Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960
The Protocol was intended to finally resolve the long-running territorial dispute between the two countries, and brought about the official end of the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941-1942. Their efforts failed to prevent the outbreak of hostilities on July 23,1941, despite this, limited skirmishes continued to occur through the months of August and September in the Ecuadorian provinces of El Oro and Loja, as well as in the Amazonian lands. Ecuador accused Peru of continuing its advances into the province of Azuay. Diplomatic efforts continued, with the countries being joined by Chile. With its recent entry into World War II, the United States was eager to present a united American continent, at the third Pan-American Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, the United States encouraged a settlement between the two countries. The observers from the United States, Brazil and Chile co-signed the document, the Rio Protocol was subsequently ratified by each countrys congress on February 26,1942. The status quo line defined in the 1936 Lima Accord was used as the basis for the border line, the previous border recognized current possessions.
Relative to the 1936 line, Ecuador ceded 18,552 km² of previously possessed territory to Peru, during the 1960s, the Ecuadorian government alleged that the Protocol was invalid, because it had been signed under coercion while foreign troops were stationed on Ecuadorian soil. This stance was modified by subsequent governments, but was never officially reverted until the resolution of the dispute in 1995, the intended goal of the Rio Protocol was not fulfilled until the signing of the Itamaraty Peace Declaration in 1995. Between the signing of the two treaties, the Paquisha Incident and the Cenepa War rekindled the dispute, ARTICLE II The Government of Peru shall, within a period of 15 days from this date, withdraw its military forces to the line described in article VIII of this protocol. ARTICLE IV The military forces of the two countries remain in their new positions until the definitive demarcation of the frontier line. Until then, Ecuador shall have only civil jurisdiction in the zones evacuated by Peru, which remain in the same status as the demilitarized zone of the Talara Act.
The confluence of the Conambo River with the Pintoyacu in the Tigre River, Outlet of the Cononaco into the Curaray, downstream, to Bellavista, A line to the outlet of the Yasuní into the Napo River. These rectifications shall be made with the collaboration of the representatives of the United States of America, the Argentine Republic and Chile. The Governments of Peru and Ecuador shall submit this protocol to their respective Congresses, signed at Rio de Janeiro, January 29,1942. Approved by the Congress of Ecuador, February 26,1942, approved by the Congress of Peru, February 26,1942. Alfredo Solf y Muro J. Tobar Donoso Signed) Sumner Welles Signed) E. Ruiz Guiñazú Signed) Juan B, rossetti Signed) Oswaldo Aranha Territorial Disputes and Their Resolution, The Case of Ecuador and Peru Text of the Rio Protocol
Colombian Liberal Party
The Colombian Liberal Party is a social-democratic and social liberal political party in Colombia. It was founded as a party, but developed into a more social-democratic direction. The party was founded in 1848 and, in opposition to the Colombian Conservative Party, gaitán himself, likely winner of the next presidential election, was shot down in 1948. Nowadays there are critics of the 16-year agreement but it greatly reduced the intensity of the violent political warfare that preceded it. In the 1994 election the Liberal Partys Ernesto Samper was narrowly elected President, immediately afterwards he was accused of accepting millions from the Cali Cartel to fund his campaign. Partly due to the scandal the Liberal Party lost seats in the 1998 parliamentary election, more seriously, the Liberals were defeated in the Presidential election held the same year. The Liberal Party suffered a split in the lead up to the 2002 elections. Horacio Serpa Uribe, the partys unsuccessful 1998 Presidential candidate was nominated to run again, however Álvaro Uribe, a former Senator and Governor from the party launched an independent Presidential campaign, backed by the Conservatives and dissident Liberals.
Whereas Serpa supported the ongoing negoitations with FARC, Uribe advocated confronting the guerrillas, Uribe was victorious in the elections, securing a majority in the first round. As a compromise, former president César Gaviria Trujillo was elected party leader in 2005, at the 2006 legislative election, the Liberals lost around half their seats. While they remained the largest party in the Chamber of Representatives, during the parliamentary elections of 14 March 2010, the Liberal Party obtained 17 senators and 37 representatives, placing third in both the Chamber of Representatives and Senate. At the 2010 presidential election Liberal candidate Rafael Pardo finished sixth with 4. 38% of the vote, the Liberal Party went on to join the governing coalition of President Juan Manuel Santos. Liberalism in Colombia Social Party of National Unity Official website Democracia a distancia, Elecciones 2006
Politics of Colombia
Executive power is carried out by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives of Colombia, the Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Other significant reforms under the new constitution provide for divorce, dual nationality, the election of a vice president. The national government has executive and judicial branches, The president is elected for a four-year term and, since 2005. The 1991 constitution reestablished the position of president, who is elected on the same ticket as the president. By law, the president will succeed in the event of the presidents resignation, illness. Colombias bicameral Congress consists of a 102-member Senate of Colombia and a 161-member Chamber of Representatives of Colombia, senators are elected on the basis of a nationwide ballot, while representatives are elected in multi member districts co-located within the 32 national departments.
The countrys capital is a capital district and elects its own representatives. Members may be re-elected indefinitely, and, in contrast to the previous system, Congress meets twice a year, and the president has the power to call it into special session when needed. The civilian judiciary is a separate and independent branch of government and the general structure for Colombias administration of justice are set out in Law 270 of March 7,1996. Colombias legal system has begun to incorporate some elements of an oral, accusatorial system. The judicial branchs general structure is composed of four distinct jurisdictions, Colombias highest judicial organs include the Supreme Court, the State Council, the Constitutional Court, and the Superior Judicial Council. This sometimes leads to conflicting opinions since there is no one court which clearly has authority over the decisions of the other three
Avianca S. A. (acronym in Spanish for Aerovías del Continente Americano S. A. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D. C. with its hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca comprises a group of seven Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one using a code sharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second largest in Latin America, Avianca together with its subsidiaries has the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America. It is wholly owned by Synergy Group S. A. a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and it is listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange. Avianca is the second oldest airline after KLM, and celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2009. It is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere and it became an official member of Star Alliance on 21 June 2012, after a process that lasted approximately 18 months from the initial announcement of their invitation to join the Alliance. The airline traces its history back to 5 December 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, the company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail.
The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn and this and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a range of 850 km which could carry up to four passengers. This new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation, by the mid-1920s, SCADTA started its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla. In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways, five Colombians participated in this, Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. In 1946, Avianca began flights to Quito, Panama City, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s, in 1951, Avianca acquired Lockheed 749 Constellations and 1049 Super Constellations.
In 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707 aircraft, to operate its routes and on 2 November 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca became the first Latin American airline to operate a Boeing 747. Three years later, it started operations with another 747, this time a 747 Combi, mixing cargo, in 1994, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol, beginning Aviancas new system of operations. By 1996, Avianca Postal Services became Deprisa, which provided mail services
Peruvian Air Force
The Peruvian Air Force is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with defending the nation and its interests through the use of air power. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations, on May 20,1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian Army and Navy were merged into the Cuerpo de Aviación del Perú. During the Colombia-Peru War of 1933, its Vought O2U Corsair, the CAP lost three aircraft to the Colombian Air Force. The corps was renamed Cuerpo Aeronáutico del Perú on March 12,1936, in 1941, the CAP participated in the Peruvian-Ecuadorian War. Lieutenant José A. Quiñones was a Peruvian pilot during the war, on July 23,1941, his plane, a North American NA-50 fighter, was hit while performing a low-level attack on an Ecuadorian border post on the banks of the Zarumilla river. According to traditional Peruvian accounts, Quiñones, upon being hit by fire, crashed his damaged aircraft deliberately into the Ecuadorian anti-aircraft position.
He was promoted posthumously to Captain, and is considered a National Hero of Peru. During the 1950s presidency of General Manuel A. Odría, the Peruvian Air Force was reorganized, Peru was an ally of the United States during this period, and was predominantly equipped with aircraft built in the US and Great Britain. However, on October 3,1968 a military led by pro-Soviet Peruvian Army General Juan Velasco Alvarado organized a swift. Velasco aligned Peru more closely with the Soviet Bloc and relations with the United States deteriorated, the US declared an arms embargo in 1969, making it difficult to obtain spare parts for Perus American weaponry. In the 1970s and 1980s, Peru turned to the Soviet Union for its military hardware. During this time, the FAP acquired several Soviet-made aircraft, including Sukhoi Su-22 fighters, Antonov An-26 and An-32 transport aircraft, as well as Mil Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-25, Soviet advisors were dispatched to Peru. Velasco was overthrown by military officers in 1975 and Belaúnde returned to power as a civilian president in 1980.
The FAP purchased the French-made Mirage 5P and 5DP and the Mirage 2000 in 1984, relations improved with the United States and the FAP obtained American aircraft like the Cessna A-37B Dragonfly attack aircraft, as well as Lockheed C-130 and L-100-20 Hercules transport aircraft. The stagnation of the Peruvian economy during the late 1980s and early 1990s forced cost reductions, budget cuts in training meant Peruvian pilots had a low number of annual flying hours per pilot if compared to the 1970s. It is very likely however that some pilots and regiments such as those based in Talara AFB. Especially since those regiments until today are equipped with modern aircraft, in 1995 the Peruvian Air Force fought the Cenepa War against Ecuadors FAE in the Amazonian skies ill-equipped, having five fighter planes and three attack helicopters shot down by the Ecuadorians. In 1997 and 1998 however things started to change for better in FAPs outlook, in order to achieve Fujimoris colossal military bold plans meant FAP getting a much needed general overhaul and new purchases
Colombian Air Force
The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia. It is one of the largest American air forces and increased activity due to its important role in the fight against narco-terrorism, Air Force is the only global processes that have accredited with ISO9001 and NTCGP1000. The system corresponds to ISO9001 quality management with the international standard, the Colombian Air Force served with distinction during the Second World War in the islands of San Andrés. Military aviation began in Colombia in 1919 with the creation of an aviation school for the Colombian Army. Previously by Law 15 of 1916 of September 7 two commissions were sent overseas to study new technological advancements in aviation, cavalry, officers pertaining to the Colombian Army were sent to take a course on flight training on techniques and tactics. The school was created in Colombia along with the Colombian National Army Aviation as a fifth regiment by Law 126 of 1919 of December 31 authorized by President of Colombia.
The unit was activated on February 15,1921 in Flandes. The Aviation School initially had 3 Caudron G.3 E-2,3 Caudron G.4 A-2, the school was closed due to financial hardships in 1922. The School of Military Aviation was reopened on November 8,1924 in Madrid, the aircraft used for training were 4 Wild WT and 8 Wild X performing the first air review on August 7,1927. Then on December 28,1928 the first combat aircraft was shown in Colombia, the Colombian military aviation only had 11 instructors, four Curtiss-Wright CW-14R Osprey air combat support planes and one Curtiss Falcon O-1. The military aviation received full support from the Congress of Colombia. The imported aircraft were 4 Junkers F.13,4 Junkers W34 and 3 Junkers K43,6 Junkers Ju 52,2 Dornier Merkur II,4 Dornier Wal,20 Curtiss Falcon F-8F and 30 Curtiss Hawk II F-11C. The contingent was sent to southern Colombia to fight Peruvian forces with the main mission of delivering supplies to the front lines, aerial reconnaissance. The fleet was divided into three squadrons with Puerto Boy as the camp site.
Support bases were in Caucaya airstrip, El Encanto, Puerto Arica, La Pedrera, the main combat operations started on February 14,1933 in Tarapacá where the Peruvian garrison was bombed by seven Colombian aircraft and assaulted by land forces. Later, on March 26, in the village of Guepi eleven Colombian planes, the last military actions of the conflict with Peru were on May 8,1933 and in which there was an aerial engagement between the two forces. Peruvian planes were attacking the fleet of Colombia over the Algodón River and were surprised by the Colombian squadron. One of the Peruvian aircraft, a Douglas O-38P was gunned down, on May 24,1933 a cease fire was declared after an agreement was reached with the intervention of the League of Nations
The Amazon River, usually abbreviated to Amazon, in South America is the largest river by discharge of water in the world and, according to some authors, the longest in length. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters at Manaus, the rivers largest city. The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, the portion of the rivers drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other rivers basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, during what many archaeologists call the formative stage, Amazonian societies were deeply involved in the emergence of South Americas highland agrarian systems. Early human settlements were based on low-lying hills or mounds. Shell mounds were the earliest evidences of inhabitation, they represent piles of refuse and are mainly dated between 7500 and 4000 years BP. They are associated with ceramic age cultures, no preceramic shell mounds have been documented so far by archaeologists, artificial earth platforms for entire villages are the second type of mounds.
They are best represented by the Marajoara culture, figurative mounds are the most recent types of occupation. There is ample evidence that the surrounding the Amazon River were home to complex and large-scale indigenous societies, mainly chiefdoms who developed large towns. Archeologists estimate that by the time the Spanish conquistador De Orellana travelled across the Amazon in 1541 and these pre-Columbian settlements created highly developed civilizations. For instance, pre-Columbian indigenous people on the island of Marajó may have developed social stratification, in order to achieve this level of development, the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon rainforest altered the forests ecology by selective cultivation and the use of fire. Scientists argue that by burning areas of the forest repetitiously, the people caused the soil to become richer in nutrients. This created dark soil areas known as terra preta de índio, further research has hypothesized that this practice began around 11,000 years ago.
Some say that its effects on forest ecology and regional climate explain the otherwise inexplicable band of rainfall through the Amazon basin. Many indigenous tribes engaged in constant warfare, james Stuart Olson wrote, The Munduruku expansion dislocated and displaced the Kawahíb, breaking the tribe down into much smaller groups. First came to the attention of Europeans in 1770 when they began a series of attacks on Brazilian settlements along the Amazon River. In March 1500, Spanish conquistador Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first documented European to sail up the Amazon River. Pinzón called the stream Río Santa María del Mar Dulce, shortened to Mar Dulce, sweet sea, because of its fresh water pushing out into the ocean
The Colombian Navy, officially the Colombian National Navy, known as the Armada Nacional or just the Armada in Spanish, is the naval branch of the military forces of Colombia. The Colombian Navy has a strength of 35,086 personnel as of September 2013 including approximately 22,000 in the Marine Infantry corps. The acronym ARC, is used both as the ship prefix for all the Colombian Navy ships, as well as a common short name for the Navy itself. In order to accomplish its mission, the Colombian navy establishes four strategic objectives, Protection of the population and resources, in addition to functions of security and defense the Navy is called to participate in missions aimed to ensure the integral use of the sea by the Nation. For this purpose it must fulfill both military and diplomatic activities along with implementation and enforcement of law and order and its former slogan was Sailing our pride. But the roots of the Navy can be traced 13 years back, to 1810, the president of the Supreme Board of Cartagena, José María García de Toledo, created the Naval Command Office by means of a decree dated September 17,1810.
The Navy was placed under the command of Captain Juan Nepomuceno Eslava, some of these captains would obtain renown during the independence war, like Luis Brión and Renato Beluche. This small navy was effective in limited operations intercepting Spanish ships, during 1815, a Spanish army headed by Pablo Morillo besieged Cartagena, as the first step of its Pacifying Expedition. The five-month siege was so harsh that earned the city its title of Heroic, but this expedition fizzled out due to infighting amongst its generals shortly after the liberation of Margarita Island. It is only after the Liberation Campaign of 1819 that General Francisco de Paula Santander created the Naval School on June 28,1822, and additional decrees to the provision of the navy. Admiral Jose Prudencio Padilla would go on reorganizing and building the fleet, to support Bolívars plans for the campaign of Zulia and this fleet would be engaged in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo which crushed the Spanish naval aspirations in South America.
In 1824 the first – and only –8 cadet officers graduate from naval school, in March 3,1826, the Ministry of the Navy is created, with Lino de Clemente as minister. This would be a punch that the Navy would not recover from for almost a hundred years. The incipient navy of 1825 would see its ships slowly sold, scrapped or abandoned, during the rest of the 19th century, there was no formal navy to speak of. The conflict with Peru in 1932 made the Colombian Navy reappear, new ships were acquired and the Escuela de Grumetes was founded in 1934 and the Escuela de Cadetes was founded in 1935. Nowadays both schools continue their work of instructing the Colombian men and women of the sea, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 1941 changed things somewhat and prompted Colombia to break diplomatic relations with the Axis countries, but not to formally declare war. These German hunting runs, despite the Colombian Navy patrols, eventually resulted in the sinking of three Colombian ships during 1942–43, under circumstances that were never cleared up.
Around 8,00 pm, the Caldas detected the periscope of a U-boat and proceeded to engage it with cannon fire, accounts identified this U-boat as the German submarine U-154