers; the Athanaeum would continue screenings. The earliest feature length narrative film in the world was the Australian produced The Story of the Kelly Gang shown at the Athenaeum.
The film included several of his family. The film was exhibited in the United Kingdom, was commercially successful. Melbourne was home of one of the world's first film studios, the Limelight Department, operated by The Salvation Army between 1897 and 1910; the Limelight Department produced evangelical material for use by the Salvation Army, as well as private and government contracts. In its 19 years of operation, the Limelight Department produced about 300 films of various lengths, making it the largest film producer of its time; the major innovation of the Limelight Department came in 1899 when Herbert Booth and Joseph Perry began work on Soldiers of the Cross, described by some as the first feature-length film produced. Soldiers of the Cross fortified the Limelight Department as a major player in the early film industry; the Limelight Department was commissioned to film the Federation of Australia. The 1910s was a "boom" period in Australian cinema, it began in the 1900s, 1910 saw 4 narrative films released 51 in 1911, 30 in 1912, 17 in 1913, back to 4 in 1914, when the beginning of World War I brought an end to film making.
While these numbers may seem small, Australia was one of the most prolific film-producing countries at the time. In all, between 1906 and 1928, 150 narrative feature films were made, of which 90 were made between 1910 and 1912. There was a general consolidation in the early 1910s in the production and exhibition of films in Australia which saw by 1912 the merger of numerous independent producers into Australasian Films and Union Theaters which established control over film distributors and cinemas and required smaller producers to deal with the cartel; some view the arrangement as opening the way for American distributors in the 1920s to sign exclusive deals with Australian cinemas to exhibit only their products, thereby shutting out the local product and crippling the local film industry. There are various other explanations for the decline of the industry in the 1920s; some historians point to falling audience numbers, a lack of interest in Australian product and narratives, Australia's participation in the war.
There was an official ban on bushranger films in 1912. With the suspension of local film production, Australian cinema chains sought alternative products in the United States and realised that Australian-produced films were much more expensive than the imported product, which were priced cheaply as production expenses had been recouped in the home market. To redress this imbalance, the federal government imposed a tax on imported film in 1914, but this was removed by 1918. Whatever the explanation, by 1923, American films dominated the Australian market with 94% of all exhibited films coming from that country. In 1930, F. W. Thring established the Efftee Studios based in Melbourne to make talking films using optical sound equipment imported from the USA; the first sound films produced were in 1931, when the company produced Diggers, A Co-respondent's Course, The Haunted Barn and The Sentimental Bloke. During the five years of its existence, Efftee produced nine features, over 80 shorts and several stage productions.
Notable collaborators included George Wallace and Frank Harvey. Film production continued only until 1934, when it ceased as a protest over the refusal of the Australian government to set Australian film quotas, followed soon by
Andrew Christopher Denton is an Australian television producer, Gold Logie-nominated television presenter and former radio host, was the host of the ABC's weekly television interview program Enough Rope and the ABC game show Randling. He is known for his interviewing technique, he is responsible for introducing the troupe of The Chaser to Australian audiences. Denton is the son of Kit Denton and the author of the novel The Breaker, about Australian soldier Breaker Morant, he went to Roseville Primary School in Sydney, before attending Blue Mountains Grammar School in Wentworth Falls. In 1977 he attended Guildford Grammar School in Perth, he studied at Mitchell College of Advanced Education in Bathurst, graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Communications in 1982. He was involved in the campus radio station, 2MCE. Denton worked on Australian radio stations early in his media career. Beginning as a writer for radio presenter Doug Mulray on Triple M, appearing on the show as "Andrew the boy wonder from indoor cricket", he went on to write and host his own show.
He had an early involvement in the Sydney Theatresports movement. Denton had an extended stint as a morning radio host for the Triple M in Sydney, with the assistance of Amanda Keller. Segments included musical challenges, his time on Triple M included the infamous House From Hell reality TV program, in which various contestants were placed in a house together and involved in various stunts and tortures. Denton has said in radio interviews that he regrets being involved in the program due to the unacceptable level of human manipulation. Denton made his first television appearance as an extra on the ABC television series The Investigators, progressed to being a member of the team, runner-up on the Australian improvised comedy show Theatresports in 1987. From the late 1980s into the 1990s, he hosted a number of TV shows, including Blah Blah Blah, The Money or the Gun and Live and Sweaty which all aired on the ABC, a comedy talk show, that aired on Seven Network; these shows were talk-based, but featured other segments.
Live and Sweaty was a panel-based television show. Each had comic undertones – when dealing with serious subjects – such as the Money or the Gun episode dealing with kids cancer sufferers; each week on The Money or the Gun, Andrew had a musical guest play a cover version of Led Zeppelin's "Stairway to Heaven" in a different musical style the genre of the guest's own musical style. The song was played in styles ranging from grand opera to the quirky pop of The B-52's; this resulted in an album with 22 of the covers and a video with 25. Robert Plant and Jimmy Page, musicians from Led Zeppelin appeared on Denton to perform a Rolf Harris song. Denton saw the beginning of the Musical Challenge segment, challenged musical guests to perform a song from a barrel full of well-known songs; this segment evolved during his time on Triple M, resulting in three albums with tracks including Tina Arena singing "Cheap Wine", The Wiggles singing Long way to the Top, Neil Finn performing Sexual Healing, James Reyne performing Kate Bush's Wuthering Heights, Barenaked Ladies performing Prince's When Doves Cry and Paul Kelly performing Prince's Little Red Corvette.
Two volumes were released on CD titled Andrew Denton's Musical Challenge. In the early 1990s Denton became the first guest programmer on the iconic music program Rage, a slot that became coveted. Denton appeared as a contestant on the Nine Network's Sale of the Century when he won the comedy special in 1993; this was a moment. While presenting his talk show Denton, he launched a public subscription scheme to hire a bounty hunter to capture fugitive businessman Christopher Skase, attempting to avoid extradition to Australia at the time; when told that his repeated statements against Skase could expose him to legal action, Denton said, "If he's got a problem, he can come here and sue me". He had a cameo appearance in the Australian film Let's Get Skase. In 2003, Denton began hosting Enough Rope with Andrew Denton, which became a hit for the ABC, he was executive producer and script editor for ABC's The Election Chaser and CNNNN. In an audience development survey in 2004, respondents named Denton as one of the "most liked and recognisable" personalities on Australian television.
Enough Rope ended in late 2008. Asked about the best skill an interviewer can bring to the job, Denton said: "Research, clearly. Listening, obviously, and leaving myself open to the possibility it won't go the way I expect." Asked if there was an interview he wished he could do again, he said: "I did an interview with Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary of Denmark and it was a crap interview because I am not interested in royalty. Having accepted to do the interview, I should have found a way to get myself interested. If I wasn't interested, why would the audience be? That was a great kick up the bum for me. It's a lesson – I've learned it many times, but you always have to relearn it – just when you think you're good at something, you find out what you're not good at, it just reminded me, you can't be lazy about it."In 2009, Denton hosted the second season of Elders, a series of interviews with ageing notable Australians. After this series finished, Denton took a few years off being in front of the camera and spent more time behind the scenes.
In 2012, he retur
Alex Dimitriades is an Australian film and television actor. Dimitriades was born as Alexandros Dimitriades, he is the son of first generation Greek immigrants, is the youngest of three siblings. He has a brother, a sister, Melinda, he grew up in a suburb of Sydney. His parents divorced, his mother worked as a legal secretary. She raised the children as a single mother. Dimitriades first attracted national attention for his co-starring role in the 1993 Australian film The Heartbreak Kid, for which he received positive reviews and acclaim. In 1998, he played the protagonist Ari in the controversial Ana Kokkinos film Head On, based on the book Loaded by Christos Tsiolkas. Dimitriades' performance in the role was critically acclaimed and earned him an AFI Award nomination; the film was controversial for its graphic violence, sex scenes and LGBT subject matter, though it earned positive reviews. It screened at dozens of festivals around the world, including the Director's Fortnight at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival.
His other film roles include the Australian comedies Let's Get Skase and La Spagnola, the Greek film To Gamilio Party, Wog Boy 2: Kings of Mykonos, Summer Coda starring alongside Rachael Taylor. He has had roles in the Hollywood films Ghost Ship and Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo. In 2015, he co-starred in Ruben Guthrie alongside Patrick Brammall. After making his acting debut in the film The Heartbreak Kid, he starred in a television spin-off, Heartbreak High, in which he played Nick Poulos, he went on to play underworld figure, Warren Lanfranchi, in the 1995 drama television series Blue Murder. In 1997, he took on a role in the police drama Wildside. In 2002, he appeared in Young Lions. In years to follow, he had small guest roles in the Australian soap Neighbours and the science fiction series Farscape. In 2008, Dimitriades played assassin Victor Brincat in the drama series Underbelly. In 2011, he featured in The Slap, the TV adaptation of the novel of the same name by Christos Tsiolkas, he was awarded the AACTA Award for Best Lead Actor in a Television Drama for his role as the protagonist, Harry.
In 2015, he starred in The Principal, a SBS four-part crime drama screened over two weeks in October, for which he won a Logie Award. The series has received positive reviews and various accolades, including several nominations from the Australian Film Institute in 2016. Subsequent to this, he appeared in Seven Types of Ambiguity. In late 2018, Dimitriades had a recurring role in the BBC One drama The Cry, as Detective Peter Alexiades. Dimitriades, an avid collector of vinyl records, has stated that his love of music started in childhood, he has a passion for both hip hop and dance music and has stated he is inspired by Kings Go Forth because of their "’70s sound." He works as a DJ professionally across Australia referred to as DJ Boogie Monster. Dimitriades has headlined and performed at numerous events, including Derby Day and as the headline act for the relaunch of the popular South Melbourne nightclub, Motel. Although Dimitriades is known as an actor, his DJ work predates his acting work: It's my fault, I was a DJ before I was an actor, but I wasn't known and haven't been known as one.
It's two sides of me that will never go away.” In 1996 and 1997, along with Nick Giannopoulos and Vince Colosimo, toured as part of the Wogboys comedy stage shows. Dimitriades has appeared in many theatre productions, including two plays by Louis Nowra for Griffin Theatre Company, The Woman with Dog's Eyes and The Emperor of Sydney. Dimitriades had an eight-year relationship with Terry Biviano in early 2000s. In 2008, Dimitriades was arrested driving under the influence, it was reported that he had a blood alcohol reading of.11, more than twice the legal limit in Australia. The charge resulted in the suspension of his driver's licence. In September 2009, his mother, Betty Dimitriades, lost her battle with a long-time illness. Alex Dimitriades on IMDb Interview with Paul Fischer
Dianne Evelyn Wiest is an American actress. She has twice won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, for the Woody Allen films Hannah and Her Sisters and Bullets over Broadway, appeared in three other films by Allen, she received an Academy Award nomination for Parenthood, won a Golden Globe Award for Bullets over Broadway. Wiest's other film appearances include Footloose, The Lost Boys, Bright Lights, Big City, Edward Scissorhands, Little Man Tate, The Birdcage, Practical Magic, Dan in Real Life, New York, Rabbit Hole, Sisters, she won the 1997 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series for Road to Avonlea, the 2008 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for In Treatment. Her other television credits include Law & Order, the CBS comedy series Life in Pieces. Wiest was born in Missouri, her mother, Anne Stewart, was a nurse. Her father, Bernard John Wiest, was a college dean and former psychiatric social worker for the U. S. Army.
Her mother was Scottish, from Auchtermuchty, while her father was an American of Croatian and German descent. They met in Algiers. Wiest has two brothers named Don, her original ambition was to be a ballet dancer, but she switched her goal to theater in her senior year at Nurnberg American High School. Wiest graduated from the University of Maryland in 1969 with a degree in Sciences. Wiest studied theater at the University of Maryland, leaving after her third term to tour with a Shakespearean troupe, she had a supporting role in a New York Shakespeare Festival production of Ashes. She acted at the Yale Repertory Theatre in New Haven, CT, playing the title role in Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler, she was an understudy both off-Broadway and on Broadway, in Kurt Vonnegut's Happy Birthday, Wanda June in 1970. She made her Broadway debut in Robert Anderson's Solitaire/Double Solitaire, taking over in the role of the daughter in 1971, she landed a four-year job as a member of the Arena Stage in Washington, D.
C. in such roles as Emily in Our Town, Honey in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, leading roles in S. Ansky's The Dybbuk, Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths and George Bernard Shaw's Heartbreak House, she toured the USSR with the Arena Stage. In 1976, Wiest attended the Eugene O'Neill National Playwrights Conference and starred in leading roles in Amlin Gray's Pirates and Christopher Durang's A History of the American Film. At Joe Papp's Public Theater she took over the lead in Ashes, played Cassandra in Agamemnon, directed by Andrei Şerban. In 1979, she originated the role of Agnes in Agnes of God in its first production in Waterford, Connecticut, she appeared in two plays by The Art of Dining. In the latter, Wiest's performance as the shy and awkward author Elizabeth Barrow Colt won three off-Broadway theater awards: an Obie Award, a Theatre World Award, the Clarence Derwent Award, given yearly for the most promising performance in New York theatre. On Broadway she appeared in Frankenstein, directed by Tom Moore, portrayed Desdemona in Othello opposite James Earl Jones and Christopher Plummer and co-starred with John Lithgow in Christopher Durang's romantic screwball comedy Beyond Therapy, directed by John Madden.
(She played opposite Lithgow again in the Herbert Ross film Footloose. During the 1980s, she performed in Hedda Gabler, directed by Lloyd Richards at Yale Repertory Theatre, in Harold Pinter's A Kind of Alaska, Lanford Wilson's Serenading Louie, Janusz Glowacki's Hunting Cockroaches; as Wiest became established as a film actress through her work in Woody Allen's films, she was less available for stage roles. However, she did appear onstage during the 1990s, in In the Summer House, Square One, Cynthia Ozick's The Shawl, Naomi Wallace's One Flea Spare. In 2003, she appeared with Marisa Tomei in Oscar Wilde's Salome. In 2005, she starred in Kathleen Tolan's Memory House, she starred in a production of Wendy Wasserstein's final play Third at Lincoln Center. Recent New York theater roles include performances as Arkadina in an off-Broadway revival of The Seagull and as Kate Keller in a Broadway revival of Arthur Miller's All My Sons, opposite John Lithgow, Patrick Wilson, Katie Holmes. In 2009, Wiest appeared in the National Memorial Day Concert on the Mall in Washington, D.
C. in a dialogue with Katie Holmes celebrating the life of an American veteran wounded in Iraq, José Pequeño. Wiest spent September 2010 as a visiting teacher at Columbia University's Graduate Acting Program, working with a group of 18 first-year MFA Acting students on selected plays by Anton Chekhov and Arthur Miller. In 2016 she took on the role of "Winnie" in The Yale Repertory Theatre's production of Samuel Beckett's, Happy Days, reprised the role for Theatre for a New Audience in downtown Brooklyn, NY, in the spring of 2017, her early screen roles include small roles in It's My Turn and I'm Dancing as Fast as I Can, both starring Jill Clayburgh in the lead roles. In 1984, she starred as the reverend's wife and Ariel's mother. Under Woody Allen's direction, Wiest won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Hannah and Her Sisters in 1987 and Bullets over Broadway in 1995, she appeared in three other Woody Allen films: The Purple Rose of Cairo, Radio Days and September. She followed her fi
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a