Latin or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet; the Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Latin script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most adopted writing system in the world. Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western, Central, as well as in some Eastern European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world; the script is either called Roman script or Latin script, in reference to its origin in ancient Rome. In the context of transliteration, the term "romanization" or "romanisation" is found. Unicode uses the term "Latin".
The numeral system is called the Roman numeral system. The numbers 1, 2, 3... are Latin/Roman script numbers for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters, thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The use of the letters I and V for both consonants and vowels proved inconvenient as the Latin alphabet was adapted to Germanic and Romance languages.
W originated as a doubled V used to represent the sound found in Old English as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn letter, used for the same sound. In the Romance languages, the minuscule form of V was a rounded u. In the case of I, a word-final swash form, j, came to be used for the consonant, with the un-swashed form restricted to vowel use; such conventions were erratic for centuries. J was introduced into English for the consonant in the 17th century, but it was not universally considered a distinct letter in the alphabetic order until the 19th century. By the 1960s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed; the International Organization for Standardization encapsulated the Latin alphabet in their standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage; as the United States held a preeminent position in both industries during the 1960s, the standard was based on the published American Standard Code for Information Interchange, better known as ASCII, which included in the character set the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet.
Standards issued by the ISO, for example ISO/IEC 10646, have continued to define the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages. The Latin alphabet spread, along with Latin, from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire; the eastern half of the Empire, including Greece, the Levant, Egypt, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca, but Latin was spoken in the western half, as the western Romance languages evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet. With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages or Germanic languages or Baltic languages, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages, most notably Hungarian and Estonian; the Latin script came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages, as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism.
The speakers of East Slavic languages adopted Cyrillic along with Orthodox Christianity. The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic predominating in official communication and Latin elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet; as late as 1500, the Latin script was limited to the languages spoken in Western and Central Europe. The Orthodox Christian Slavs of Eastern and Southeastern Europe used Cyrillic, the Greek alphabet was in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean; the Arabic script was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations like the Iranians, Indonesians, M
In ancient Roman religion, Inuus was a god, or aspect of a god, who embodied sexual intercourse. The evidence for him as a distinct entity is scant. Maurus Servius Honoratus wrote that Inuus is an epithet of Faunus, named from his habit of intercourse with animals, based on the etymology of ineundum, "a going in, penetration," from inire, "to enter" in the sexual sense. Other names for the god were Fatulcus. Walter Friedrich Otto disputed the traditional etymology and derived Inuus instead from in-avos, "friendly, beneficial", for the god's fructifying power. Livy is the sole source for identifying Inuus as the form of Faunus for whom the Lupercalia was celebrated: "naked young men would run around venerating Lycaean Pan, whom the Romans called Inuus, with antics and lewd behavior." Although Ovid does not name Inuus in his treatment of the Lupercalia, he may allude to his sexual action in explaining the mythological background of the festival. When Romulus complains that a low fertility rate has rendered the abduction of the Sabine women pointless, Juno, in her guise as the birth goddess Lucina, offers an instruction: "Let the sacred goat go into the Italian matrons".
The would-be mothers recoil from this advice, but an augur, "recently arrived from Etruscan soil," offers a ritual dodge: a goat was killed, its hide cut into strips for flagellating women who wished to conceive. Rutilius Namatianus offers a similar verbal play, Faunus init, in pointing out a statue depicting the god at Castrum Inui. Georg Wissowa rejected the identification of Inuus with Faunus; the scant evidence for Inuus has not been a bar to elaborate scholarly conjecture, as William Warde Fowler noted at the beginning of the 20th century in his classic work on Roman festivals. "It is quite plain," Fowler observed, "that the Roman of the literary age did not know who the god was." Servius's note on Inuus is prompted by the mention of Castrum Inui at Aeneid 6.775: This is one and the same as the town in Italy, called New Fort. Vergil says ` Fort Inuus' for the place, he is called Inuus, however, in Πάν in Greek. He is called Inuus, from going around having sex everywhere with all the animals, hence he is called Incubus.
Castrum Novum is most Giulianova on the coast of Etruria, but Servius seems to have erred in thinking that Castrum Inui, on the coast of Latium, was the same town. Rutilius makes the same identification as Servius, but explains that there was a stone carving of Inuus over the gate of the town; this image, worn by time, showed horns on its "pastoral forehead", but the ancient name was no longer legible. Rutilius is noncommittal about its identity, "whether Pan exchanged Tyrrhenian woodlands for Maenala, or whether a resident Faunus enters his paternal retreats," but proclaims that "as long as he revitalizes the seed of mortals with generous fertility, the god is imagined as more than predisposed to sex." The Christian apologist Arnobius, in his extended debunking of traditional Roman deities, connects Inuus and Pales as guardians over flocks and herds. The woodland god Silvanus over time became identified with Faunus, the unknown author of the Origo gentis romanae notes that many sources said that Faunus was the same as Silvanus, the god Inuus, Pan.
Isidore of Seville identifies the Inui, with Pan and the Gallic Dusios. Diomedes Grammaticus makes a surprising etymological association: he says that the son of the war goddess Bellona, Greek Enyo, given in the genitive as Ἐνυοῦς, is imagined by the poets as goat-foot Inuus, "because in the manner of a goat he surmounts the mountaintops and difficult passes of the hills." An Etruscan bronze mirror from Chiusi, the so-called Casuccini mirror, may depict Inuus. The scene on the back is a type known from at least four other mirrors, as well as engraved Etruscan gems and Attic red-figure vases, it depicts the oracular head of Orpheus prophesying to a group of figures. Names are inscribed around the edge of the mirror, but because the figures are not labeled individually, the correlation is not unambiguous. There is general agreement, given the comparative evidence, that the five central figures are Umaele, who seems to act as a medium; the lovers in the pediment at the top are Atunis and the unknown E…ial where Turan would be expected.
The figure with outstretched wings on the tang is a Lasa, an Etruscan form of Lar, a facilitator of love like the Erotes or Cupid. The bearded Inuus appears in the center. Damage obscures his midsection and legs. On an otherwise similar mirror, a spear-bearing youth replaces Inuus in the composition. No myth that would provide a narrative context for the scene has been determined. Charles Darwin used the nomenclature Inuus ecaudatus in writing of the Barbary macaque, now classified as Macaca sylvanus. Charles Kingsley wrote to Darwin in January 1862 speculating that certain mythological beings may represent cultural memories of creatures "intermediate between man & the ape" who became extinct as a result of natural selection: I want now to bore you on another matter; this great gulf between the quadrumana & man.
Carduus is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family and the tribe Cynareae, one of two genera considered to be true thistles, the other being Cirsium. Plants of the genus are known as plumeless thistles, they are native to Eurasia and Africa, several are known elsewhere as introduced species. This genus is noted for its disproportionately high number of noxious weeds compared to other flowering plant genera; the genus name Carduus is from the Latin for "a kind of thistle" or "thistlelike plant". It is related to the word Cardonnacum, the origin of Chardonnay, the name of the grape variety, it is related to the word card, which as a noun means a device for aligning and cleaning fibers, as a verb means the action of processing fibers in that way. These are annual or biennial herbs, sometimes perennial. Species grow 2 meters in height but are known to reach 4 meters; the erect stems are winged and spiny, have woolly hairs. The leaf blades are hairy to hairless and entire or divided into lobes, they have spine-toothed edges.
The flower heads are solitary or borne in inflorescences of up to 20. The head is spherical to cylindrical and covered in several layers of spreading or curving spine-tipped phyllaries, it contains tubular disc florets in shades of white, pink, or purple. The fruit is a cypsela tipped with a pappus of barbed scales. Several Carduus are notorious invasive plants outside their native range, for example, in Australia and the United States. Species such as C. acanthoides, C. nutans, C. pycnocephalus, C. tenuiflorus become weedy in disturbed habitat, such as overgrazed pasture. C. nutans is allelopathic, producing compounds that inhibit the growth and development of other plants. Agents of biological pest control that have been used against weedy Carduus thistles include the thistle head weevil, thistle crown weevil, thistle crown fly; the musk thistle rust, a fungus, may be used against C. nutans. There are about 90 to 127 species in the genus. Species include: Carduus acanthoides – spiny plumeless thistle Carduus adpressus Carduus argentatus Carduus baeocephalus Carduus candicans Carduus carpetanus Carduus crispus – curly plumeless thistle, curled thistle, welted thistle Carduus defloratus Carduus euboicus Carduus fallax Carduus fasciculiflorus Carduus getulus Carduus hamulosus Carduus jordanii Carduus juratzkae Carduus keniensis Carduus kerneri Carduus lanuginosus Carduus lusitanicus Carduus malyi Carduus martinezii Carduus nervosus Carduus nigrescens Carduus nutans – musk thistle, nodding thistle Carduus olympicus Carduus personata Carduus pycnocephalus – Italian thistle, Italian plumeless thistle, compact-headed thistle Carduus ramosissimus Carduus schimperi Carduus tenuiflorus – sheep thistle, shore thistle, slender thistle Carduus textorisianus Marg.
Carduus uncinatus Carduus weizensisHybridsCarduus × orthocephalus Carduus keniensis × C. platyphyllus Carduus. In: Greuter, W. & E. von Raab-Straube. Compositae. Euro+Med Plantbase. 2006. Carduus. BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide. Accessed 2013-02-17
Nuuk is the capital and largest city of Greenland. It is the country's largest cultural and economic centre; the major cities closest to the capital are Iqaluit and St. John's in Canada and Reykjavík in Iceland. Nuuk contains a third of Greenland's population and its tallest building. Nuuk is the seat of government for the Sermersooq municipality. In January 2019, it had a population of 17,984; the city was founded in 1728 by the Dano-Norwegian governor Claus Paarss when he relocated Hans Egede's earlier Hope Colony to the mainland, was named Godthåb. The city adopted its current name in 1979, although the name "Godthåb" remained in use in Danish. "Nuuk" is the Kalaallisut word for "cape". It is so named because of its position at the end of the Nuup Kangerlua fjord on the eastern shore of the Labrador Sea, its latitude, at 64°10' N, makes it the world's northernmost capital, only a few kilometres farther north than the Icelandic capital Reykjavík. The campus of the University of Greenland, hosting Statistics Greenland, the main holdings of the Public and National Library of Greenland are at the northern end of the district, near the road to the Nuuk Airport.
Nuuk receives its electric power from the renewable energy-powered Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant by way of a 132 kV powerline crossing Ameralik fjord over a distance of 5,376 m, the world's longest free span. The site has a long history of habitation; the area around Nuuk was first occupied by the ancient pre-Inuit, Paleo-Eskimo people of the Saqqaq culture as far back as 2200 BC when they lived in the area around the now abandoned settlement of Qoornoq. For a long time, it was occupied by the Dorset culture around the former settlement of Kangeq but they disappeared from the Nuuk district before AD 1000; the Nuuk area was inhabited by Viking explorers in the 10th century, shortly thereafter by Inuit peoples. Inuit and Norsemen both lived with little interaction in this area from about 1000 until the disappearance of the Norse settlement for uncertain reasons during the 15th century; the city proper was founded as the fort of Godt-Haab in 1728 by the royal governor Claus Paarss, when he relocated the missionary and merchant Hans Egede's earlier Hope Colony from Kangeq Island to the mainland.
At that time, Greenland was formally still a Danish colony under the united Dano-Norwegian Crown, but the colony had not had any contact for over three centuries. Paarss's colonists consisted of mutinous soldiers and prostitutes and most died within the first year of scurvy and other ailments. In 1733 and 1734, a smallpox epidemic killed most of the native population as well as Egede's wife. Hans Egede went back to Denmark in 1736 after 15 years in Greenland, leaving his son Poul to continue his work. Godthaab became the seat of government for the Danish colony of South Greenland, while Godhavn was the capital of North Greenland until 1940 when the administration was unified in Godthaab. In 1733, Moravian missionaries received permission to begin a mission on the island; this became the nucleus for present-day Nuuk as many Greenlanders from the southeastern coast left their territory to live at the mission station. From this base, further missions were established at Lichtenfels, Friedrichsthal and Idlorpait, before they were discontinued in 1900 and folded into the Lutheran Church of Denmark.
Around 1850, the area around Nuuk, were in crisis. The Europeans had brought diseases and a culture that conflicted with the ways of the native Greenlanders. Many Greenlanders were living in poverty. In 1853, Hinrich Johannes Rink came to Greenland and perceived the Greenlanders had lost much of their culture and identity under Danish influence. In response, in 1861, he started the Atuagagdliutt, Greenland's first newspaper, with a native Greenlander as editor; this newspaper based in Nuuk became significant for the Greenlandic identity. During World War II, there was a reawakening to Greenlandic national identity. Greenlanders assembled a council under Eske Brun's leadership in Nuuk. In 1940, an American and a Canadian Consulate were established in Nuuk. Under new regulations in 1950, two councils amalgamated into one; this Countryside Council was abolished on 1 May 1979, when the city of Godthåb was renamed Nuuk by the Greenland Home Rule government. The city boomed during the 1950s; as in Greenland as a whole, Nuuk is populated today by both Danes.
Over a third of Greenland's total population lives in the Nuuk Greater Metropolitan area. An article examining indigenous influences on cities worldwide suggested, One city... stands out. Nuuk... has the highest percentage of aboriginal people of any city: 90% of Greenland's population of 58,000 is Inuit, at least eight in 10 live in urban settlements. Nuuk celebrates Inuit culture and history to an extent, unprecedented in many cities with higher total aboriginal populations. By proportion and by cultural authority and impact, it may well be tiny Nuuk, the most indigenous city in the world. Nuuk is located at 64°10′N 51°44′W at the mouth of Nuup Kangerlua, some 10 km from the shores of the Labrador Sea on the southwestern coast of Greenland, about 240 km south of the Arctic Circle. Initially
Vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. Physicists discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes call "vacuum" or free space, use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure; the Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object, surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum. For example, a typical vacuum cleaner produces enough suction to reduce air pressure by around 20%. Much higher-quality vacuums are possible. Ultra-high vacuum chambers, common in chemistry and engineering, operate below one trillionth of atmospheric pressure, can reach around 100 particles/cm3.
Outer space is an higher-quality vacuum, with the equivalent of just a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter on average in intergalactic space. According to modern understanding if all matter could be removed from a volume, it would still not be "empty" due to vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, transiting gamma rays, cosmic rays and other phenomena in quantum physics. In the study of electromagnetism in the 19th century, vacuum was thought to be filled with a medium called aether. In modern particle physics, the vacuum state is considered the ground state of a field. Vacuum has been a frequent topic of philosophical debate since ancient Greek times, but was not studied empirically until the 17th century. Evangelista Torricelli produced the first laboratory vacuum in 1643, other experimental techniques were developed as a result of his theories of atmospheric pressure. A torricellian vacuum is created by filling a tall glass container closed at one end with mercury, inverting it in a bowl to contain the mercury.
Vacuum became a valuable industrial tool in the 20th century with the introduction of incandescent light bulbs and vacuum tubes, a wide array of vacuum technology has since become available. The recent development of human spaceflight has raised interest in the impact of vacuum on human health, on life forms in general; the word vacuum comes from Latin, meaning'an empty space, void', noun use of neuter of vacuus, meaning "empty", related to vacare, meaning "be empty". Vacuum is one of the few words in the English language that contains two consecutive letters'u'. There has been much dispute over whether such a thing as a vacuum can exist. Ancient Greek philosophers debated the existence of a vacuum, or void, in the context of atomism, which posited void and atom as the fundamental explanatory elements of physics. Following Plato the abstract concept of a featureless void faced considerable skepticism: it could not be apprehended by the senses, it could not, provide additional explanatory power beyond the physical volume with which it was commensurate and, by definition, it was quite nothing at all, which cannot rightly be said to exist.
Aristotle believed that no void could occur because the denser surrounding material continuum would fill any incipient rarity that might give rise to a void. In his Physics, book IV, Aristotle offered numerous arguments against the void: for example, that motion through a medium which offered no impediment could continue ad infinitum, there being no reason that something would come to rest anywhere in particular. Although Lucretius argued for the existence of vacuum in the first century BC and Hero of Alexandria tried unsuccessfully to create an artificial vacuum in the first century AD, it was European scholars such as Roger Bacon, Blasius of Parma and Walter Burley in the 13th and 14th century who focused considerable attention on these issues. Following Stoic physics in this instance, scholars from the 14th century onward departed from the Aristotelian perspective in favor of a supernatural void beyond the confines of the cosmos itself, a conclusion acknowledged by the 17th century, which helped to segregate natural and theological concerns.
Two thousand years after Plato, René Descartes proposed a geometrically based alternative theory of atomism, without the problematic nothing–everything dichotomy of void and atom. Although Descartes agreed with the contemporary position, that a vacuum does not occur in nature, the success of his namesake coordinate system and more implicitly, the spatial–corporeal component of his metaphysics would come to define the philosophically modern notion of empty space as a quantified extension of volume. By the ancient definition however, directional information and magnitude were conceptually distinct. In the medieval Middle Eastern world, the physicist and Islamic scholar, Al-Farabi, conducted a small experiment concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water, he concluded that air's volume can expand to fill available space, he suggested that the concept of perfect vacuum was incoherent. However, according to Nader El-Bizri, the physicist Ibn al-Haytham and the Mu'tazili theologians disagreed with Aristotle and Al-Farabi, they supported the existence of a void.
Using geometry, Ibn al-Haytham mathematically demonstrated that place is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of a containing body. According to Ahmad Dallal, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī states that "there is no observable
The muumuu or muʻumuʻu is a loose dress of Hawaiian origin that hangs from the shoulder. Like the aloha shirt, muumuu exports are brilliantly colored with floral patterns of generic Polynesian motifs. Muumuus for local Hawaiian residents are more subdued in tone. Muumuus are no longer as worn at work as the aloha shirt, but continue to be the preferred formal dress for weddings and festivals such as the Merrie Monarch hula competition. Muumuus are popular as maternity wear because they do not restrict the waist; the word muʻumuʻu means "cut off" in Hawaiian, because the dress lacked a yoke. It was a shorter, informal version of the more formal holokū. Holokū was the original name for the Mother Hubbard dress introduced by Protestant missionaries to Hawaii in the 1820s; the holokū featured a floor-length unfitted dress falling from a high-necked yoke. Over the years, the holokū approximated more to European and American fashions, it might have a fitted waist, a train for evening. As the holokū became more elaborate, the muumuu, a shortened version, became popular for informal wear.
Media related to Muumuu at Wikimedia Commons Housedress, 1970s, in the Staten Island Historical Society Online Collections Database