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Letterman (sports)

A letterman, in U. S. activities/sports, is a high school or college student who has met a specified level of participation or performance on a varsity team. The term comes from the practice of awarding each such participant a cloth "letter", the school's initial or initials, for placement on a "letter sweater" or "letter jacket" intended for the display of such an award. In some instances, the sweater or jacket itself may be awarded for the initial award to a given individual. Today, in order to distinguish "lettermen" from other team participants, schools establish a minimum level of participation in a team's events or a minimum level of performance in order for a letter to be awarded. A common threshold in American football and basketball is participation in a set level half, of all quarters in a season. In individual sports such as tennis and golf, the threshold for lettering is participation in one half or sometimes two-thirds of all matches contested. Other members of the team who fail to meet requirements for a letter are awarded a certificate of participation or other award considered to be of lesser value than a letter.

Some schools continue to base the awarding of letters according to performance, in team sports requiring a certain number of scores, baskets or tackles, according to position and sport. In individual sports letters are determined according to qualification for state meets or tournaments. Other schools award letters on a more subjective basis, with the head coach with the input of other coaches and sometimes student team leaders who have lettered, awarding letters for substantial improvement as well as significant performance on or off the field; this places much more emphasis on character and teamwork as well as, in place of playing enough or meeting some other time or performance requirement. Sometimes in high schools academic performance in classes can be an element; this philosophy gives more focus to developing and rewarding a well-rounded and balanced player, where other methods focus on athletic performance and on the field victories. This term is not gender-specific. An athlete, awarded a letter is said to have "lettered" when they receive their letter.

In recent years, some schools have expanded the concept of letterman beyond sports, providing letters for performance in performing arts, academics, or other school activities. A letter jacket is a baseball-styled jacket traditionally worn by high school and college students in the United States to represent school and team pride as well as to display personal awards earned in athletics, academics or activities. Letter jackets are known as "varsity jackets" and "baseball jackets" in reference to their American origins; the body is of boiled wool and the sleeves of leather with banded wrists and waistband. Letter jackets are produced in the school colors, with the body of the jacket in the school's primary color and sleeves in the secondary color, although sometimes, the colors of the jacket may be customized to a certain extent by the student. There could be cases where a student could change the color so much that it doesn't differentiate too much from school colors, they feature a banded collar for men or a top-buttoned hood for women.

The letter jacket derives its name from the varsity letter chenille patch on its left breast, always the first letter or initials of the high school or college the jacket came from. The letter itself can be custom fitted to the particular sport or activity; the name of the owner appears either in chenille or embroidered on the jacket itself. The owner's graduation year appears in matching chenille. Placement of the name and year of graduation depends on school traditions; the year is most sewn on the right sleeve or just above the right pocket. The school logo and symbols representing the student's activities may be ironed onto the jacket. Lettermen who play on a championship team receive a large patch commemorating their championship, worn on the back of the jacket. Lettermen who participate in a sport in which medals are awarded sew the medals onto their jackets to display their accomplishments. Varsity jackets trace their origins to letter sweaters, first introduced by the Harvard University baseball team in 1865.

The letter was quite large and centered. Letter jackets are never purchased before a student has earned a letter. In schools where only varsity letters are awarded this is the practice in a student's junior or senior year. Many student-athletes have been awarded letters during their sophomore and sometimes freshman year, leading to the need for a jacket much sooner. Still, the actual jacket is not purchased until the sophomore year. In schools where junior varsity letters are awarded, the jacket may be purchased by junior varsity letter recipients, though the letter is placed just above the left pocket, leaving space for a future varsity letter; some schools may award letter jackets to letter winners at an award ceremony, but more the school only provides the letter. Some schools will have fundraising activities or other programs to provide jackets to students who cannot afford them

Copperbelt University School of Medicine

Copperbelt University School of Medicine known as Copperbelt University Medical School is the school of medicine of Copperbelt University in Zambia. The medical school is the country's second public medical school, the other being the University of Zambia School of Medicine; the school provides medical education at postgraduate levels. The school's campus is located in the city of Ndola, in proximity to Ndola Central Hospital and the Tropical Diseases Research Centre; this is north-west of the city centre. The coordinates of the medical campus are: 12°58'14.0"S, 28°38'03.0"E. A new campus is under construction in the neighborhood called Hillcrest, about 3 kilometres, west of the current location; this public medical school is the first in Zambia to be located outside of Lusaka, the capital city of the county. It is the first medical school in the country to offer courses in dentistry; as of October 2016, the school departments are: Department of Basic Sciences Department of Clinical Sciences and Department of Dental Sciences.

The following undergraduate courses are offered: Bachelor of Science in Clinical Medicine Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery. The following graduate courses are offered at this medical school: Master of Science Master of Medicine and Doctor of Science. In 2014, ground was broken at a 52 hectares site off the Ndola-Kitwe dual carriageway in Ndola, for a medical campus that includes a 500-bed teaching hospital and hostels with a capacity of 1,000 medical students; as of January 2016, the construction was nearly complete, with commissioning expected in 2016. Education in Zambia List of medical schools in Zambia Copperbelt University School of Medicine Homepage Copperbelt University Homepage CBU School of Medicine Done

Joe Hicks (musician)

Joe Hicks is an American R&B and soul blues singer and songwriter. He hailed from San Francisco, United States, found limited success in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Hicks recorded an album for a subsidiary label of Stax Records, his 1968 recording, "Don't It Make You Feel Funky", was produced by Pat Vegas and released by AGC Records. In 1969, he recorded the single, "I'm Goin' Home" b/w "Home Sweet Home - Part II", written and produced by Sly Stone, released on the latter's Stone Flower label, his joint compositions with Delaney Bramlett, "Sound of the City" and " I Know Something Good About You", were featured on Delaney & Bonnie & Friends' 1972 album, D&B Together. With Bobby Womack, Hicks co-wrote "Simple Man" and "Ruby Dean", plus Womack's hit single, "That's The Way I Feel About Cha". In 1973, Hicks recorded the album, Mighty Joe Hicks, released by Enterprise Records, it included the track, "Ruby Dean". He is not to be confused with a named, Missisissippi raised, Delta blues drummer and singer, who performed with the Fieldstones.

Hicks songs and videos at

Boarding School for Girls of the Ministry of Defense of Russia

The Girls Boarding School of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation is a Russian educational institution for girls operated by Ministry of Defense of Russia. The school is known as the best pre-university educational institution of the Cadet Corps; the school was established in 2008 as part of the Strategy for the Social Development of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The daughters of servicemen are trained in the boarding school from 5th to 11th grade, annually accepting 120 girls who are of at least 11 years of age. At the end of the school year, many girls have the choice of attending military and civilian universities in Russia and abroad. At the moment, more than 50 clubs are active in the school. After classes on weekdays, as well as on weekends and holidays, the girls together with their educators make trips to the city, visiting theaters, museums and parks in Moscow; the clothes that cadets wear are sewn by famed Russian stylists such as Kira Plastinina and Valentin Yudashkin, while physical education exercises are developed by the Cosmonaut Preparation Center.

Military academies in Russia Ministry of Defence Boarding school Cadet Corps Official Website The School on MAPS. Me

Sidney Sager

Sidney Sager was an English composer and trombonist, best known for his music for television and radio. Born into a Jewish family in London's East End, he joined the British Army at the age of 14 as a band boy, as a result of his natural ability was sponsored by the Army to study at the Royal College of Music, he is the younger brother of Terry Burns the medical picture restorer. There is a half-brother, Edward Tunnicliff, who now lives in North Norfolk. Sidney Sager's musical career was interrupted by the Second World War, during which he fought with the British Expeditionary Force in France and was evacuated from Dunkirk. Following a brief spell in England he was transferred to North Africa, where he served from 1941 to 1945, he left the army in 1945 and returned to civilian life as a musician, playing brass for some time for the Royal Opera at Covent Garden. During the 1950s he studied composition and conducting in Geneva, shortly after his return to the UK moved to Bristol, where he conducted the BBC West of England Light Orchestra and founded the Paragon, the City of Bristol's first symphony orchestra, which subsequently reformed as Bristol Sinfonia.

He has become best known for his music for television and radio. He was involved for many years with the BBC wildlife unit at Bristol and wrote the music for many programmes for HTV West. Succubus TV series The Sin Doctor radio series Into the Labyrinth TV series The Clifton House Mystery TV series Children of the Stones TV series "King of the Castle" Play for Today "Three for the Fancy" TV episode "Shakespeare or Bust" TV episode "The Fishing Party" TV episode Expedition ins Unbekannte TV seriesOne of the most well-remembered programmes he scored was The Best of Friends, starring John Gielgud, Wendy Hiller, Patrick McGoohan as Sydney Cockerell, Laurentia McLachlan, George Bernard Shaw respectively; this work was scored for string quintet modelled after Schubert. He composed orchestral and choral works for festivals with children's themes. In 1960 he wrote the score for Delilah The Sensitive Cow, a story written and narrated by his friend Johnny Morris, the television presenter, released as a record by Decca.

The 25th anniversary release of Children of the Stones on DVD by Second Sight Films has more than any other created new interest in the work of this underrated composer. The combination of a cappella vocalizations fixated on a single, repeated Icelandic word, along with its dissonant wordless counterpoint, makes this score unique among children's programming; the vocals were provided by the Ambrosian Singers, featuring Lynda Richardson on the solo soprano line. The vocals were supplemented by bass guitar and percussion; the main theme of Children of the Stones is written on the acoustic scale, ambiguously fluctuating between a tonality of C and D major. A signature two-chord harmonic progression, Em9 to G/C, is heard throughout the seven-part series at key dramatic points. A secondary theme is treated in canon and is diegetic music, representing a hymn sung by the spellbound villagers in the story; this theme is echoed in the guitar and bass when the main child protagonist, uses his latent psychometric abilities.

The secondary theme concludes the series in a light jazz arrangement, establishing a lighter tone before the final twist is revealed. The musical texture was the suggestion of producer Peter Graham Scott, while driving to Avebury to begin filming, had heard music by Krzysztof Penderecki on the radio

Geographical distribution of Russian speakers

This article details the geographical distribution of Russian-speakers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the Russian language became a matter of controversy; some Post-Soviet states adopted policies of de-Russification aimed at reversing former Russification trends. After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, de-Russification occurred in newly-independent Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and in the Kars Oblast; the newly-formed Soviet Union implemented a policy of Korenizatsiya, which aimed at the reversal of the tsarist Russification of the non-Russian areas of the country. Korenizatsiya was the early Soviet nationalities policy promoted in the 1920s but with a continuing legacy in years; the primary policy consisted of promoting representatives of titular nations of Soviet republics and national minorities on lower levels of the administrative subdivision of the state, into local government, management and nomenklatura in the corresponding national entities.

Joseph Stalin reversed the implementation of Korenizatsiya in the 1930s, not so much by changing the letter of the law but by reducing its practical effects and by introducing de facto Russification. The Soviet system promoted the Russian language as the "language of inter-ethnic communication". In 1990, Russian became the official all-Union language of the Soviet Union, with constituent republics having rights to declare their own official languages. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, about 25 million Russians found themselves outside Russia, which constitutes about 10% of the population of the post-Soviet states other than Russia. Many millions of them subsequently became refugees due to various inter-ethnic conflicts. Including ethnic Russians and other ethnicities in Ukraine that use Russian language as first language in public. In Armenia, Russian has no official status, but it's recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 15,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, 1 million active speakers. 30% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, 2% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. Russian is spoken by 1.4% of the population according to a 2009 estimate from the World Factbook. In 2010 in a significant pullback to de-Russification, Armenia voted to re-introduce Russian-medium schools. In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status. According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 250,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, 2 million active speakers. 26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, 5% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. Research in 2005-2006 concluded that government officials did not consider Russian to be a threat to the strengthening role of the Azerbaijani language in independent Azerbaijan. Rather, Russian continued to have value given the proximity of Russia and strong economic and political ties.

However, it was seen as self-evident that in order to be successful, citizens needed to be proficient in Azerbaijani. In Georgia, Russian has no official status, but it's recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 130,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, 1.7 million active speakers. 27% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, 1% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. Russian is the language of 9% of the population according to the World Factbook. Ethnologue cites Russian as the country's de facto working language. Georgianization has been pursued with most official and private signs only in the Georgian language, with English being the favored foreign language. Exceptions are older signs remaining from Soviet times, which are bilingual Georgian and Russian. Private signs and advertising in Samtskhe-Javakheti region which has a majority Armenian population are in Russian only or Georgian and Russian.

In the Borchali region which has a majority ethnic Azerbaijani population and advertising are in Russian only, in Georgian and Azerbaijani, or Georgian and Russian. De-Russification has not been pursued in areas outside Georgian government control and South Ossetia; the Russian language is co-official in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia. Russian is spoken in Israel by at least 1,000,000 ethnic Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, according to the 1999 census; the Israeli press and websites publish material in Russian and there are Russian newspapers, television stations and social media outlets based in the country. In Kazakhstan, Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration. According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 4,200,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, 10 million active speakers. 63% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, 46% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work.

According to a 2001 estimate from the World Factbook, 95% of the population can speak Russian. Large Russian-speaking communities still exist in northern Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians comprise 25.6% of Kazakhstan's population. The 2009 census reported that 10,309,500 people, or 84.8% of the population aged 1