President of Italy
The President of the Italian Republic is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The President's term of office lasts for seven years; the 11th President of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, was elected on 10 May 2006 and elected to a second term for the first time in Italian Republic history on 20 April 2013. Following Napolitano's resignation, the incumbent President, former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009 on 31 January 2015; the framers of the Constitution of Italy intended for the president to be an elder statesman of some stature. Article 84 states that any citizen, fifty or older on election day and enjoys civil and political rights can be elected president; the article states that the presidency is incompatible with any other office, therefore the president-elect must resign any other position before being sworn in. The 1948 Constitution does not put any term limit on the presidency, although until 2013 no President ran for a second term.
On 20 April 2013, President Giorgio Napolitano agreed to run for a second term in an attempt to break the parliamentary deadlock in the 2013 presidential elections and was duly re-elected that same day. However, he made it clear that he would not serve his full term and retired in January 2015; the President of the Republic is elected by an electoral college comprising the two chambers of Parliament—the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic—meeting in joint session, combined with 58 special electors appointed from the 20 regions of Italy. Three representatives come from each region, save for the Aosta Valley, which appoints one so as to guarantee representation for all localities and minorities. According to the Constitution, the election must be held by a secret ballot, with the 315 Senators, the 630 Deputies and the 58 regional representatives all voting. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting and after that a simple majority suffices.
The number of rounds has been large thanks to the secret ballot and fragmented nature of the Italian Parliament The election is presided over by the President of the Chamber of Deputies, who calls for the public counting of the votes. The vote is held in Palazzo Montecitorio, seat of the Chamber of Deputies, expanded and re-configured for the event; the President assumes office after taking an oath before Parliament and delivering a presidential address. The President’s term lasts seven years and this prevents any President from being reelected by the same Houses, which have a five-year mandate granting some freedom from excessive political ties to the appointing body; the Italian President's term may end by voluntary resignation, permanent disability due to serious illness, or dismissal as for crimes of high treason or an attack on the Constitution. Former Presidents of the Republic are called Presidents Emeritus of the Republic and are appointed Senator for life. In the absence of the President of the Republic, including travel abroad, presidential functions are performed by the President of the Senate.
The Constitution lays out the duties and powers of the President of the Republic, to include the following: In foreign affairs: Accrediting and receiving diplomatic functionaries. Ratifying international treaties upon authorization of Parliament. Making official visits abroad, accompanied by a member of the government. Declaring a state of war as decided by Parliament. In parliamentary affairs: Nominating up to five senators-for-life. Calling the Chambers of Parliament into extraordinary session and dissolving them. Calling elections and fixing the date for the first meeting of the new Chambers. In legislative matters: Authorizing the presentation of proposed governmental bills to Parliament. Promulgating the laws approved in Parliament. Remanding to the Chambers and asking for reconsideration of a bill. Appertaining to popular sovereignty. Calling referenda. In executive matters and as to official protocol. Naming the Prime Minister of Italy and appointing Cabinet ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Accepting the oath of the government. Receiving the resignation of a government. Promulgating laws by decree, which are proposed by the government alone. Unless acted on by Parliament, these measures expire after 60 days. Naming certain high state functionaries. Presiding over the Consiglio Supremo di Difesa and commanding the armed forces. Decreeing the dissolution of regional councils and the removals of presidents of regions. In judicial matters: Presiding over the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura. Naming one-third of the Constitutional Court. Granting commutations. In practice, the President's office is -- -- ceremonial; the Constitution provides that nearly all presidential acts must be countersigned by a member of the government as most presidential acts are only formal and real political responsibility is upon the government. Many of the others are duties; however and commutations have been recognized as autonomous powers of the President. Despite the ceremonial nature of the position the President's role still has important implications.
His ability to send a piece of legislation back to Parliament is not taken by legislators, who are unlikely to ignore it unless the legislation is critical. Moreover, in times of political instability the President has significant leeway in appoint
The Carabinieri are the national gendarmerie of Italy who carry out domestic policing duties. It is one of Italy's main law enforcement agencies, alongside the Polizia di Stato and the Guardia di Finanza; as with the Guardia di Finanza but in contrast to the Polizia di Stato, the Carabinieri are a military force. As the fourth branch of the Italian Armed Forces, they come under the authority of the Ministry of Defence. In practice, there is a significant overlap between the jurisdiction of the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri, who are contacted on separate emergency telephone numbers. Unlike the Polizia di Stato, the Carabinieri have responsibility for policing the military, a number of members participate in military missions abroad. Carabinieri have policing powers that can be exercised at any time and in any part of the country, they are always permitted to carry their assigned weapon as personal equipment, they were founded as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the forerunner of the Kingdom of Italy.
During the process of Italian unification, the Carabinieri were appointed as the "First Force" of the new national military organisation. Although the Carabinieri assisted in the suppression of opposition during the rule of Benito Mussolini, they were responsible for his downfall and many units were disbanded during World War II by Nazi Germany, which resulted in large numbers of Carabinieri joining the Italian resistance movement. In 2001, they were separated from the Army to become a separate branch of the Italian Armed Forces. Inspired by the French Gendarmerie, the corps was created by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps. Police duties were managed by the Dragoni di Sardegna Corps, created in 1726 and composed of volunteers. After French soldiers had occupied Turin at the end of the 18th century and abandoned it to the Kingdom of Piedmont, the Royal Carabinieri Corps was instituted under the Royal Patents of 13 July 1814.
The name derives from the French word carabinier, meaning "soldier armed with a carbine."The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province. The divisions were further divided into companies and subdivided into lieutenancies, which commanded and coordinated the local police stations and were distributed throughout the national territory in direct contact with the public. In 1868, the Corazzieri was formed – as an escort of honour for the sovereign, since 1946 for the President of the Republic; the Italian unification saw the number of divisions increased, on 24 January 1861 the Carabinieri were appointed the "First Force" of the new national military organization. In May 1915 Italian troops marched to encompass South Tyrol, territory of their former allies the Austro-Hungarian empire, in the Fronte italiano campaign; the defenders had sufficient time to prepare strong fortifications there, in the Carso theatre to the east, the Italian regiments, under overall command of General Cadorna, found themselves repulsed in harsh fighting.
The role of the Carabinieri was to act as barrier troops, setting up machine gun posts to control the rear of the attacking regiments and prevent desertion. During the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, the Carabinieri were one of the police forces entrusted with suppressing opposition in Italy. During the same period, while part of the Italian Africa Police, they were involved in atrocities in colonial Italian East Africa during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. During World War II they fought in their function as military police against the Allied forces, against Yugoslav partisans as part of the Italian occupation force in Yugoslavia. After Mussolini was voted out of office on 25 July 1943, on the orders of the king he was arrested by the Carabinieri as he left the king's private residence in Rome and subsequently imprisoned on Campo Imperatore by Carabinieri forces. After the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 and the country's split into the fascist Italian Social Republic in the north and the Kingdom of Italy in the south, the Carabinieri split into two groups.
In southern Italy the Carabinieri Command for Liberated Italy was founded in Bari, mobilizing new units for the Italian war of liberation. These units were attached to the Italian Liberation Corps and the six Italian Combat Groups of the Italian Co-Belligerent Army, fighting with the Allied forces. In northern Italy the fascist regime organized the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, to employ it as a military police and rapid-deployment anti-guerilla force. GNR was joined by the Black Brigades which represented a new militant incarnation of the Fascist party. Due to the role the Carabinieri had played in the downfall of Mussolini, since one of the few units which fought the German occupation of Rome were the Granatieri di Sardegna regiments and the II Carabinieri cadet battalion, the Germans did not view the Carabinieri as loyal to the fascist cause and ordered the disbanding of all Carabinieri units in Axis-controlled territory on 7 October 1943; as German forces subsequently began to arrest and deport members of the Carabinieri to Germany for forced labour, large numbers of Carabinieri joined the Italian resistance movement.
After the war the Carabinieri counted at least 2,735 fallen and 6,500 wounded, out of 14,000 who had joined the Resistance in northern and central Ital
Left Ecology Freedom
Left Ecology Freedom was a democratic socialist political party in Italy, whose bulk was formed by former members of the Communist Refoundation Party. The party's leader was a former President of Apulia. On 17 December 2016, SEL dissolved into Italian Left, launched as a party in early 2017. SEL was formed as an alliance called Left and Freedom in the run up to the 2009 European Parliament election in order to overcome the 4% threshold introduced by the new electoral law in February 2009. At the time of formation, on 16 March 2009, SL included: Movement for the Left Socialist Party Federation of the Greens Democratic Left Unite the Left The electoral symbol for the 2009 election included the logos of the Party of European Socialists, the Federation of the Greens, the European United Left–Nordic Green Left. In the election, SL failed to pass the 4% threshold. Despite that, it was decided. In October 2009, during a party congress, the Greens elected a new party leader, Angelo Bonelli, voted to opt out from the process of the foundation of the new party.
However and her faction decided to keep supporting SL as Ecologists with Left Ecology Freedom and leave the Greens. SL was weakened by the split occurred within PS, when the United Socialists, who were opposed to the integration of PS into SL, walked out. In November SL was hit by the sudden opt-out of the whole PS. Since November 2009 SL was thus composed of MpS, SD, UlS, the Ecologists and Socialism and Left, a small minority of PS that wanted to continue the experience of SL. In December SL was launched as a party, Vendola was elected spokesperson. After an important meeting in September in Naples, where it was decided to add "Ecology" to the party's name, in December 2009 Left Ecology and Freedom held a constituent assembly in Rome; the new symbol was presented and Vendola was confirmed as spokesperson. SEL in coalition with the PS, did well in the 2010 regional elections in Central and Southern Italy. Overall, SEL won 3.0% of the vote, with the PS at 0.7% and the Greens at 0.2%. In the Apulian election Vendola was re-elected President of the Region and trailed SEL to 9.7%, its best regional result.
The party was founded in a congress in Florence on 22–24 October 2010. Vendola was elected president. In 2011 and 2012 the party offered a strong competition to the Democratic Party in coalition primaries in many cities. In May 2011 Giuliano Pisapia and Massimo Zedda, supported by SEL in primaries, were elected mayors of Milan and Cagliari, respectively; the party gained 5% in Milan, 6% in Turin, 10% in Bologna, 6% in Trieste, 4% in Naples and 7% in Cagliari. In occasion of the 2011 referendums of June 2011, SEL gave full support to the "yes" committees. In May 2012 Marco Doria, another independent close to SEL, was elected Mayor of Genoa. In August 2012 Vendola announced his bid for the primary election in order to select the candidate for Prime Minister of the PD-led centre-left coalition in the 2013 general election. On 25 November Vendola won 15.6% of the vote and came third behind Democrats Pier Luigi Bersani and Matteo Renzi. In the run-off Vendola supported Bersani, who defeated Renzi 60.9% to 39.1%.
SEL selected its candidates for the election through a closed primary in December 2012. In the 2013 general election, which took place in February 2013, the party was part of the centre-left coalition Italy. Common Good, which supported PD leader Pier Luigi Bersani as candidate for Prime Minister. In the election SEL won 3.2 % of the vote, returning 7 senators. In its Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol's list SEL included some representatives of the Greens of South Tyrol: one of them, Florian Kronbichler, was elected to the Chamber. On 16 March 2013 Laura Boldrini, an independent member of SEL, was elected President of the Chamber of Deputies. In September SEL expressed its intention to join the Party of European Socialists, however in January 2014 the party endorsed Alexis Tsipras, leader of the Greek Coalition of the Radical Left and standard-bearer of the Party of European Left in the 2014 European Parliament election, as their chosen candidate for President of the European Commission, contested the election within The Other Europe electoral list.
Ahead of the 2014 European Parliament election the party participated in the formation of a left-wing joint list, The Other Europe, endorsed by Alexis Tsipras and included several intellectuals and the Communist Refoundation Party. In the election the list obtained 4.0 % of 3 MEPs. Right after the election, the party suffered a severe split in its parliamentary ranks as 12 deputies out of 37, including the floor leader Gennaro Migliore, left the party over disagreements with the party's line and started to support the Renzi Cabinet; the bulk of the splinters joined forces in Freedom and Rights – European Socialists, while some others directly joined Renzi's Democratic Party. In November 2015 SEL formed a joint parliamentary group in the Chamber, named Italian Left, with splinter
Matteo Renzi is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016. After the rejection of his constitutional reform in the December 2016 referendum, Renzi formally resigned on 12 December when Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni was appointed new head of the government by President Sergio Mattarella. Renzi served, with a brief interruption, as Secretary of the Democratic Party from 2013 to 2018, when he resigned after the 2018 electoral defeat, he was President of the Province of Florence from 2004 to 2009 and Mayor of Florence from 2009 to 2014. Renzi, who did not hold a seat in either house of Parliament during his tenure as Prime Minister, became a member of the Senate in March 2018. At the age of 39 years and 42 days upon assuming office, Renzi is the youngest person to serve as Italian Prime Minister and was the youngest leader in the G7, he was the first serving Mayor to become Prime Minister. Renzi was sometimes described as the de facto leader of the Party of European Socialists, in opposition to the European People's Party associated with Angela Merkel.
In 2014, the American magazine Fortune ranked Renzi as the third most influential person under 40 in the world, Foreign Policy listed him as one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers. Moreover, Renzi is nicknamed il Rottamatore due to his ambition of renovating the Italian political establishment. Renzi has been described as a liberal by political observers. While in power, Renzi's Government implemented numerous reforms, including changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reformation of the public administration, the simplification of civil trials, the introduction of same-sex civil unions and the abolition of many small taxes. Renzi was born in 1975 in Florence, the second of four children, his father, Tiziano Renzi, was a small business owner and Christian Democratic municipal councillor in Rignano sull'Arno. Renzi grew up in an observant Catholic family in Rignano sull'Arno studied in Florence at the Classical Lyceum Dante Alighieri, where he passed his final exam with the grade of 60/60 but was nearly expelled because, as the students' representative, he refused to withdraw a school newspaper in which there was harsh criticism of a maths teacher.
During this time he was a Scout in Scouts of Italy. In 1999, he graduated from the University of Florence with a degree in law, with a thesis on Giorgio La Pira, the former Christian Democratic Mayor of Florence, he went on to work for CHIL Srl, a marketing company owned by his family, co-ordinating the sales service of the newspaper La Nazione. During this time Renzi was a football referee at amateur level and a futsal player. In 1994, he participated as a competitor for five consecutive episodes in the television program La Ruota Della Fortuna hosted by Mike Bongiorno, winning 48 million lire. Renzi's interest in politics began in high school. In 1996 he was one of the founders of the committee in support of Romano Prodi's candidature as Prime Minister in the general election. In the same year he married Agnese Landini, with whom he had three children. In 2001, he joined Francesco Rutelli's The Daisy party, composed by members of the disbanded People's Party. On 13 June 2004 he was elected President of Florence Province with 59% of the vote, as the candidate of the centre-left coalition.
He was the youngest person. In the years as President of the Province, Renzi expressed his ideas against the "political caste", during his mandate he reduced taxes and decreased the number of the Province's employees and managers. After five years as the President of Florence Province, Renzi announced that he would seek election as the Mayor of Florence. On 9 June 2009, Renzi, by now a member of the Democratic Party, won the election on a second round vote with 60% of the votes, compared to 40% for his opponent Giovanni Galli; as Mayor he halved the number of city councillors, installed 500 free WiFi access points across the city, reduced kindergarten waiting lists by 90%, increased spending on social welfare programs and schools. One year after being sworn in as Mayor and with his popularity in national opinion polls increasing, Renzi organised a public meeting with another young party administrator, Debora Serracchiani, at Leopolda Station in Florence to discuss Italian politics, after stating that a complete change was necessary in his party.
Other prominent Democratic Party members who aligned themselves with Renzi's programme were Matteo Richetti, President of the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna, Davide Faraone, a regional councillor from the Sicilian Regional Assembly, Giuseppe Civati, a prominent member of the Democratic Party in Lombardy and a member of the Lombard Regional Council. Following this public meeting, the Italian media gave Renzi the nickname "il Rottamatore", or "The Scrapper". In 2011, Renzi organised a second public meeting in Florence, where he wrote down one hundred topics of discussion. During this time he began to be criticised by other members of his party closer to the then-Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, after his suggestion that Italian politicians of the same generation as then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi should retire. In September 2012, Renzi announced that he would seek
The Italian Radicals are a political party in Italy, which describes itself as "liberale, liberista e libertario", where liberista denotes economic liberalism and libertario a form of cultural liberalism concerning moral issues. From 2001 to 2017 the party intended to be the Italian section of the Transnational Radical Party, to say the continuation of the Radical Party founded in 1955 by the left-wing of the Italian Liberal Party and re-launched in the 1960s by Marco Pannella; as the Radical Party had become a transnational NGO working at the UN-level, which by statute could not participate in national elections, its Italian members organised themselves into the Pannella List between 1992 and 1999 and the Bonino List until 2001, when they established the RI. In 2017 the TRP broke with the RI. Founded on 14 July 2001, the RI are a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party; the party was a full member of the Liberal International. According to its constitution, the party "as such and with its symbol does not take part in elections".
The Radical Party was long a left-libertarian movement in Italy proposing itself as the most extreme opposition to the Italian political establishment. When Silvio Berlusconi entered the political arena in 1994, the Radicals, who were organised into the Pannella List and were attracted by Berlusconi's proposed economic liberalism, supported him, albeit critically and without becoming directly involved in his centre-right governments, in the hope of a "liberal revolution" as opposed to the conservative and statist political establishment represented by traditional parties; the relationship between the Radicals and Berlusconi, whose allies included conservative groups at odds with the Radicals' cultural liberalism, soon ended up. In the 1999 European Parliament election, the Bonino List obtained 8.7% of the vote and seven MEPs, including Emma Bonino, Marco Pannella, Marco Cappato and Benedetto Della Vedova. However, the Radicals were not able to convert that electoral success into a more stable political influence, as subsequent elections would show.
Shortly after the 1999 election, they deserted Berlusconi's proposal of welcoming them back into the centre-right fold and instead formed the Committee of Radicals for the Liberal Revolution and the United States of Europe, led by Cappato. In the run-up of the 2000 regional elections, the opposite happened: Berlusconi's conservative allies posed a veto on the Radicals, who wanted to re-compose the alliance, they ran independent bids in most regions, obtaining elects only in Piedmont and Lombardy. In 2001, after a defeat in the general election, they re-organised themselves as Italian Radicals and elected 28-year-old Daniele Capezzone as secretary and Della Vedova, Rita Bernardini and Luca Coscioni as joint presidents. In the run-up of the 2005 regional elections, the Radicals understood that their isolation was no longer sustainable and took the unprecedented step of contextually asking to join either the centre-right House of Freedoms or the centre-left The Union, regardless of their respective political platforms.
The request was turned down by both coalitions, but the effort opened the way for the party's re-positionment in the Italian party system. In November 2005, the Radicals formed an alliance with the Italian Democratic Socialists, becoming de facto members of The Union coalition for the 2006 general election; the "rose in the fist", the symbol of the Socialist International which the Radical Party bought from the French Socialist Party, was chosen for the joint list, thus named Rose in the Fist. This decision led those Radicals who were more keen on an alliance with the centre-right to split: this group, led by Della Vedova, launched the Liberal Reformers and joined the House of Freedoms merging into Berlusconi's Forza Italia. In the election, the list won a mere 2.6% of the vote, much less than the combined support for the two parties before the alliance. The Radicals lost voters in their strongholds in the North to Forza Italia, while the Socialists lost ground in their southern heartlands to The Olive Tree parties.
After the election, Bonino was sworn in as Minister of European Affairs and International Trade in the Prodi II Cabinet. In November 2006, after a row with Pannella, still the party's real leader, Capezzone was forced not to run again for secretary and was replaced by rank-and-file Bernardini. Since although not leaving, Capezzone became critical of the government and formed his own political association named Decide!, closer to the centre-right than the centre-left. On, Capezzone entered Forza Italia and became the party's spokesman. In November 2007, the RnP was disbanded as the SDI merged with minor Socialist parties to form the modern-day Italian Socialist Party; the Radicals were at a new turning-point of their history. In the run-up of the 2007 congress, Pannella declared that the party should "give absolute priority to economic and libertarian reforms rather than the civil struggle to Vatican power and arrogance", central in 2006; this did not mean a reconciliation with the centre-right.
In the 2008 general election, the Radicals stood for re-election in list with the Democratic Party. Under an agreement with PD's leader Walter Veltroni, six deputies and three senators were elected. After the election, Bonino was appointed Vice President of the Senate and the Radicals joined the PD's parliamentary groups. In June, Maria Antoniett
Pier Luigi Bersani
Pier Luigi Bersani is an Italian politician and was Secretary of the Democratic Party, Italy's leading centre-left party, from 2009 to 2013. Bersani was Minister of Industry and Craftmanship from 1996 to 1999, Minister of Transport from 1999 to 2001, Minister of Economic Development from 2006 to 2008. Bersani was hospitalized on 5 January 2014, at the University of Parma Hospital, after suffering a brain hemorrhage. Pier Luigi Bersani was born on 29 September 1951, in Bettola, a mountain municipality in Nure Valley, in the province of Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, his father was a gas station clerk. After earning his high-school degree in Piacenza, Bersani enrolled in the University of Bologna where he graduated in philosophy with a dissertation on Pope Gregory I, he married Daniela in 1980, he has two daughters: Elisa and Margherita. After a short experience as a teacher he committed his life to public administration. Bersani joined the Italian Communist Party and subsequently the Democratic Party of the Left.
As member of the National Secretariat of the Democrats of the Left, he was responsible for the economic sector. As a young man, he became Vice-President of the Mountain Community of Piacenza elected in the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna region and Vice-President of Emilia-Romagna in 1990. After the general election of 1996 he was Minister of Industry and Craftmanship and Minister of Transports in the center-left cabinets of Prodi, D'Alema, Amato. In 2004, he was elected to the European Parliament representing the North-West region for the Democrats of the Left, part of the Socialist Group, sat on the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs, he was a substitute for the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection, a member of the Delegation to the European Union-Kazakhstan, EU-Kyrgyzstan and EU-Uzbekistan Parliamentary Cooperation Committees, for relations with Tajikistan and Mongolia, a substitute for the Delegation for relations with Belarus. He left the European Parliament on his re-election to the Chamber of Deputies in 2006, he was appointed as Minister of Economic Development in the government of Prime Minister Romano Prodi on 17 May 2006.
The Prodi II Cabinet assigned the Minister of Economic Development, Pier Luigi Bersani, the task of introducing reforms aimed at achieving increased market liberalization and competition. The minister responded with Decree Law 223 of 30 June 2006 converted into Law 248/2006, popularly known as the “Bersani 1” decree on taxi drivers and pharmacies, although it addressed other sectors as well; the government’s policy of competition and liberalization would not to stop there. “Bersani 1” was followed by “Bersani 2”, by a series of bills for the liberalization of the professions and television broadcasting, local public services, energy, as well as the reduction and simplification of times and procedures for the start up of new businesses. Another bill proposed to rationalize the jurisdictions of the regulatory authorities and reinforcing their powers with regard to competition. Still another bill would regulate the judicial procedures for class action lawsuits. On 25 October 2009, Bersani defeated incumbents Dario Franceschini and Ignazio Marino in the Democratic Party leadership election, thus becoming Italy's main opposition leader, scoring 55.1% among party members.
Since 7 November 2009, as decided by the National Assembly, Pier Luigi Bersani took office as Secretary of the Democratic Party of Italy. He defeated the mayor of Florence Matteo Renzi in the 2012 primary election. Before the Italian general election, 2013, the Democratic Party was ahead but at "the beginning of the year, Bersani’s party was above 40%, former center-right Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi was hovering around 25%. By the time polling stopped, the right was up to 30% and the left down to 35%. Outgoing appointed-technocrat Prime Minister Mario Monti’s centrist party-coalition was at less than 15% of the vote and the protest Five-Star Movement led by comedian Beppe Grillo was getting more than 15%". In the general elections on 24–25 February 2013, as a consequence of the electoral system the DP-led centre-left coalition took a small absolute majority in the lower house. In most of the rest of Europe, this would have been enough to make Bersani Prime Minister. However, the coalition failed to gain a majority in the Senate.
Italian governments must maintain the confidence of both chambers. Bersani said. Anna Finocchiaro, DP's leader in the Senate, confirmed the likelihood DP would not form a new coalition with Berlusconi's Centre-right coalition. On 22 March President Giorgio Napolitano asked Bersani to form a new government. On 27 March Bersani failed to strike a deal for forming a new Italian government with the grassroots Five-Star Movement which held the balance of power after February's inconclusive elections. On 19 April Bersani announced he would be stepping down from his post as Democratic Party leader after Romano Prodi failed to secure a parliamentary majority in the presidential election. In 2001, Bersani co-founded w
The Palazzo Chigi is a palace or noble residence in Rome and the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic. Since June 1, 2018, the occupant of the Palazzo Chigi has been Giuseppe Conte; the Palazzo, overlooking the Piazza Colonna and the Via del Corso, was begun in 1562 by Giacomo della Porta and completed by Carlo Maderno in 1580 for the Aldobrandini family. In 1659 it was purchased by the Chigi family, it was remodelled by Felice della Greca and Giovanni Battista Contini. It has five floors, a broad stairway that leads to the living rooms, a courtyard decorated with a fountain, designed by Giacomo della Porta; the fountain has been copied in many sites in other Italian cities. In 1878 it became the residence of the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Italy. In 1916 it became the seat of the Minister for Colonial Affairs, it was the official residence of the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1961 it became the official meeting place of Council of Ministers whose President is the head of the Italian government.
The Library Hall was commissioned by Agostino Chigi at the end of the 17th century in order to house the enormous library of cardinal Flavio Chigi. The project was realized by Giovanni Battista Contini; the Chigi library or Chigiana contained thousands of valuable manuscripts, to a large part based on the personal library of Pope Alexander VII, a member of the Chigi family. Since the time of Pope Benedict XV, the Vatican attempted to acquire this library, but lacked the necessary funds. Pietro Tacchi Venturi was tasked by Pope Pius XI to negotiate the purchase with the newly formed fascist government of Benito Mussolini. Venturi managed to convince Mussolini to donate the library to the Vatican free of charge; some other Italian institutional buildings: Palazzo del Quirinale Seat of the President of the Italian Republic Palazzo Madama Seat of the Italian Senate Palazzo Montecitorio Seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies Palazzo della Consulta, seat of the Constitutional Court of Italy History of Palazzo Chigi, Website of the Italian government