Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Alberta's fourth-largest city by population after Calgary and Red Deer, the third-largest by land area after Calgary and Edmonton; the nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the city's warm summers, mild winters, windy climate. Lethbridge lies southeast of Calgary on the Oldman River. Lethbridge is the commercial, financial and industrial centre of southern Alberta; the city's economy developed from drift mining for coal in the late 19th century and agriculture in the early 20th century. Half of the workforce is employed in the health, education and hospitality sectors, the top five employers are government-based; the only university in Alberta south of Calgary is in Lethbridge, two of the three colleges in southern Alberta have campuses in the city. Cultural venues in the city include performing art theatres and sports centres. Before the 19th century, the Lethbridge area was populated by several First Nations at various times.
The Blackfoot referred to the area as Mek-kio-towaghs, Assini-etomochi and Sik-ooh-kotok. The Sarcee referred to it as Chadish-kashi, the Cree as Kuskusukisay-guni, the Nakoda as Ipubin-saba-akabin; the Kutenai people referred to it as ʔa•kwum. After the US Army stopped alcohol trading with the Blackfeet Nation in Montana in 1869, traders John J. Healy and Alfred B. Hamilton started a whiskey trading post at Fort Hamilton, near the future site of Lethbridge; the post's nickname became Fort Whoop-Up. The whiskey trade led to the Cypress Hills Massacre of many native Assiniboine in 1873; the North-West Mounted Police, sent to stop the trade and establish order, arrived at Fort Whoop-Up on 9 October 1874. They managed the post for the next 12 years. Lethbridge's economy developed from drift mines opened by Nicholas Sheran in 1874 and the North Western Coal and Navigation Company in 1882. North Western's president was William Lethbridge. By the turn of the century, the mines employed about 150 men and producing 300 tonnes of coal each day.
In 1896, local collieries were the largest coal producers in the Northwest Territories, with production peaking during World War I. An internment camp was set up at the Exhibition Building in Lethbridge from September 1914 to November 1916. After the war, increasing oil and natural gas production replaced coal production, the last mine in Lethbridge closed in 1957; the first rail line in Lethbridge was opened on August 28, 1885 by the Alberta Railway and Coal Company, which bought the North Western Coal and Navigation Company five years later. The rail industry's dependence on coal and the Canadian Pacific Railway's efforts to settle southern Alberta with immigrants boosted Lethbridge's economy. After the Canadian Pacific Railway moved the divisional point of its Crowsnest Line from Fort Macleod to Lethbridge in 1905, the city became the regional centre for Southern Alberta. In the mid-1980s, the CPR moved its rail yards in downtown Lethbridge to nearby Kipp, Lethbridge ceased being a rail hub.
Between 1907 and 1913, a development boom occurred in Lethbridge, making it the main marketing and service centre in southern Alberta. Such municipal projects as a water treatment plant, a power plant, a streetcar system, exhibition buildings—as well as a construction boom and rising real estate prices—transformed the mining town into a significant city. Between World War I and World War II, the city experienced an economic slump. Development slowed, drought drove farmers from their farms, coal mining declined from its peak. After World War II, irrigation of farmland near Lethbridge led to growth in the city's population and economy. Lethbridge College opened in April 1957 and the University of Lethbridge in 1967; the city of Lethbridge is located at 49.7° north latitude and 112.833° west longitude and covers an area of 127.19 square kilometres. The city is divided by the Oldman River; the city is Alberta's fourth largest by population after Calgary and Red Deer. It is the third largest in area after Calgary and Edmonton and is near the Canadian Rockies, 210 kilometres southeast of Calgary.
Lethbridge is split into three geographical areas: north and west. The Oldman River separates West Lethbridge from the other two while Crowsnest Trail and the Canadian Pacific Railway rail line separate North and South Lethbridge; the newest of the three areas, West Lethbridge is home to the University of Lethbridge, opened at that site in 1971, but the first housing was not completed until 1974 and the prime Whoop-Up Drive access opened only in 1975. Much of the city's recent growth has been on the west side, it has the youngest median age of the three; the north side was populated by workers from local coal mines. It has the oldest population of the three areas, is home to multiple industrial parks and includes the former Hamlet of Hardieville, annexed by Lethbridge in 1978. South Lethbridge is the commercial heart of the city, it contains the downtown core, the bulk of retail and hospitality establishments, the Lethbridge College. Lethbridge has a semi-arid climate with an average maximum temperature of 12.3 °C and an average minimum temperature of −1.1 °C.
With precipitation averaging 365 mm
Keyano College is a post-secondary college located in Fort McMurray, Canada. It offers specialized training to more than 2800 full-time students and over 13,000 part-time students; the main Clearwater Campus is located in downtown Fort McMurray with the Suncor Energy Industrial Campus located in the Gregoire Industrial Park and a new campus in Fort Chipewyan. Outreach campuses are located in Anzac and Conklin; the college is a member of the Alberta Rural Development Network. Keyano College opened in Fort McMurray in 1965 as the Alberta Vocational Centre; the official opening ceremonies were held on January 26, 1966. In 1975 the College was reopened under its current name, "Keyano", a Cree word which translated, means, "Sharing"; the college's slogan was further adapted from that to be "Yours and Ours". In 1978 Keyano College went public and became a community college, when the province appointed a Board of Governors to serve as the decision-making body for the institution. Keyano College has grown to become a modern series of buildings on many campuses.
Students can choose from certificate and diploma programs in a wide variety of areas, such as Aboriginal Entrepreneurship, Business Administration, College & Career Preparation, Childhood Studies, Bachelor of Education, EMT, Environmental Technology, Fitness Leadership & Movement, Bachelor of Physical Education, Office Administration, Practical Nurse, Human Resources Management, Social Work, University Studies. A number of trades programs are offered, such as Mechanical Construction Trades Preparation, Heavy Equipment Technician – FINNtech and Process Engineering. There are one- and two-year university transfer programs in a variety of disciplines with collaborative degrees in Nursing and Elementary Education. Apprenticeship programs are offered in Carpentry and Hoisting Operator, Heavy Equipment Technician, Steamfitter/Pipefitter, Welding. To make entering the workforce an easier process, Keyano is looking into pre-employment programs as an alternative to traditional apprenticeship training.
First-rate technology is used to provide the Keyano Advantage, why a new Oilsands Power & Process Engineering Laboratory is under construction. This facility, funded in part by industry leaders, will begin training students in January 2014. Keyano has an active Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada Program, funded by Immigration and Citizenship Canada, that offers English language instruction to newcomers to Canada; the program numbers over 125 students, who represent more than 20 nations. Each Fall, Keyano hosts a Student Awards ceremony where sponsors give out their awards to deserving students. In November 2012, over $350,000 was awarded to 235 students; the Bursaries are offered to low-income students. Keyano's own theatre offers plays as well as lectures and guest speakers. Sports teams include: basketball, volleyball and futsal. Education in Alberta All facts, unless otherwise stated, are from Keyano College's web site: Keyano College Advanced education and Technology - Institutional Mandates Keyano College Programs @ Keyano College
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, its enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act. The university is considered a “Comprehensive academic and research university”, which means that it offers a range of academic and professional programs, which lead to undergraduate and graduate level credentials, have a strong research focus; the university comprises four campuses in Edmonton, the Augustana Campus in Camrose, a staff centre in downtown Calgary. The original north campus consists of 150 buildings covering 50 city blocks on the south rim of the North Saskatchewan River valley, directly across from downtown Edmonton. 39,000 students from Canada and 150 other countries participate in 400 programs in 18 faculties. The University of Alberta is a major economic driver in Alberta; the university's impact on the Alberta economy is an estimated $12.3 billion annually, or five per cent of the province's gross domestic product.
The University of Alberta is a leading institution for the study of Ukraine and is home to the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. The University of Alberta has graduated more than 275,000 alumni, including Governor General Roland Michener; the university is a member of the Alberta Rural Development Network, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education and the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System. The University of Alberta, a single, public provincial university, was chartered in 1906 in Edmonton, Alberta with the University Act in the first session of the new Legislative Assembly, with Premier Alexander C. Rutherford as its sponsor; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research. The governance was modelled on Ontario's University of Toronto Act of 1906: a bicameral system consisting of a senate responsible for academic policy, a board of governors controlling financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and perform institutional leadership. Heated wrangling took place between the cities of Calgary and Edmonton over the location of the provincial capital and of the university, it was stated that the capital would be north of the North Saskatchewan River and that the university would be in a city south of it. The city of Edmonton became the capital and the then-separate city of Strathcona on the south bank of the river, where Premier Alexander Rutherford lived, was granted the university; when the two cities were amalgamated in 1912, Edmonton became both the political and academic capital. With Henry Marshall Tory as its first president, the University of Alberta started operation in 1908. Forty-five students attended classes in English and modern languages, on the top floor of the Queen Alexandra Elementary School in Strathcona, while the first campus building, Athabasca Hall, was under construction. In a letter to Alexander Cameron Rutherford in early 1906, while he was in the process of setting up McGill University College in Vancouver, Tory wrote, "If you take any steps in the direction of a working University and wish to avoid the mistakes of the past, mistakes which have fearfully handicapped other institutions, you should start on a teaching basis."Under Tory's guidance, the early years were marked by recruitment of professors and construction of the first campus buildings.
Today, he has a building named after him. Percy Erskine Nobbs & Frank Darling designed the master plan for the University of Alberta in 1909–10. Nobbs designed the Arts Building and Power House. With Cecil S. Burgess, Nobbs designed the Provincial College of Medicine. Architect Herbert Alton Magoon designed several buildings on campus, including St. Stephen's Methodist College and the residence for professor Rupert C. Lodge; the University of Alberta awarded its first degrees in 1912, the same year it established the Department of Extension. The Faculty of Medicine was established the following year, the Faculty of Agriculture began in 1915, but along with these early milestones came the First World War and the global influenza pandemic of 1918, whose toll on the university resulted in a two-month suspension of classes in the fall of 1918. Despite these setbacks, the university continued to grow. By 1920, it had two schools, it awarded a range of degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Divinity, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Laws.
There were 851 male students and 251 female students, 171 academic staff, including 14 women. The Breton Soil Plots were established at the faculty of agriculture from 1929 – present to provide agricultural research on fertilization, crop rotations and farming practices on Gray-Luvisolic soils, which cover many regions in western Canada; the University of Alberta spearheaded an extraordinary rate of volunteerism in the Province of Alberta to the First World War from its medical faculty. Experience gained was used by returning veteran
St Joseph's College, Edmonton
St. Joseph's College is a Catholic, liberal arts college on the University of Alberta campus, it serves as a residence and place of worship. It is affiliated with the University of Alberta and the Archdiocese of Edmonton, is operated by the Basilian Fathers, its courses and campus ministry services are open to all University of Alberta students, all of its courses are 3-credit University of Alberta Arts electives. St. Joseph’s College is committed to engaging with and promoting the Church’s traditional openness to exploring the unity of Faith and Reason, its academic programs are supported and enhanced by a worshiping community, campus ministry programs, residences for both male and female students. An inclusive community open to all, the College strives to contribute to the building of a world in which the common good of all is of paramount importance. St. Joseph’s College courses are all 3-credit University of Alberta Arts electives. Additionally, it offers a B. A. Minor in Christian Theology, as well as a Certificate in Catholic Education.
The College’s course topics include Christianity & Culture, Ethics, Religious Education, Theology and Experiential Learning, including International Service Learning courses that involve service trips to Guatemala and Bethlehem. St. Joseph’s College has both men’s and a women’s residences that are open to all University of Alberta students, regardless of their cultural, spiritual, or academic backgrounds; the men’s residence, founded in 1926, accommodates 63 students, offers private furnished bedrooms, a full meal plan at the College’s cafeteria, common study areas. Known for being a unique and close-knit community, the St. Joe’s Rangers participate in the University of Alberta campus intramural programs and have a long history of winning championship titles. Notable residents include former Prime Minister of Joe Clark; the St. Joseph’s College Women’s Residence was founded in 2006. Called Kateri House, after the First Nations Catholic Saint, St. Kateri Tekakwitha, the residence expanded to accommodate 284 female students.
Its building has 24 hour security furnished 1, 2 & 4 bedroom suites, an optional lunch meal plan shared with the men's residence and common study areas. The Kateri Islanders participate in the University of Alberta campus intramurals; the St. Joseph’s College Campus Ministry program aims to care for students’ spiritual and emotional health, it offers community-building activities, ecumenical & interfaith events, spiritual & pastoral counselling, numerous volunteer opportunities. Its mentorship program pairs first-year students with older student mentors who support them throughout their transition into university life. St. Joseph’s College Campus Ministry hosts the University of Alberta’s Catholic Students Association, a student-run Catholic group that strives to foster a community, supportive and welcoming to all; the St. Joseph's College Chapel provides mass on both weekdays, its Sunday masses include music ministry. It offers the Sacrament of Reconciliation on Tuesdays by appointment. St. Joseph's College Web Site
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000