The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
In the APG IV system for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade. Common examples include the forget-me-nots, the common sunflower, morning glory and sweet potato, lavender, olive, honeysuckle, ash tree, snapdragon, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint and rosemary, rainforest trees such as Brazil nut. Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems; the name asterids resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN. The phylogenetic tree presented hereafter has been proposed by the APG IV project. Genetic analysis carried out after APG II maintains that the sister to all other asterids are the Cornales. A second order that split from the base of the asterids are the Ericales; the remaining orders cluster into two clades, the lamiids and the campanulids. The structure of both of these clades has changed in APG III.
In APG III system, the following clades were renamed: euasterids I → lamiids euasterids II → campanulids Asterids in Stevens, P. F.. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006
Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming, he made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, notably erecting a number of plant families that are still accepted today. Brown was born in Montrose on 21 December 1773, he was the son of James Brown, a minister in the Scottish Episcopal Church with Jacobite convictions so strong that in 1788 he defied his church's decision to give allegiance to George III. His mother was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister; as a child Brown attended the local Grammar School Marischal College at Aberdeen, but withdrew in his fourth year when the family moved to Edinburgh in 1790. His father died late the following year. Brown enrolled to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh, but developed an interest in botany, ended up spending more of his time on the latter than the former.
He attended the lectures of John Walker. He began corresponding with and collecting for William Withering, one of the foremost British botanists of his day. Highlights for Brown during this period include his discovery of a new species of grass, Alopecurus alpinus. Brown dropped out of his medical course in 1793. Late in 1794, he enlisted in the Fifeshire Fencibles, his regiment was posted to Ireland shortly after. In June 1795 he was appointed Surgeon's Mate, his regiment saw little action, however, he had a good deal of leisure time all of which he spent on botany. He was frustrated by his itinerant lifestyle, which prevented him from building his personal library and specimen collection as he would have liked, cut him off from the most important herbaria and libraries. During this period Brown was interested in cryptogams, these would be the subject of Brown's first, albeit unattributed, publication. Brown began a correspondence with James Dickson, by 1796 was sending him specimens and descriptions of mosses.
Dickson incorporated Brown's descriptions into his Fasciculi plantarum cryptogamicarum britanniae, with Brown's permission but without any attribution. By 1800, Brown was established amongst Irish botanists, was corresponding with a number of British and foreign botanists, including Withering, James Edward Smith and José Correia da Serra, he had been nominated to the Linnean Society of London. He had begun experimenting with microscopy. However, as an army surgeon stationed in Ireland there seemed little prospect of him attracting the notice of those who could offer him a career in botany. In 1798, Brown heard that Mungo Park had withdrawn from a proposed expedition into the interior of New Holland, leaving a vacancy for a naturalist. At Brown's request, Correia wrote to Sir Joseph Banks, suggesting Brown as a suitable replacement: Science is the gainer in this change of man, he is a Scotchman, fit to pursue an object with cold mind. He was not selected, the expedition did not end up going ahead as proposed, though George Caley was sent to New South Wales as a botanical collector for Banks.
In 1800, Matthew Flinders put to Banks a proposal for an expedition that would answer the question whether New Holland was one island or several. Banks approved Flinders' proposal, in December 1800 wrote to Brown offering him the position of naturalist to the expedition. Brown accepted immediately. Brown was told to expect to sail at the end of 1800, only a few weeks after being offered the position. A succession of delays meant the voyage did not get under way until July 1801. Brown spent much of the meantime preparing for the voyage by studying Banks' Australian plant specimens and copying out notes and descriptions for use on the voyage. Though Brown's brief was collect scientific specimens of all sorts, he was told to give priority to plants and birds, to treat other fields, such as geology, as secondary pursuits. In addition to Brown, the scientific staff comprised the renowned botanical illustrator Ferdinand Bauer. Brown was given authority over Bauer and Good, both of whom were instructed to give any specimens they might collect to Brown, rather than forming separate collections.
Both men would provide enthusiastic and hard-working companions for Brown, thus Brown's specimen collections contain material colle
The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants known as the heath or heather family, found most in acid and infertile growing conditions. The family is large, with c. 4250 known species spread across 124 genera, making it the 14th most species-rich family of flowering plants. The many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae include the cranberry, huckleberry and various common heaths and heathers; the Ericaceae contain a morphologically diverse range of taxa, including herbs, dwarf shrubs and trees. Their leaves are alternate or whorled and without stipules, their flowers show considerable variability. The petals are fused with shapes ranging from narrowly tubular to funnelform or urn-shaped; the corollas are radially symmetrical and urn-shaped, but many flowers of the genus Rhododendron are somewhat bilaterally symmetrical. Anthers open by pores. Adanson used the term Vaccinia to describe a similar family, but Jussieu first used the term Ericaceae; the name comes from the type genus Erica.
The exact meaning is difficult to interpret, but some sources show it as meaning'heather'. The name may have been used informally to refer to the plants before Linnaean times, been formalised when Linnaeus described Erica in 1753, again when Jussieu described the Ericaceae in 1789; the Ericaceae included both subfamilies and tribes. In 1971, who outlined the history from 1876 and in some instances 1839, recognised six subfamilies, further subdivided four of the subfamilies into tribes, the Rhododendroideae having seven tribes. Within tribe Rhodoreae, five genera were described, Rhododendron L. Therorhodion Small, Ledum L. Tsusiophyllum Max. Menziesia J. E. Smith, that were transferred into Rhododendron, along with Diplarche from the monogeneric tribe Diplarcheae. In 2002, systematic research resulted in the inclusion of the recognised families Empetraceae, Monotropaceae and Pyrolaceae into the Ericaceae based on a combination of molecular, morphological and embryological data, analysed within a phylogenetic framework.
The move increased the morphological and geographical range found within the group. One possible classification of the resulting family includes 9 subfamilies, 126 genera, about 4000 species: Enkianthoideae Kron, Judd & Anderberg Pyroloideae Kosteltsky Monotropoideae Arnott Arbutoideae Niedenzu Cassiopoideae Kron & Judd Ericoideae Link Harrimanelloideae Kron & Judd Styphelioideae Sweet Vaccinioideae Arnott See the full list at List of Ericaceae genera; the Ericaceae have a nearly worldwide distribution. They are absent from continental Antarctica, parts of the high Arctic, central Greenland and central Australia, much of the lowland tropics and neotropics; the family is composed of plants that can tolerate acidic, infertile conditions. Like other stress-tolerant plants, many Ericaceae have mycorrhizal fungi to assist with extracting nutrients from infertile soils, as well as evergreen foliage to conserve absorbed nutrients; this trait is not found in the Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae, the two families most related to the Ericaceae.
Most Ericaceae form a distinctive accumulation of mycorrhizae, in which fungi grow in and around the roots and provide the plant with nutrients. The Pyroloideae are gain sugars from the mycorrhizae, as well as nutrients. In many parts of the world, a "heath" or "heathland" is an environment characterised by an open dwarf-shrub community found on low-quality acidic soils dominated by plants in the Ericaceae. A common example is Erica tetralix; this plant family is typical of peat bogs and blanket bogs. In eastern North America, members of this family grow in association with an oak canopy, in a habitat known as an oak-heath forest. In heathland, plants in the family Ericaceae serve as hostplants to Plebejus argus; some evidence suggests eutrophic rainwater can convert ericoid heaths with species such as Erica tetralix to grasslands. Nitrogen is suspect in this regard, may be causing measurable changes to the distribution and abundance of some ericaceous species. Stevens, P. F.. "A classification of the Ericaceae: subfamilies and tribes".
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 64: 1–53. Doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1971.tb02133.x. Cafferty, Steve. "Typification of Linnaean Plant Names in Ericaceae". Taxon. 51: 751–753. Doi:10.2307/1555030. JSTOR 10.2307/1555030. Stevens, P. F.. G. H.. L.. A.. K.. S.. J.. B.. S.. M.. M.. "Ericaceae". In Kubitzki, K. Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Celastrales, Rosales, Ericales; the families and genera of vascular plants. 6. Springer. Pp. 145–194. ISBN 9783540065128. Ericaceae at The Plant List Ericaceae, Empetraceae, Monotr
Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46