Olyka Castle was the principal seat of the Radziwill princely family in Volhynia from 1564 until the late 18th century. The founder of the castle was Prince Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł who gave Olyka to his youngest son Stanisław. Two senior branches of the Radziwill family were based in Kletsk; the Olyka Castle was immensely influential as the first square fort with corner bastions in the Kresy and the prototype of many similar structures found in Eastern Europe. It was continuously under construction for eight decades and sustained numerous sieges between 1591 and 1648, it is one of the biggest castles in Ukraine, with 365 rooms. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia a Russian military hospital moved in and continued in use until 1837. An 1840 document refers to the castle as untenanted. In 1883, a campaign of restoration was launched but it was not taken to its conclusion until after the First World War; the Olyka Castle comprises four residential buildings of unequal height, forming a court in the middle and encircled by a moat.
The towers of the original castle have crumbled to the ground, but the network of bastions is still in place. The main palace of three storeys, although built in the 16th century, is the upshot of renovations carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries. Other buildings of the castle complex include a 17th-century gateway, a two-storey clock tower, the Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, an elaborate replica of Il Gesu. During World War II, the Radziwill Fortress was the site of Nazi persecution of Olyka Jews in the Holocaust; as part of the Einsatzgruppen aktion of August 1941, 720 Jews were killed at the Olyka Castle and nearby. In July 1942, several hundred Jews perished in the castle. Monuments outside Olyka commemorate the place of execution of more than 4,000 Jews in Summer 1942 – in and around the Olyka ghetto, Radziwill Fortress, Olyka Castle, surrounding areas. Israel's Holon Cemetery has a monument in memory of the Jews of Olyka and its surroundings, who perished in the Holocaust. A psychiatric hospital, Volyn’s Hospital No.
2, is now located at the site of the Olyka Castle. The only part of the castle closed for visitors is a chamber for the Princes and their servants. Памятники градостроительства и архитектуры Украинской ССР. В 4-х томах. Гл. редкол.: Н. Л. Жариков. -К.: Будiвельник, 1983—1986. Том 2, с. 79-82
Letychiv is a town in the eastern part of Khmelnytskyi Oblast of western Ukraine. 51 km from Khmelnytskyi and 33 km from the railway station Derazhnya. Administrative center since Tsarist times in Podolia Province, although now it is administratively a part of the Letychiv Raion. Population: 11,081 inhabitants. There are brickworks, plant of construction material in the town. Located 49°23'N, 27°37'E on the main road between Khmelnitsky and Vinnytsia at the confluence of the Volk and the Southern Bug rivers. Founded in 1362. First historical mention is in connection with the Tatar invasions dates to 1411, it is mentioned first as a palisade fortress under Magdeburg law as a settlement in 1429. With natural moats on all sides, Letichev did not have the topographic relief that blesses other Podolia Province strongholds. Thus, Letychiv was more attacked and harder to defend; because of this, until Tsarist times Letychiv played a subordinate role to nearby Medzhibozh. Dominican friars brought an icon of mother of Jesus to Letychiv in the late 15th century.
Letychiv suffered attacks by the Tatars in 1453, 1516, 1558, 1567. In 1546, the first Assumption church was built. In 1569, Stephan Batory presented Letychiv with its first coat of arms, it shows a wolf. In 1598 Jan Potocki replaced the town's weaker wooden fortifications with extensive stone fortifications, known as Letychiv Fortress. Little of these survive today, with the exception of one tower and the adjacent walls around the Assumption Church. Letychiv suffered deprivations from Bohdan Khmelnytsky's cossack uprising in 1648. During this time, Letychiv's icon was removed from the Assumption Church for safekeeping in Lviv. Weakened by the cossack uprising, Podolia was invaded and occupied by Turkey in 1672. Letychiv became part of the Turkish Ejalet of Kamieniecki. In 1682, Letychiv was recaptured by the Poles under Jan Sobiesky. However, Poles didn't regain full control until 1699 because the town was ravaged by ongoing struggles between the Poles and Turks; the icon was returned to Letychiv in 1723.
In 1778, Pope Clement XIV ordered. Letychiv continued to be attacked by cossacks and Haidamaks in 1702, 1734, 1737, 1749, 1750, 1755, 1768, 1777. In the 18th century, Letychiv had grown to be the second largest town in Podolia, Medzhibozh being the largest; the first Jews in Letychiv are reported in stories within Shivhei haBesht that date from about 1750. By the 1780s there were 800 Jews living in the town. Letychiv passed into Russian hands during the second partition of Poland in 1793. At that time, the Tsarist administrative center of this region moved from Medzhibozh to Letychiv; the population soon reached its peak in the late 19th century. 4,100 Jews lived here in 1897, about 60% of the population. In 1882 Letichiv was the scene of a notorious pogrom against Jews that resulted in a sensational trial of the pogromists. After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, the territory was occupied by German and Hungarian troops until the end of World War I. Letychev was the scene of numerous pogroms during the Ukrainian Civil War of 1919-1922.
The town changed hands many times as different militia units from either the Bolsheviks, Ukrainian Nationalists, Poles, or Whites gained temporary control. What little wealth was left was stripped in these pogroms turning the entire area into ruins. Under Soviet rule starting 1922, the region's economy improved. Electricity, schools and other infrastructure were built. Several kolkhozi were established nearby. In the early 1930s, pressure from the government to collectivize resulted in severe food shortages that resulted in famines throughout Ukraine. In World War II, Letichiv fell to German forces during Operation Barbarossa on July 17, 1941 after heavy fighting. In that action, retreating Soviet troop blew up the dam over the river Volk over which carried the main east-west road; this temporarily stopped the German advance for nine days until the position could be outflanked from the south. It remained in German hands until it was liberated by Soviet troops on March 23, 1944. Letychiv was astride an important east-west supply road that the German government wanted to expand into an autobahn-like highway.
This road led directly between the city of Proskuriv and routes westward into Germany and the city of Vinnytsia with routes to the eastern front. Vinnytsia was the site of Hitler's headquarters bunker in Soviet territory where he directed the war between 1942 and 1943. A Jewish ghetto and a separate slave labor camp within Letychiv Castle was established in Letychiv to assist Organisation Todt in providing human labor for the road building project; because of this special road project, Letychiv retained its Jews longer than most of the surrounding communities, where Einsatzgruppen units executed entire populations of Jews shortly after German occupation. However, when the road project was completed in the summer of 1942, the Einsatzgruppen units were called in. Three separate mass shootings of Jews occurred in September 1942 where 3,000 Jews were killed, in November 1942 where 4,000 Jews were killed, in November 1943 where the remaining 200 Jews in the slave labor camp were shot; that eliminated all Jews from the town.
Soviet authorities reported that a total of 7,200 Jews were murdered in a ravine in Zaletichevka, just south of town. Ustym Karmaliuk, a notorious thief and gang leader, is considered a Ukrainian Robin Hood and fo
The Vyshnivets Palace or the Wiśniowiecki Palace is located in the urban-type settlement of Vyshnivets in Ternopil Oblast of western Ukraine. It was the main seat of the Wiśniowiecki princely family which takes its name from this castle. In 1395 landlord Dmitry Koribut having been removed from power in Novgorod-Siversky attained instead great dominion of Volyn' lands, where under his leadership fortress construction began; this is how on the banks of Horin' River in the town of Vyshnivets', Old Vyshnivets' today, first castle came about. Upon Dmitry Koribut's death due to absence a successor of male gender, castle of Vyshnivets' all together with the estate passes through Olgerdovich-Nesvitsky sidelong lineage of three generations till Michał Zbaraski Wiśniowiecki gaining power. Following immediate raid of Turk-Tatar forces in 1491 razed the fort post in the town of Stary Vishnivets and settlement, secured by it. In a result the same year landlord Michał Zbaraski, having taken a different name of Wiśniowiecki, broke the ground for another fort-post up the stream on the crest of round hill, new fastness destined to be a bulwark and vindicator for new generations from Tatar-Turkish inroads for centuries to come.
Latest architectural view as a defense fortification the stronghold took having been reconstructed in 1640s, when Jeremi Wiśniowiecki supervised the work. The features of defensive bastion system was taken upon at that time, although it hadn't done much saving the castle from Cossaks' capturing during uprising of 1648 and being sacked by Tatars a year following signing of Treaty of Zboriv. Despite the use of the most advanced martial fortification technique, Vyishnivets surrendered to enemy inroads: in 1655 to the swords of Tatar more twenty years in 1675 during the Second Polish-Ottoman War to Turks turning into a ruin. In the course of the tumultuous 17th century, the town and the castle stood destroyed as the king of Poland, John III Sobieski, relieved the city from its taxation burden for twenty years. Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki, last descendant of Wiśniowiecki family by father's line, a wealthy Polish nobleman, broached revival of patrimonial estate, he raised not a castle, but a magnificent accomplished palace atop of extinguished cinders completing it in 1720.
Nonetheless it did retain a role of combat structure. Garrison was dislocated there until 1760. Somewhat on appeared indefeasible attributes of magnate wealth of a castle church and grand park; the death of last male member of Wiśniowiecki family caused palace and estate in the city of Vyshnivets ownership being transferred by female line to Mniszech family under their care and supervision of whom castle had revealed all of its beauty adding another facet to the palettes of European palace and park recreation art. For three generations Mniszechs owners rendered the estate true royal charm: painting collection of Wiśniowieccy, Sanguszkowie, Czartoryscy as well as Ostrogscy's, retro furniture, Holland tile mantles, weapon and china. All-round upgrade in the same time had only given final accord to the appearance of Volyn' nicest palace residence. No sooner remaining owner of Mnisheks four years having succeeded into patrimonial rights as he had to leave to France bringing along most valuable family relics, two thousands books, family portraits, heraldry researches.
In the same time Vyshnivets palace for many years became a place of bargaining trade off where lots of thoughtfully and mindfully collected items were sold out, all that a laymen would be happy to pay cash for. For more than sixty years castle changed nine owners, that despite their titles and social status used one of the most lavish European palaces as the mean to accrue their perpetually depleting banking accounts. Palace lost its glamour, priceless collection was sacked. During the time before First World War an attempt made by yet another owner, Volyn' aristocrat and nobleman Demidov, Pavel Oleksandrovich, Kyiv architect, Władysław Horodecki was invited to join the cause. War and revolution introduced its own adjustments: 25th Russian Army Corps utilized facilities followed by ministry of transitional government and Petlura lieutenants. In the mid-1920s, the main building of Vyshnivets Palace accommodated a museum collection, while the remaining space was utilized as a school of craftsmanship.
Second World War became a venue and an argumentation for most recent forgoers shipping remains of the valuables to Moscow, German Armed Forces used it as a police precinct and Gestapo depriving architectural structure from those few showpieces still being there. Fire on the premises completed started ruination. Post-war restoration of 1950th all together renewed outer appearance of the palace with only few back draws needed to be mentioned as inside facility remodeling performed, outside park area hadn't been worked on, palace yard grew with self-disseminated weeds, plundering by local residents had taken place. Only in 1963 Vyshnivets Palace recognized by authorities as monument of architectural art, although it still was being utilized for various business transactions and occupied as a club, a library, an apparel factory, a school of craftsmanship. Having Ukrainian Independence established reflecting soundly on its fortune: in 1993 there was historical and cultural researches conducted, castle became a branch of State Historic Architectural Sanctuary in the city of Zbarazh.
On it was i
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Medzhybizh Castle, built as a bulwark against Ottoman expansion in the 1540s, became one of the strongest fortresses of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in Podolia. It is situated at the confluence of the Southern Bug and Buzhenka rivers, in the town of Medzhybizh, Ukraine. Today the castle is part of the State Historical-Cultural Preserve; the wooden castle was founded sometime in 1146 by Bolokh princes. The castle survived the Mongol's invastion, but in 1254 it was dismantled by Daniel of Galicia on the Mongol's orders as several other castles and fortresses in the Kingdom of Rus; the castle was rebuilt by Koriatovych princes after the Grand Duke of Lithuania defeated the Golden Horde at the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362. Its royal status the castle received back in 1385, but in 1432 Medzhybizh with most of Podilia was passed to the Polish Crown; the castle was in a state possession for sometime. Sometimes in 1540 the castle was passed to Mikołaj Sieniawski; the castle's founder was Mikołaj Sieniawski, the Sieniawski family owned Medzhybizh until its extinction in the early 18th century.
The stronghold was reconquered from the Turks in 1699 and passed to the Czartoryski family in 1731. The last rebuilding effort was undertaken by the Russian imperial authorities in the 19th century. Much restoration has been carried out on the fortress since 1968. Within the walls are a small-scale museum and a church from 1586. Views of the fortress Official website of the State Historical-Cultural Preserve "Medzhybizh" Webcam Live of the State Historical-Cultural Preserve "Medzhybizh"
Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' is a term used since the Middle Ages for a region now comprising south-eastern Poland and adjoining parts of western Ukraine. It has sometimes included parts of Lesser Poland, Podolia, "Right-bank Ukraine" and Volhynia. Centred on Przemyśl, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok, as well as Lviv and Ternopil. First mentioned by that name in a Polish chronicle of 1321, Red Ruthenia was the portion of Ruthenia incorporated into Poland by Casimir the Great during the 14th century; the disintegration of Rus', Red Ruthenia was contested by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Ruthenia. After the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, for about 400 years most of Red Ruthenia became part of Poland as the Ruthenian Voivodeship. A minority of ethnic Poles have lived since the beginning of the second Millennium in northern parts of Red Ruthenia; the exonym "Ruthenians" refers to members of the Rusyn ethnic and/or Ukrainians.
The first known inhabitants of northern Red Ruthenia were Lendians, while subgroups of Rusyns, such as Boykos and Lemkos, lived in the south. Walddeutsche, Jews and Poles made up part of the population. According to Marcin Bielski, although Bolesław I Chrobry settled Germans in the region to defend the borders against Hungary and Kievan Rus' the settlers became farmers. Maciej Stryjkowski described German peasants near Rzeszów, Przemyśl, Jarosław as good farmers. Casimir the Great settled German citizens on the borders of Lesser Poland and Red Ruthenia to join the acquired territory with the rest of his kingdom. In determining the population of late medieval Poland and Polish migration to Red Ruthenia, Spiš and Podlachia should be considered. During the second half of the 14th century, the Vlachs arrived from the southeastern Carpathians and overspread southern Red Ruthenia. Although during the 15th century the Ruthenians gained a foothold, it was not until the 16th century that the Wallachian population in the Bieszczady Mountains and the Lower Beskids was Ruthenized.
From the 14th to the 16th centuries Red Ruthenia underwent rapid urbanization, resulting in over 200 new towns built on the German model. During the early Middle Ages, the region was part of Kievan Rus' and, from 1199, the independent Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, it came under Polish control in 1340. During his reign from 1333 to 1370, Casimir the Great founded several cities, urbanizing the rural province; the Polish name Ruś Czerwona came into use for territory extending to the Dniester, centring on Przemyśl. Since the reign of Władysław Jagiełło the Przemyśl Voivodeship was called the Ruthenian Voivodeship, centring on Lwów; the voivodeship consisted of five regions: Lwów, Halicz, Przemyśl, Chełm. The town of Halych gave its name to Galicia. During the 1340s, the influence of the Rurik dynasty ended; the Polish region was divided into a number of voivodeships, an era of German eastward migration and Polish settlement among the Ruthenians began. Armenians and Jews migrated to the region. A number of castles were built at this time, the cities of Stanisławów and Krystynopol were founded.
In October 1372, Władysław Opolczyk was deposed as count palatine. Although he retained most of his castles and goods in Hungary, his political influence waned; as compensation, Opolczyk was made governor of Hungarian Galicia. In this new position, he contributed to the economic development of the territories entrusted to him. Although Opolczyk resided in Lwów, at the end of his rule he spent more time in Halicz; the only serious conflict during his time as governor involved his approach to the Russian Orthodox Church, which angered the local Catholic boyars. Under Polish rule 325 towns were founded from the 14th century to the second half of the 17th century, most during the 15th and 16th centuries. Ruthenia was subject to repeated Tatar and Ottoman Empire incursions during the 16th and 17th centuries and was impacted by the Khmelnytsky Uprising, the 1654–1667 Russo-Polish War and Swedish invasions during the Deluge. Red Ruthenia consisted of three voivodeships: Ruthenia, whose capital was Lviv and provinces were Lviv, Sanok, Przemyśl and Chełm.
Ruthenian VoivodeshipChełm Land, Chełm Chełm County, Chełm Powiat of Ratno, Ratno Halych Land, Halicz Powiat of Halicz, Halicz Kolomyja County, Kołomyja Trembowla County, Trembowla Lwów Land, Lwów Powiat of Lwów, Lwów Powiat of Żydaczów, Żydaczów* Przemyśl Land, Przemyśl.
Ustym Yakymovych Karmaliuk was a Ukrainian outlaw of less wealth who became a folk hero to the commoners of Ukraine. He is referred to as the "Ukrainian Robin Hood" and "the last Haydamak". Karmalyuk was born a serf in the settlement of Holovchyntsi in Lityn uyezd of Podolie Governorate. There is little known about his early life except that he possessed some literacy and was fluent in Russian and Yiddish, besides his native Ukrainian language, as attested by the police documents of the time, he was taken by his owner at the age of 17 to work as a servant in the manor, but was notoriously insolent. As a result, his owner decided to forcibly send him into Russian military service, in order to remove him from others whom he was inciting to rebellion. Karmaliuk was enlisted to serve in the Imperial Russian Army in Kamianets-Podilskyi, he was forcibly inducted into the Russian Imperial Army, served in the Napoleonic Wars of 1812 in an Uhlan regiment, but escaped and organized rebel bands who attacked merchants and landowners, while distributing the booty between the poor.
He was captured in 1814, was sentenced in Kamianets-Podilskyi to run a gauntlet of 500 "spitzruten" blows, a typical military punishment. He was sent to serve out the 25-year term of service in a military unit in the Crimea, but he fled again, returning to northern Podilia. Once again he organized rebel bands in Proskuriv and Lityn regions, attracting a wide support base among Ukrainians and Poles; the rebellions intensified over the years, had spread not only to other parts of Podilia, but to the neighboring provinces of Volynia and Bessarabia. Karmaliuk escaped from the castle where he was held captive, but was captured yet again in 1817-18; the second time, he was sentenced to 25 blows with the knout in front of the town hall and sent to far-away Siberia. In 1822, Karmaliuk was arrested yet again and jailed for the third time in the castle's Pope's Tower. On the night of March 12–13, 1823, Ustym Karmaliuk organized an escape with his fellow inmates, during which he was injured and captured just two weeks later.
In April 1823, Karmaliuk was sentenced to 101 hits with the knout in front of the town hall. By the early 1830s Karmaliuk's guerrilla army was 20,000 strong, with over 1,000 raids on the estates of the Polish and Russian landowners over a 20-year period; the response of the Tsar was to station military units in those regions hardest hit by Karmaliuk. Karmaliuk was caught four times and sentenced to hard labor in Siberia, but escaped each time, returning to Lityn and Letychiv Districts. A tower in the Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle bears the name of its famous prisoner. Unlike the Haidamaks of the previous century Karmaluk bore no ill will towards the poor of all ethnic groups and minorities in Ukraine, Jews in particular, as a result they supported him en masse, his close companions were the Poles Jan and Alex Glembovski, Feliks Jankovski and Alexander Wytwycki and Jews Avrum El Itzkovych, Abrashko Duvydovych Sokolnytsky and Aron Viniar. Many Jews were prosecuted for aiding and abetting him. In general, Karmalyuk inspired unprecedented loyalty in all his supporters.
On October 22, 1835, a Tsarist posse closed in on the Karmaliuk gang at the house of a Ukrainian commoner by the name of E. Protskova, in the hamlet of Shlyakhovi-Korychyntsi near Derazhnia. There, they ambushed the gang. Karmaliuk was shot and killed, at the age of 48, his body was brought to Letychiv. A monument in his honor has been erected there in the 20th century; the man who killed Karmaliuk, Polish kulak F. Rutkovsky, was given a medal by the Tsar himself and was granted a pension for life. According to the legend, Karmalyuk was impervious to bullets, was killed by the only thing that could get him, a lead garment button. Karmalyuk is a subject of many art- and folk-songs, he is sometimes referred to as "the Houdini of Podilia", as no prison was able to hold him for long. Affectionately, he is known as the last Haidamak of Ukraine. Karmalyuk was the subject of three portraits by Russian painter Vasily Tropinin. There are a few different versions of Karmalyuk's acquaintance with the artist.
According to one version Tropinin was introduced to Karmaliuk by his friend physician Prokopy Danylevsky, who had given medical help to Karmalyuk people. According to another version, Tropinin painted Karmaliuk inside prison. Three portraits of Karmalyuk by Tropinin survive. One is kept in the Nizhny Tagil art museum, another is kept in the Tretyakov Gallery and the third is in the Russian Museum. Karmalyuk was the subject of a number of poems by the songwriter Tomasz Padura, some of which became folk songs. Literary works dedicated to Ustym Karmalyuk include: Marko Vovchok – a historic children novella Karmalyuk. A.^ In honor of Karmaliuk, the Pope's Tower where he was held captive in is referred to as "Karmaliuk's Tower." Chapin, David A. and Weinstock, The Road from Letichev: The history and culture of a forgotten Jewish community in Eastern Europe, Volume 2. ISBN 0-595-006