Leucochloridium paradoxum, the green-banded broodsac, is a parasitic flatworm that uses gastropods as an intermediate host. It is found in land snails of the genus Succinea that live in Europe and North America where it infects the host’s eyes making them appear as caterpillars that other birds prey on. Various birds consume these infected gastropods, becoming the definitive host for L. paradoxum to mature and release eggs in the rectum that are found in the feces of the bird host. Leucochloridium species are similar in appearance as adults. Many of them have a variety of ranges in sizes; the most common way to differentiate between Leucochloridium species is by looking at the broodsacs and banding patterns. L. paradoxum exhibits broodsacs that have green bands with dark brown and black spots. During development, the parasite shapes. L. paradoxum eggs are brown exhibit an oval shape. The miracidia during the first stage of development are elongated. Once the miracidia transform into sporocysts, they appear as broodsacs that infect the snail hosts in their eyes and begin to pulsate green and red.
The sporocysts turn into cercaria that have a tail along with a digestive tract, lined with an excretory bladder that extends into the tail. The tail of a cercaria has finfolds on the top and setae on the sides. Cercaria has two eyespots. At the end of the cycle, the adults appear as worms that have spines and are dorsally flattened with suckers in order to attach to the definitive host; the worm in its larval, miracidia stage, travels into the digestive system of a snail to develop into the next stage, a sporocyst. The sporocyst grows into long tubes to form swollen "broodsacs" filled with tens to hundreds of cercariae; these broodsacs invade the snail's tentacles, causing a brilliant transformation of the tentacles into a swollen, colorful display that mimics the appearance of a caterpillar or grub. The broodsacs seem to pulsate in response to light intensity, in total darkness they do not pulse at all; the infection of the tentacles of the eyes seems to inhibit the perception of light intensity.
Whereas uninfected snails seek dark areas to prevent predation, infected snails have a deficit in light detection, are more to become exposed to predators, such as birds. In a study done in Poland, 53% of infected snails stayed in more open places longer, sat on higher vegetation, stayed in better lit places than uninfected snails. Only 28% of the uninfected snails remained exposed for the duration of the observation period. Birds are the definitive hosts where the cercariae develop into adult distomes in the digestive system of the bird; these adult forms sexually reproduce and lay eggs that are released from the host via the bird's excretory system. These droppings are consumed by snails to complete the life cycle of this parasitic worm; the resulting behavior of the flatworm is a case of aggressive mimicry, where the parasite vaguely resembles the food of the host. This gains the parasite entry into the host's body; this life cycle is similar to other species of genus Leucochloridium. L. paradoxum are found in moist areas such as the forests of North America and Europe where their definitive and intermediate hosts such as Succinea snails and various birds are found.
Leucochloridium paradoxum was reported from Germany. Other locations include: Poland. Intermediate hosts: Succinea putrishosts: birds Zebra finch – experimental Leucochloridium paradoxum, Animal Diversity Web Distome, The Living World of Molluscs Infecting a Snail: Life Cycle of the Grossest Parasite, Wired Magazine
Leucochloridium variae, the brown-banded broodsac, scientific name is a species of a trematode whose life cycle involves the alternate parasitic invasion of certain species of snail and bird. While there is no external evidence of the worm's existence within the bird host, the invasion of the snail host involves the grotesque swelling of one or both of the snail's eye stalks as well as the takeover of the snail's brain; this invasion does not cause the snail's death, snails who are thus invaded sometimes live longer than those which are not. The swollen, pulsating eye stalk resembles a maggot, this is what attracts birds: the bird rips off the eye stalk and eats it and on the parasite's egg is dropped with the bird's feces. Similar life-histories are found in most species in the genus Leucochloridium including Leucochloridium paradoxum; the snail regenerates a replacement eye stalk, which becomes infected by the parasite. North America: Iowa, Nebraska and others. Worm eggs unknowingly ingested by the amber snail hatch in the snail's digestive tract.
The larva change into sporocysts, causing drastic mutations in the snail's neural ganglia and physiology. Healthy snails seek darkness to hide from predators, but the infected amber snail moves itself into dangerous open space and light, it is helpless to retract its newly swollen, pulsating tentacles. Intermediate host of Leucochloridium variae include: Novisuccinea ovalisThere was no finding of difference in length of shells in parasited and in non-parasited snails. Hosts of Leucochloridium variae include: American robin Common gull - experimental host Zebra finch - experimental host Paul D. Lewis, Jr. - Helminths of Terrestrial Molluscs in Nebraska. II. Life Cycle of Leucochloridium variae McIntosh, 1932. - The Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 251–255 A parasite for sore eyes - Article in the Daily Mirror Video on YouTube from National Geographic Video on YouTube
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Trematoda is a clade within the phylum Platyhelminthes. It includes two groups of parasitic flatworms, known as flukes, they are internal parasites of vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts; the primary host, where the flukes sexually reproduce, is a vertebrate. The intermediate host, in which asexual reproduction occurs, is a snail; the trematodes or flukes include 18,000 to 24,000 species, divided into two subclasses. Nearly all trematodes are parasites of vertebrates; the smaller Aspidogastrea, comprising about 100 species, are obligate parasites of mollusks and may infect turtles and fish, including cartilaginous fish. The Digenea, the majority of trematodes, are obligate parasites of both mollusks and vertebrates, but occur in cartilaginous fish. Two other parasitic classes, the Monogenea and Cestoda, are sister classes in the Neodermata, a group of Rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes. Trematodes are flattened oval or worm-like animals no more than a few centimetres in length, although species as small as 1 millimetre are known.
Their most distinctive external feature is the presence of two suckers, one close to the mouth, the other on the underside of the animal. The body surface of trematodes comprises a tough syncitial tegument, which helps protect against digestive enzymes in those species that inhabit the gut of larger animals, it is the surface of gas exchange. The mouth is located at the forward end of the animal, opens into a muscular, pumping pharynx; the pharynx connects, via a short oesophagus, to one or two blind-ending caeca, which occupy most of the length of the body. In some species, the caeca are themselves branched; as in other flatworms, there is no anus, waste material must be egested through the mouth. Although the excretion of nitrogenous waste occurs through the tegument, trematodes do possess an excretory system, instead concerned with osmoregulation; this consists of two or more protonephridia, with those on each side of the body opening into a collecting duct. The two collecting ducts meet up at a single bladder, opening to the exterior through one or two pores near the posterior end of the animal.
The brain consists of a pair of ganglia in the head region, from which two or three pairs of nerve cords run down the length of the body. The nerve cords running along the ventral surface are always the largest, while the dorsal cords are present only in the Aspidogastrea. Trematodes lack any specialised sense organs, although some ectoparasitic species do possess one or two pairs of simple ocelli. Most trematodes are simultaneous hermaphrodites, having both female organs. There are two testes, with sperm ducts that join together on the underside of the front half of the animal; this final part of the male system varies in structure between species, but may include sperm storage sacs and accessory glands, in addition to the copulatory organ, either eversible, termed a cirrus, or non-eversible, termed a penis. There is only a single ovary. Eggs pass from it into an oviduct; the distal part of the oviduct, called ootype, is dilated. It is connected via a pair of ducts to a number of vitelline glands on either side of the body, that produce yolk cells.
After the egg is surrounded by yolk cells, its shell is formed from the secretion of another gland called Mehlis' gland or shell gland, the duct of which opens in the ootype. The ootype is connected to an elongated uterus that opens to the exterior in the genital pore, close to the male opening. In most trematodes, sperm cells travel through the uterus to reach the ootype, where fertilization occurs; the ovary is sometimes associated with a storage sac for sperm, a copulatory duct termed Laurer's canal. All trematodes infect molluscs as the first host in the life cycle, most have a complex life cycle involving other hosts. Most trematodes are alternately reproduce sexually and asexually; the two main exceptions to this are the Aspidogastrea, which have no asexual reproduction, the schistosomes, which are dioecious. In the definitive host, in which sexual reproduction occurs, eggs are shed along with host feces. Eggs shed in water release free-swimming larval forms that are infective to the intermediate host, in which asexual reproduction occurs.
A species that exemplifies the remarkable life history of the trematodes is the bird fluke, Leucochloridium paradoxum. The definitive hosts, in which the parasite reproduces, are various woodland birds, while the hosts in which the parasite multiplies are various species of snail; the adult parasite in the bird's gut produces eggs and these end up on the ground in the bird's faeces. Some eggs may hatch into larvae; these larvae take on a sac-like appearance. This stage is known as the sporocyst and it forms a central body in the snail's digestive gland that extends into a brood sac in the snail's head, muscular foot and eye-stalks, it is in the central body of the sporocyst where the parasite replicates itself, producing lots of tiny embryos. These embryos mature into cercaria. Trematodes have a large variation of forms throughout their life cycles. Individual trematode parasites life cycles may vary from this list. Trematodes are released from the definitive host as eggs, which have evolved to withstand the harsh environment Released from the egg is the miracidium.
This infects the first intermediate host in one of either active or passive transmission. A) Active transmission has adapted for dispersal in space as a free swimming ciliated miricidium with adaptati
Carl Gustav Carus
Carl Gustav Carus was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he was a many-sided man: a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, a psychologist, a landscape painter who studied under Caspar David Friedrich. In 1811 he graduated as a doctor of philosophy. In 1814 he was appointed professor of obstetrics and director of the maternity clinic at the teaching institution for medicine and surgery in Dresden, he wrote on art theory. From 1814 to 1817 he taught himself oil painting working under Caspar David Friedrich, a Dresden landscape painter, he had taken drawing lessons from Julius Diez and subsequently studied under Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld at the Oeser drawing academy. When the King of Saxony, Frederick Augustus II, made an informal tour of Britain in 1844, Carus accompanied him as his personal physician, it was not a state visit, but the King, with Carus, was the guest of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Windsor Castle, Carus was able to visit many of the sights in London and the university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, meet others active in the field of scientific discoveries.
They toured in England and Scotland, afterwards Carus published, on the basis of his journal, The King of Saxony's Journey through England and Scotland, 1844. He is best known to scientists for originating the concept of the vertebrate archetype, a seminal idea in the development of Darwin's theory of evolution. In 1836, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Carus is noted for Psyche. Carl Jung credited Carus with pointing to the unconscious as the essential basis of the psyche. Although various philosophers, among them Leibniz and Schelling, had pointed clearly to the problem of the dark side of the psyche, it was a physician who felt impelled, from his scientific and medical experience, to point to the unconscious as the essential basis of the psyche; this was the authority whom Eduard von Hartmann followed. Carus died in Dresden, he is buried in the Trinitatis-Friedhof east of the city centre. The grave lies against the southern wall. Zoology, comparative anatomy, evolutionLehrbuch der Zootomie.
Erläuterungstafeln zur vergleichenden Anatomie. Von den äusseren Lebensbedingungen der weiss- und kaltblütigen Tiere. Über den Blutkreislauf der Insekten. Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie und Physiologie. Lehrbuch der Physiologie für Naturforscher und Aerzte - medical Zwölf Briefe über das Erdleben. Natur und Idee oder das Werdende und sein Gesetz. 1861. MedicalLehrbuch der Gynekologie. Grundzüge einer neuen Kranioskopie. System der Physiologie. Erfahrungsresultate aus ärztlichen Studien und ärztlichen Wirken. Neuer Atlas der Kranioskopie. Psychology, race, physiognomyVorlesungen über Psychologie. Psyche. Über Grund und Bedeutung der verschiedenen Formen der Hand in veschiedenen Personen. Physis. Zur Geschichte des leiblichen Lebens. Denkschrift zum 100jährigen Geburtstagsfeste Goethes. Über ungleiche Befähigung der verschiedenen Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt. Über Lebensmagnetismus und über die magischen Wirkungen überhaupt. Über die typisch gewordenen Abbildungen menschlicher Kopfformen. Goethe dessen seine Bedeutung für unsere und die kommende Zeit.
Lebenserinnerungen und Denkwürdigkeiten – 4 volumes. Vergleichende Psychologie oder Geschichte der Seele in der Reihenfolge der Tierwelt. ArtNeun Briefe über Landschaftsmalerei. Zuvor ein Brief von Goethe als Einleitung. Die Lebenskunst nach den Inschriften des Tempels zu Delphi. Betrachtungen und Gedanken vor auserwählten Bildern der Dresdener Galerie. TravelSicilien und Neapel. Philosophy of the Unconscious List of German painters Jung, C. G.. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01833-2. "Carl GustavCarus", Art History: Romanticism Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Carus, Karl Gustav". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Media related to Carl Gustav Carus at Wikimedia Commons Caspar David Friedrich: Moonwatchers, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Carl Gustav Carus German masters of the nineteenth century: paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Carl Gustav Carus Carus, Carl Gustav.
Mnemosyne. Pforzheim: Flammer und Hofmann
Diplostomida is an order of trematodes in the subclass Digenea. It is synonymous with Strigeida Poche, 1926. Order Diplostomida Suborder Diplostomata Superfamily Brachylaimoidea Joyeux & Foley, 1930 Brachylaimidae Joyeux & Foley, 1930 Leucochloridiidae Poche, 1907 Superfamily Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886 Brauninidae Wolf, 1903 Cyathocotylidae Mühling, 1898 Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 Proterodiplostomidae Dubois, 1936 Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 Superfamily Schistosomatoidea Stiles & Hassall, 1898 Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 Schistosomatidae Stiles & Hassall, 1898 Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921Clinostomoidea Lühe, 1901 has been synoynmised with Schistosomatoidea Stiles & Hassall, 1898