Only the Lonely (film)
Only the Lonely is a 1991 American romantic comedy-drama film written and directed by Chris Columbus, stars John Candy, Maureen O'Hara, Ally Sheedy and Anthony Quinn. The film is a comedic take on the premise established in film Marty. Danny Muldoon, a 38-year-old Chicago policeman, still lives with his overbearing Irish mother, Rose Muldoon. A lonely bachelor, Danny falls in love with Theresa Luna, an introverted, lonely girl who works in her father's funeral home as a cosmetician. On their first date, he has a picnic on the field, their courtship becomes difficult because Rose begins to feel threatened that Theresa is trying to steal her son away. Danny's brother Patrick tries to convince Danny to remain unmarried so that Danny and Rose can move down to Florida, where Danny can take care of her; because of this, Danny begins to feel guilty about his relationship with Theresa towards his mother. This leads to his interrupting dates with Theresa to check on his mother; when Theresa is introduced to Rose at a fancy dinner, Rose begins to put her down.
Theresa stands up to Rose, complains to Danny as to why he didn't stand up for her. After Theresa leaves, Danny scolds his mother for being so cruel to Theresa, saying that her way of "telling it like it is" is her attempt to hurt people, he reminds her that she lost a $450,000 account for his late father's company by making anti-semitic remarks. Danny tells Rose that he will propose to Theresa, whether she approves or not; that night, Danny proposes to her from the bucket of a Chicago fire truck. She says yes and the two are set to be married; however though Rose does approve of Theresa, on the night before the wedding, Danny calls to check on his mother in front of Theresa. Angered at the fact that they might never be alone, Theresa walks off. Both Danny and Theresa fail to show up for the wedding, the two don't marry. A few weeks Danny's friends question what caused them to call off the wedding, but Danny avoids an answer; when a friend of the family, Doyle passes away, alone with no wife or children, Danny realizes that he doesn't want to end up that way, realizes that he can't let Theresa go.
The day Danny and Rose are scheduled to move to Florida, Danny tells Rose that he can't let Theresa go and by leaving her behind, he'd be leaving behind the best thing that happened to him. Reluctant at first, Rose agrees to Danny's plan and goes to Florida without him, instructing her son to get married, have a family and be happy. Danny goes to Luna's Funeral Home to look for Theresa. However, her father tells him. Danny contacts the railroad station manager, who agrees to stop the train at a suburban station outside the city. There, Danny proclaims his love for her, he tells her that he will join the New York City Police Department. Having no more guilt about his mother, the two re-board the train for New York to live the rest of their lives together. Throughout the film, the Muldoons' Greek neighbor, Nick Acropolis, who encourages Danny to pursue Theresa, attempts to woo Rose. Rose is salty towards him in the beginning, but as she softens her stance regarding Danny's relationship with Theresa, she warms to Nick and he takes Danny's place on the flight to Florida to be with Rose.
John Candy as Officer Daniel "Danny" Muldoon, Chicago Police Department Maureen O'Hara as Rose Muldoon Ally Sheedy as Theresa Luna Anthony Quinn as Nick Acropolis James Belushi as Officer Salvatore "Sal" Buonarte, Chicago Police Department Kevin Dunn as Patrick Muldoon Macaulay Culkin as Billy Muldoon Kieran Culkin as Patrick Muldoon, Jr. Milo O'Shea as Doyle Bert Remsen as Spats Joe Greco as Joey Luna Chris Columbus wrote the part of Rose for Maureen O'Hara, but did not know that she had retired from acting and was living in the Virgin Islands. Columbus contacted O'Hara's younger brother Charles B. Fitzsimons, a producer and actor in the film industry, to ask him to send O'Hara a copy of the script, which he did, telling her, "This you do!". O'Hara loved it, she was reported to have replied to Fitzsimons, "This I do!". However, she would not commit. Co-star Jim Belushi recounted this story: On the set of Only the Lonely, the producers stuck Maureen O’Hara in a tiny trailer; when John Candy complained on her behalf, he was told the budget was being spent on the picture, not on accommodations for old movie stars.
Candy responded by giving O'Hara his trailer and going without one until the studio caved in and got a trailer for each actor. John Hughes co-produced the film; this movie marked Macaulay Culkin's third film with Candy. Other than New Port South, it was the only film. Most of the film was shot on location in Chicago. Danny and Rose Muldoon's house is located at the intersection of Clark Street and Roscoe Street, as is the front façade of O'Neils' Pub; the inside of the pub was shot at Emmett's Pub, a Chicago landmark, used in Uncle Buck, another film with John Candy. At the request of producer John Hughes and sports fan John Candy, the baseba
Los Angeles Dodgers
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. Established in 1883 in Brooklyn, New York, the team moved to Los Angeles before the 1958 season, they played for four seasons at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving to their current home of Dodger Stadium in 1962. The Dodgers as a franchise have won 23 National League pennants. 11 NL MVP award winners have played for the Dodgers. The team has produced 18 Rookie of the Year Award winners, twice as many as the next closest team, including four consecutive from 1979 to 1982 and five consecutive from 1992 to 1996. In the early 20th century, the team known as the Robins, won league pennants in 1916 and 1920, losing the World Series both times, first to Boston and Cleveland. In the 1930s, the team changed its name to the Dodgers, named after the Brooklyn pedestrians who dodged the streetcars in the city.
In 1941, the Dodgers captured their third National League pennant, only to lose to the New York Yankees. This marked the onset of the Dodgers–Yankees rivalry, as the Dodgers would face them in their next six World Series appearances. Led by Jackie Robinson, the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era. Following the 1957 season the team left Brooklyn. In just their second season in Los Angeles, the Dodgers won their second World Series title, beating the Chicago White Sox in six games in 1959. Spearheaded by the dominant pitching style of Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale, the Dodgers captured three pennants in the 1960s and won two more World Series titles, sweeping the Yankees in four games in 1963, edging the Minnesota Twins in seven in 1965; the 1963 sweep was their second victory against the Yankees, their first against them as a Los Angeles team. The Dodgers won four more pennants in 1966, 1974, 1977 and 1978, but lost in each World Series appearance, they went on to win the World Series again in 1981, thanks in part to pitching sensation Fernando Valenzuela.
The early 1980s were affectionately dubbed "Fernandomania." In 1988, another pitching hero, Orel Hershiser, again led them to a World Series victory, aided by one of the most memorable home runs of all time, by their injured star outfielder Kirk Gibson coming off the bench to pinch hit with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of game 1, in his only appearance of the series. The Dodgers won the pennant in 2017 and 2018, but lost the World Series to the Houston Astros and Boston Red Sox respectively; the Dodgers share a fierce rivalry with the San Francisco Giants, the oldest rivalry in baseball, dating back to when the two franchises played in New York City. Both teams moved west for the 1958 season; the Brooklyn Dodgers and Los Angeles Dodgers have collectively appeared in the World Series 20 times, while the New York Giants and San Francisco Giants have collectively appeared 20 times. The Giants have won two more World Series. Although the two franchises have enjoyed near equal success, the city rivalries are rather lopsided and in both cases, a team's championships have predated to the other's first one in that particular location.
When the two teams were based in New York, the Giants won five World Series championships, the Dodgers one. After the move to California, the Dodgers have won five in Los Angeles, the Giants have won three in San Francisco; the Dodgers were founded in 1883 as the Brooklyn Atlantics, taking the name of a defunct team that had played in Brooklyn before them. The team joined the American Association in 1884 and won the AA championship in 1889 before joining the National League in 1890, they promptly won the NL Championship their first year in the League. The team was known alternatively as the Bridegrooms, Superbas and Trolley Dodgers before becoming the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1930s. In Brooklyn, the Dodgers won the NL pennant several times and the World Series in 1955. After moving to Los Angeles, the team won National League pennants in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1988, 2017, 2018, with World Series championships in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1981 and 1988. In all, the Dodgers have appeared in 11 in Los Angeles.
For most of the first half of the 20th century, no Major League Baseball team employed an African American player. Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play for a Major League Baseball team when he played his first major league game on April 15, 1947, as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers; this was due to general manager Branch Rickey's efforts. The religious Rickey's motivation appears to have been moral, although business considerations were a factor. Rickey was a member of The Methodist Church, the antecedent denomination to The United Methodist Church of today, a strong advocate for social justice and active in the American Civil Rights Movement; this event was the harbinger of the integration of professional sports in the United States, the concomitant demise of the Negro Leagues, is regarded as a key moment in the history of the American Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was an exceptional player, a speed
A. J. Pierzynski
Anthony John Pierzynski is an American former professional baseball catcher. He played in Major League Baseball with the Minnesota Twins, San Francisco Giants, Chicago White Sox, Texas Rangers, Boston Red Sox, St. Louis Cardinals and Atlanta Braves. Pierzynski is one of only ten catchers in Major League history to reach 2,000 hits in his career. Pierzynski is known for having a fact he acknowledges. During his turn at the microphone following the White Sox victory parade in 2005, he thanked team personnel "for putting up with me." Former White Sox manager Ozzie Guillén summed up the situation as, "If you play against him, you hate him. If you play with him, you hate him a little less." Guillén acknowledged Pierzynski's value to the club, despite being high-maintenance: "A. J.'s been great for me. He's worth the work because he always shows up for you." Pierzynski was born on December 1976, in Bridgehampton, New York. He attended Dr. Phillips High School in Orlando, where he won All-State honors in baseball.
Future Major Leaguer Johnny Damon was one of Pierzynski's high school teammates. Pierzynski graduated from high school in 1994 and signed a letter of intent to play baseball at the University of Tennessee, he was selected by the Minnesota Twins in the third round of that year's MLB Draft and chose to sign with the ballclub on June 9. He began his minor league career with the Gulf Coast League Twins and spent the next four years playing for the minor-league Elizabethton Twins, Fort Wayne Wizards, Fort Myers Miracle, New Britain Rock Cats, Salt Lake Buzz. After four years in the Twins organization, he was called up to the major league team, made his debut on September 9, 1998, when he was 21 years old, he spent the next five seasons, through the 2003 season, with Minnesota, though he was not a regular starter until 2001. From 1998-2000, he appeared in just 49 games for the Twins. In 2002, he made the American League All-Star Team as a reserve catcher. In the 2002 American League Division Series, Pierzynski hit an important home run in the ninth inning of the final game, in which the Twins clinched the series.
In 2003, Pierzynski reached a.312 batting average, a career high. After the 2003 season, the Twins traded Pierzynski to the San Francisco Giants for Joe Nathan, Francisco Liriano, Boof Bonser. With the Giants he hit.272 with 77 RBIs. He spent one season in San Francisco before being non-tendered. Pierzynski was signed as a free agent by the Chicago White Sox on January 6, 2005; when he signed with the White Sox, the San Francisco Chronicle ran a story claiming that the catcher had kneed Giants trainer Stan Conte in the groin during a spring training game in 2004. Although the incident happened during the game, it went unreported for nearly a year in the press. Pierzynski has disputed the allegations publicly. "Don't you think if something like that happened, in spring training, you would have heard about it? I would have gotten in some sort of trouble?" Pierzynski would hit 18 home runs, a new career high, with his most memorable home run of the regular season coming on June 18, 2005 against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the bottom of the ninth to walk-off a 5-3 win.
It was memorable as both teams were wearing their 1959 throwback jerseys to commemorate their meeting in the 1959 World Series. Pierzynski would help the White Sox go wire-to-wire in his first season with the team, winning the AL Central on September 29, 2005 in a win against the Detroit Tigers. However, Pierzynski's biggest contributions would come during the White Sox 2005 playoff run. In the 2005 playoffs, Pierzynski was a major player for the White Sox. In Game 1 of the ALDS against the defending champion Red Sox, Pierzynski would start the White Sox off strong with a 3-run homer in the first inning off of Matt Clement, he would add a second home run in the bottom of the 8th off Bronson Arroyo to help lead the White Sox to a blistering 14-2 win. Pierzysnki finished the game 3-3 with 4 RBIs. Pierzynski hit a double and scored an insurance run in the top of the 9th inning as the White Sox defeated the Red Sox 5-3 to clinch the series and move on to the ALCS. Pierzynki's biggest, most well-known play, came in Game 2 of the ALCS against the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim.
Down 0-1 in the series and the game tied at 1-1 in the bottom of the 9th inning, Pierzynski famously struck out on a low ball in the dirt from Kelvim Escobar. Thinking they had ended the inning, the Angels proceeded to walk off of the field. Angels catcher Josh Paul and manager Mike Scioscia argued with Eddings but the call stood and Pierzynski was replaced by Pablo Ozuna who promptly stole second base. Joe Crede would end the game on a walk-off double to tie the series at 1-1; the White Sox did not lose again, winning the next 3 games in Anaheim to advance to their first World Series since 1959. The White Sox would sweep the Houston Astros to win their first championship in 88 years, giving Pierzynksi his first ring. Pierzynski batted.262 with 3 home runs and 9 RBI, catching all 11 games for the White Sox during their championship run. In 2006, Pierzynski was named one of the five American League players in the All-Star Final Vote. Soon afterwards the Chicago White Sox organization began an election campaign using the slogan "Punch A.
J." Pierzynski received 3.6 million votes, the most votes in the American League, subsequently sending him to his second All-Star appearance. The "Punch A. J." campaign was inspired by an incident on May 20, 2006 between Pierzyn
History of the Chicago White Sox
The Chicago White Sox are a Major League Baseball team based on the South Side of Chicago. They are one of eight charter members of the American League, having played in Chicago since the inaugural 1901 season, they have won six American League pennants and three World Series titles, most in 2005. Despite long periods of mediocrity, the White Sox have among the most unusual and celebrated histories of any Major League franchise; the team played in the Western League. The WL reorganized itself in November 1893, with Ban Johnson as President; the Cornhuskers won the Western League Pennant in their first season in 1894. Johnson, a Cincinnati-based reporter, had been recommended by his friend Charles Comiskey, former major league star with the St. Louis Browns in the 1880s, managing the Cincinnati Reds. After the 1894 season, when Comiskey's contract with the Reds was up, he decided to take his chances at ownership, he bought the Sioux City team and transferred it to Saint Paul, where it enjoyed some success over the next five seasons.
In 1900, the Western League changed its name to the American League. It was still a minor league, subject to the governing National Agreement and an underling of the National League; the NL gave permission to the AL to put a team in Chicago, provided they not use the city name in the team's branding. Comiskey moved his St. Paul club to the Near South Side and renamed it the White Stockings, grabbing a nickname that had once been used by the Chicago Cubs; the White Stockings won the 1900 American League pennant led by player-manager Dick Padden, the final WL/AL championship season as a minor league. After the season, the AL declined to renew its membership in the National Agreement and declared itself a major league. After acquiring a number of stars from the older league, including pitcher and manager Clark Griffith, the White Stockings captured the AL's first major-league pennant the next year, in 1901. Headline editors at the Chicago Tribune sports department began shortening the name to "White Sox", the team adopted the shorter name in 1904.
The name change to the White Sox was brought on after scorekeeper Christoph Hynes wrote White Sox at the top of a scorecard rather than White Stockings, this scorecard was seen by the press. The White Sox would continue to be built on pitching and defense in the following years, led by pitching workhorse Ed Walsh, who pitched over 400 innings each season in his prime. Walsh, Doc White and Nick Altrock paced the White Sox to their 1906 pennant and faced the crosstown rival Cubs in the 1906 World Series; the Cubs had won a then-record 116 regular-season games and were an overwhelming favorite to defeat the White Sox since the White Sox had the lowest team batting average in the American League that year. However, in a stunning upset, the White Sox took the Series, intracity bragging rights, in six games. To this day, the 1906 White Sox are known as "the Hitless Wonders." The White Sox spent the next decade alternating between mediocre seasons. During this time, they acquired a solid core of players such as catcher Ray Schalk, shortstop / third baseman Buck Weaver, pitchers Eddie Cicotte, Red Faber and Reb Russell.
April 18, 1907, was the coldest Opening Day when the temperature was 38 degrees. In 1915, Pants Rowland became the manager and the White Sox added outfielder Shoeless Joe Jackson, second baseman Eddie Collins and outfielder Happy Felsch to the line-up; the White Sox finished in third place with a record of 93–61. In 1916, the White Sox acquired pitcher Lefty Williams and finished 2nd at 89–65. In 1917, the White Sox put the final pieces of the puzzle together with the addition of first baseman Chick Gandil and shortstop Swede Risberg. Weaver was moved over to third base; the White Sox roared through the American League in 1917 with a record of 100–54—still a franchise record for wins and winning percentage—and won the pennant by nine games over the Boston Red Sox. Their offense, led by Collins and Jackson, was 1st in runs scored; the White Sox pitching staff, led by Eddie Cicotte, Red Faber and Reb Russell, ranked first with a 2.16 ERA. The White Sox faced the 98–56 New York Giants in the 1917 World Series.
The White Sox won Game one in Chicago 2–1 behind a complete game by Cicotte. Felsch hit a home run in the fourth inning; the White Sox beat the Giants in Game two by a score of 7–2 behind another complete game effort by Faber to take a 2–0 lead in the series. Back in New York for Game three, Cicotte again threw a complete game, but the White Sox could not muster a single run against Giants starter Rube Benton and lost 2–0. In Game 4 the White Sox were shut out again 5–0 by Ferdie Schupp. Faber threw another complete game, but the Series was going back to Chicago at 2–2. Reb Russell started Game 5 in Chicago, but only faced 3 batters before giving way to Cicotte. Going into the bottom of the seventh inning, Chicago was down 5–2, but they rallied to score three in the 7th and three in the 8th to win 8–5. Red Faber pitched the final two innings for the win. In Game six, the White Sox took an early 3–0 lead and on the strength of another complete game victory from Faber won 4–2 and clinched the world championship.
Eddie Collins was the hitting hero, batting.409 over the six game series while Cicotte and Faber combined to pitch fifty out of a total fifty two World Series innings to lead the staff. After an off-year in the war-shortened season of 1918, the club bounced back to win the pennant in 1919 and entered the World
Walk-off home run
In baseball, a walk-off home run is a home run that ends the game. It must be a home run that gives the home team the lead in the bottom of the final inning of the game, thus the losing team must "walk off" the field afterward, rather than finishing the inning, the winning team can "walk off" the field with the win. The winning runs must still be counted at home plate. Although the concept of a game-ending home run is as old as baseball, the adjective "walk-off" attained widespread use only in the late 1990s and early 2000s; the first known usage of the word in print appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle on April 21, 1988, Section D, Page 1. Chronicle writer Lowell Cohn wrote an article headlined "What the Eck?" about Oakland reliever Dennis Eckersley's unusual way of speaking: "For a translation, I go in search of Eckersley. I want to know why he calls short home runs'street pieces,' and home runs that come in the last at-bat of a game'walkoff pieces'..." Although the term was coined with a negative connotation, in reference to the pitcher, it has come to acquire a more celebratory connotation, for the batter who circles the bases with pride and with the adulation of the home crowd.
Sportscasters use the term "walk-off hit" as any kind of hit which drives in the winning run to end the game. The terms "walk-off hit by pitch", "walk-off walk", "walk-off wild pitch", "walk-off reach-on-error", "walk-off steal of home", "walk-off passed ball", "walk-off balk" have been applied, the latter has been dubbed a "balk-off", it is a separate stretch of the term to call a hit a walk-off when what ends the game is not the hit but the defense's failure to make a play. The day after Eric Bruntlett pulled off a game-ending unassisted triple play for the Philadelphia Phillies against the New York Mets on August 23, 2009, the Philadelphia Daily News used the term "walk-off triple play" in a subheadline describing the moment. A grand slam is a home run hit with all three bases occupied by baserunners, thereby scoring four runs—the most possible in one play. A walk-off home run with the bases loaded is therefore known as a walk-off grand slam. Starting in the 1990s, a walk-off grand slam that erases a three-run deficit has come to be known as an ultimate grand slam.
There have been 29 such instances documented in major league history – all taking place during the regular season, 15 of those coming with two outs. Of the 29 home runs, only Roberto Clemente's was hit inside the park, at spacious Forbes Field on July 25, 1956. Pirates manager/third base coach Bobby Bragan instructed him to stop at third, but Clemente ran through the stop sign to score the winning run. Alan Trammell's June 21, 1988 and Chris Hoiles' May 17, 1996 grand slams occurred under the cliché situation: bases loaded, two outs, full count, bottom of the ninth inning, down by three runs; the most recent walk-off grand slam was hit by Jason Kipnis of the Cleveland Indians on September 19, 2018, his 1,000th career hit. Three players have hit two walk-off grand slams in a season, Cy Williams in 1926, Jim Presley in 1986, Steve Pearce in 2017. Pearce's first was on July 27. Followed by his second on July 30, becoming the first player in MLB history to hit multiple walk-off grand slams within the span of a single week.
Only five pitchers in major league history have surrendered two game-ending grand slam home runs in one season, according to the Elias Sports Bureau: Satchel Paige of the St. Louis Browns, in 1952, to Sammy White of the Boston Red Sox on June 30, to Eddie Joost of the Philadelphia Athletics on July 15. Lindy McDaniel of the Chicago Cubs, in 1963, to Bob Aspromonte of the Houston Colt.45s on June 11, to Jim Hickman of the New York Mets on August 9. Lee Smith of the California Angels, in 1995, to Mark McGwire of the Oakland Athletics, on June 30, to Albert Belle of the Cleveland Indians on July 18. Francisco Rodríguez of the New York Mets, in 2009, to rookies Everth Cabrera of the San Diego Padres, on August 7, Justin Maxwell of the Washington Nationals on September 30. Rodríguez is the only pitcher to surrender two game-winning grand slams to two rookies. Bud Norris of the Los Angeles Angels, in 2017, to Edwin Encarnación of the Cleveland Indians, on July 25, Steve Pearce of the Toronto Blue Jays on July 30.
Norris surrendered both in the same week, it was the second game-winning walk-off grand slam by Pearce in the same week. Walk-off celebrations consist of an entire baseball team leaving the dugout to meet a player at home plate after the batter hits a walk-off home run, or at whichever base the hitter happens to reach if a traditional base hit results in a walk-off victory. Players encircle teammates who hit a walk-off before dancing and roughhousing to celebrate their victory. During a walk-off celebration on May 29, 2010, Kendrys Morales a member of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, broke his left leg while celebrating a walk-off grand slam; as a result of this injury, team manager Mike Scioscia instituted new guidelines for his team that ensured a much tamer response to all subsequent walk-off victories. The rules of baseball provide that: A batter is entitled to a home run only "when he shall have touched all bases legally." A batter is out, on appeal, for failing to touch each base in order or for passing a preceding runner.
In some cases, all runs. On a game-winning hit, a batte
Comiskey Park was a baseball park in Chicago, located in the Armour Square neighborhood on the near-southwest side of the city. The stadium served as the home of the Chicago White Sox of the American League from 1910 through 1990. Built by White Sox owner Charles Comiskey and designed by Zachary Taylor Davis, Comiskey Park hosted four World Series and more than 6,000 Major League Baseball games. In one of the most famous boxing matches in history, the field was the site of the 1937 heavyweight title match in which Joe Louis defeated champion James J. Braddock in eight rounds that launched Louis' unprecedented 11-plus year run as the heavyweight champion of the world; the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League called Comiskey Park home when they weren't playing at Normal Park or Soldier Field. They won the 1947 NFL Championship Game over the Philadelphia Eagles at Comiskey Park. Much less popular than the Bears, the Cardinals' last season at Comiskey was 1958, they left for St. Louis in March 1960.
The Chicago American Giants of the Negro American League called Comiskey Park home from 1941–1950. Adjacent to the south, a new ballpark opened in 1991, Comiskey Park was demolished the same year. Called Comiskey Park, it was renamed U. S. Cellular Field in 2003 and Guaranteed Rate Field in 2016; the park was built on a former city dump that Comiskey bought in 1909 to replace the wooden South Side Park. White Sox Park, within three years it was renamed for White Sox founder and owner Charles Comiskey; the original name was restored in 1962 it changed back to Comiskey Park in 1976. Comiskey Park was modern for its time, it was the third concrete-and-steel stadium in the major leagues to be built since 1909. As built, it seated 32,000, a record at the time, it retained the nickname "The Baseball Palace of the World." The park's design was influenced by Sox pitcher Ed Walsh, was known for its pitcher-friendly proportions. Changes were made, but the park remained more or less favorable to defensive teams.
For many years this reflected on the White Sox style of play: solid defense, short, quick hits. The park was unusual in that no player hit 100 home runs there: Carlton Fisk set the record with 94; the first game in Comiskey Park was a 2–0 loss to the St. Louis Browns on July 1, 1910; the first no-hitter at Comiskey Park was in 1935, hurled by Vern Kennedy on August 31, a 5–0 win over Cleveland. The Sox won their first home night game, over St. Louis on August 14, 1939, 5–2. Comiskey Park was the site of four World Series. In 1917, the Chicago White Sox won games 1, 2 and 5 at Comiskey Park and went on to defeat the New York Giants four games to two. In 1918, Comiskey Park hosted the World Series between the Chicago Boston Red Sox; the Cubs borrowed Comiskey Park for the series because of its larger seating capacity. The Red Sox defeated the Cubs four games to two. Games one and three were played at Comiskey Park; the Red Sox won games three. Attendance was under capacity in that war year; the best crowd was game 3, with some 27,000 patrons.
In 1919, the White Sox lost the infamous "Black Sox" World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, five games to three in a nine-game series. Games three, four and eight were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox won game three and lost games four and eight. In 1959, the White Sox lost four games to two to the Los Angeles Dodgers. Games one and six were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox lost games two and six. With their win in Game 6 at Comiskey Park, the Los Angeles Dodgers became the first West Coast team to win a World Series. Comiskey saw its last post-season action in 1983, when the White Sox lost the American League Championship Series to the Baltimore Orioles, 3 games to 1, with games 3 and 4 in Chicago. Baltimore went on to win the World Series. Comiskey Park was the site of three Major League Baseball All-Star Games, each marked a turn in the direction of dominance by one league or the other: The first-ever All-Star Game was held in 1933, it began as a promotion by Arch Ward, sports editor of the Chicago Tribune, in connection with the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition being held on Chicago's lakefront.
The Americans defeated the Nationals, helped in part by a home run by Babe Ruth, nearing the end of his career, but could still swing a mighty bat. The game inaugurated a stretch when the Americans dominated, winning 12 of the first 16; the park next hosted the July classic in 1950, a game best remembered for Ted Williams' collision with the outfield wall that broke his elbow and ended his playing season. Less remembered is that it began a turnaround for the Nationals, who won the game in extra innings and started to win a trend that continued for more than three decades, building up an astounding 30 wins against only 6 losses and 1 tie; the 50th Anniversary All-Star Game in 1983 was held at Comiskey Park in commemoration of the first All-Star Game at that same venue. The American League's lopsided win, including the first-ever grand slam in an All-Star Game, by Fred Lynn, turned out to signal an end to the National League's dominance in the mid-summer classic. During the last eight years of the park's existence the Americans went 5-3.
Hosting a winning All-Star Game was a good omen for the Sox, as they won their division in 1983, the first baseball title of any kind in Chicago since the Sox won the 1959 pennant. Comiskey Park was the most frequent home to the Negro League East-West All-Star Game from 1933 to 1960; the Negro Leagues' All-Star
Black Sox Scandal
The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball match fixing incident in which eight members of the Chicago White Sox were accused of intentionally losing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for money from a gambling syndicate led by Arnold Rothstein. The fallout from the scandal resulted in the appointment of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first Commissioner of Baseball, granting him absolute control over the sport in order to restore its integrity. Despite acquittals in a public trial in 1921, Judge Landis permanently banned all eight men from professional baseball; the punishment was defined to include banishment from post-career honors such as consideration for the Baseball Hall of Fame. Despite requests for reinstatement in the decades that followed, the ban remains in force. White Sox club owner Charles Comiskey was disliked by the players and was resented for his miserliness. Comiskey long had a reputation for underpaying his players though they were one of the top teams in the league and had won the 1917 World Series.
Because of baseball's reserve clause, any player who refused to accept a contract was prohibited from playing baseball on any other professional team. Players could not change teams without permission from their current team, without a union the players had no bargaining power. Comiskey was no worse than most owners—in fact, Chicago had the largest team payroll in 1919. In the era of the reserve clause, gamblers could find players on many teams looking for extra cash—and they did. In addition, the clubhouse was divided into two factions. One group resented the more straitlaced players, a group that included players like second baseman Eddie Collins, a graduate of Columbia College of Columbia University, catcher Ray Schalk, pitcher Red Faber. By contemporary accounts, the two factions never spoke to each other on or off the field, the only thing they had in common was a resentment of Comiskey. A meeting of White Sox ballplayers—including those committed to going ahead and those just ready to listen—took place on September 21, in Chick Gandil's room at the Ansonia Hotel in New York.
Buck Weaver was the only player to attend the meetings. He was banned with the others for knowing about the fix but not reporting it. Although he hardly played in the series, utility infielder Fred McMullin got word of the fix and threatened to report the others unless he was in on the payoff; as a small coincidence, McMullin was a former teammate of William "Sleepy Bill" Burns, who had a minor role in the fix. Both had played for the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League, Burns had pitched for the White Sox in 1909 and 1910. Star outfielder Shoeless Joe Jackson was mentioned as a participant but did not attend the meetings, his involvement is disputed; the scheme got an unexpected boost when the straitlaced Faber could not pitch due to a bout with the flu. Years Schalk said that if Faber had been available, the fix would have never happened, since Faber would have certainly started games that went instead to two of the alleged conspirators, Eddie Cicotte and Lefty Williams. On October 1, the day of Game One, there were rumors amongst gamblers that the series was fixed, a sudden influx of money being bet on Cincinnati caused the odds against them to fall rapidly.
These rumors reached the press box where a number of correspondents, including Hugh Fullerton of the Chicago Herald and Examiner and ex-player and manager Christy Mathewson, resolved to compare notes on any plays and players that they felt were questionable. However, most fans and observers were taking the series at face value. On October 2, the Philadelphia Bulletin published a poem which would prove to be ironic: After throwing a strike with his first pitch of the Series, Cicotte's second pitch struck Cincinnati leadoff hitter Morrie Rath in the back, delivering a pre-arranged signal confirming the players' willingness to go through with the fix. In the fourth inning, Cicotte made a bad throw to Swede Risberg at second base. Sportswriters found the unsuccessful double play to be suspicious. Lefty Williams, one of the "Eight Men Out", lost a Series record. Dickie Kerr, not part of the fix, won both of his starts, but the gamblers were now reneging on their promised progress payments. The gamblers claimed that all the money was let out on bets, was in the hands of the bookmakers.
After Game 5, the players who were in on the fix went back to their normal way of playing and won Games 6 and 7 of the best-of-nine Series. Before Game 8, threats of violence were made on the gamblers' behalf. Williams started Game 8, but gave up four straight one-out hits for three runs before manager Kid Gleason relieved him; the White Sox lost Game 8 on October 9, 1919. Besides Weaver, the players involved in the scandal received $5,000 each or more, with Gandil taking $35,000; the rumors dogged the White Sox throughout the 1920 season as they battled the Cleveland Indians for the American League pennant, stories of corruption touched players on other clubs as well. At last, in September 1920, a grand jury was convened to investigate. On the eve of their final season series, the White Sox were in a virtual tie for first place with the Indians; the Sox would need to win all three of their remaining games and hope for Cleveland to stumble, as the Indians had more games left to play than the White Sox.
Despite the season being on the line, Comiskey suspended the seven White Sox still in the ma