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Leukoplakia is a attached white patch on a mucous membrane, associated with an increased risk of cancer. The edges of the lesion are abrupt and the lesion changes with time. Advanced forms may develop red patches. There are no other symptoms, it occurs within the mouth, although sometimes mucosa in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, or genitals may be affected. The cause of leukoplakia is unknown. Risk factors for formation inside the mouth include smoking, chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol, use of betel nuts. One specific type is common in HIV/AIDS, it is a precancerous lesion, a tissue alteration in which cancer is more to develop. The chance of cancer formation depends on the type, with between 3–15% of localized leukoplakia and 70–100% of proliferative leukoplakia developing into squamous cell carcinoma. Leukoplakia is a descriptive term that should only be applied after other possible causes are ruled out. Tissue biopsy shows increased keratin build up with or without abnormal cells, but is not diagnostic.

Other conditions that can appear similar include yeast infections, lichen planus, keratosis due to repeated minor trauma. The lesions from a yeast infection can be rubbed off while those of leukoplakia cannot. Treatment recommendations depend on features of the lesion. If abnormal cells are present or the lesion is small surgical removal is recommended. People are advised to stop smoking and limit the drinking of alcohol. In half of cases leukoplakia will shrink with stopping smoking; the percentage of people affected is estimated at 1–3%. Leukoplakia becomes more common with age not occurring until after 30. Rates may be as high as 8% in men over the age of 70. Leukoplakia could be classified as mucosal disease, as a premalignant condition. Although the white color in leukoplakia is a result of hyperkeratosis appearing white lesions that are caused by reactive keratosis are not considered to be leukoplakias. Leukoplakia could be considered according to the affected site, e.g. oral leukoplakia, leukoplakia of the urinary tract, including bladder leukoplakia or leukoplakia of the penis, cervix or vagina.

Leukoplakia may occur in the larynx in association with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Oropharyngeal leukoplakia is linked to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, sometimes this is associated with tylosis, thickening of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. Dyskeratosis congenita may be associated of the anal mucosa. Within the mouth, leukoplakia is sometimes further classified according to the site involved, e.g. leukoplakia buccalis or leukoplakia lingualis. There are two main clinical variants of oral leukoplakia, namely homogenous leukoplakia and non-homogenous leukoplakia, which are described below; the word leukoplakia is included within the nomenclature of other oral conditions which present as white patches, however these are specific diagnoses which are considered separate from leukoplakia, with the notable exception of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, a recognized sub-type of leukoplakia. Homogenous leukoplakia is well defined white patch of uniform, flat appearance and texture, although there may be superficial irregularities.

Homogenous leukoplakia is slightly elevated compared to surrounding mucosa, has a fissured, wrinkled or corrugated surface texture, with the texture consistent throughout the whole lesion. This term has no implications on the size of the lesion, which may be extensive; when homogenous leukoplakia is palpated, it may feel dry, or like cracked mud. Non-homogenous leukoplakia is a lesion of non-uniform appearance; the color may be predominantly white or a mixed white and red. The surface texture is irregular compared to homogenous leukoplakia, may be flat, nodular or exophytic. "Verrucous leukoplakia" is a descriptive term used for thick, papillary lesions. Verrucous leukoplakias are heavily keratinized and are seen in elderly people; some verrucous leukoplakias may have an exophytic growth pattern, some may invade surrounding mucosa, when the term proliferative verrucous leukoplakia may be used. Non-homogeneous leukoplakias have a greater risk of cancerous changes than homogeneous leukoplakias. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a recognized high risk subtype of non-homogenous leukoplakia.

It is uncommon, involves the buccal mucosa and the gingiva. This condition is characterized by extensive, papillary or verrucoid keratotic plaques that tends to enlarge into adjacent mucosal sites. An established PVL lesion is thick and exophytic, but it may be flat. Smoking does not seem to be as related as it is to leukoplakia and another dissimilarity is the preponderance for women over 50. There is a high risk of dysplasia and transformation to OSCC or to verrucous carcinoma. Erythroleukoplakia is a non-homogenous lesion of mixed red color. Erythroplakia is an red patch that cannot be

Mark Birighitti

Mark Romano Birighitti is an Australian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for A-League side Central Coast Mariners. Born in Perth, Birighitti played youth football at the Australian Institute of Sport before making his professional debut for Adelaide United. In 2012, he moved to Newcastle Jets and spent time on loan to Italian club Varese in 2015. Birighitti has played once for the Australian national team, in 2013, he has represented Australia's youth teams on many occasions, including at the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup and winning the 2010 AFF U-19 Youth Championship. Birighitti started his career at the AIS before moving to Adelaide United in 2008, he made his first team debut against Queensland Roar on 17 October 2008 helping Adelaide to a 1–0 win. Aurelio Vidmar praised the young goalkeeper after the match saying "I think Birighitti played well he's got a good future, he had big shoes to fill and I think he did an outstanding job tonight."His second successive A-League start came against Perth Glory at Hindmarsh Stadium after Adelaide's number one goalkeeper, 28-year-old Eugene Galekovic, was injured during the Asian Champions League match against FC Bunyodkor.

Despite conceding the match's first goal at the near post, Birighitti played his part in the 2–1 win taking Adelaide to the top of the league table. With Galekovic again ruled out with injury Birighitti started the second leg of the 2008 AFC Champions League Final against Gamba Osaka on 12 November 2008, he injured his ankle after falling awkwardly in a training session on 17 December 2008 ruling him out of the remaining A-League 2008-09 season. On 17 January 2012 it was announced he had signed a two-year contract with A-League club Newcastle Jets starting post the 2012 AFC Champions League group stage, he became the first choice goalkeeper for the Newcastle Jets, edging out Ben Kennedy and Jack Duncan. In late 2013 he signed a contract extension with the Jets until the end of the 2015–16 season. On 24 March 2014, Birighitti flew to Germany to discuss a possible transfer to Bundesliga club Bayer Leverkusen. After failing to secure a contract with Bayer Leverkusen he came back to the Jets for the 2014–15 season.

In October 2015, Birighitti was involved in an on-field collision with Sydney FC striker Shane Smeltz. Birightitti required facial surgery after the incident, he returned to action within weeks. On 27 January 2015, Birighitti joined Serie B club Varese on a six-month loan deal, he made his league debut for Varese in a 1–0 away loss to Vicenza on 25 April 2015. On 18 July 2016, Birighitti joined Premier League side Swansea City on a two-year deal. After the 2016–17 season, Birighitti went on trial at Dutch side Willem II, following a lack of opportunities at Swansea. On 1 September 2017, Birighitti joined Eredivisie side NAC Breda on a two-year deal. On 11 September 2018, Birighitti joined Australian A-League side Melbourne City on a three-year deal. After a year in which he didn't play at all, Birighitti negotiated a mutual release from the remainder of his contract. In August 2019, Birighitti joined Central Coast Mariners on a one-year contract. Birighitti was selected to represent the Australian under-20 squad at the 2010 AFC U-19 Championship.

He made his debut for the senior Australian side in their final match of the 2013 EAFF East Asian Cup against China, a 4–3 loss. As of 18 September 2018 Australia U19 AFF U-19 Youth Championship: 2010 PFA A-League Team of the Season: 2015–16 Mark Birighitti – FIFA competition record Mark Birighitti at Mark Birighitti at Soccerbase Mark Birighitti at Soccerway

Need (album)

Need is the fourth studio album by Christian rock artist Todd Agnew. It was released on October 2009, through INO and Ardent records; the first radio single, "Joy Unspeakable", has peaked at No. 45 on Billboard's Hot Christian Songs chart. His website is offering an acoustic EP and a free digital download of "Joy Unspeakable" to those who pre-order the album, on October 6 they would get a "Need" T-shirt, an autographed copy of "Need", a digital download of "Need" with 4 bonus tracks. "Joy Unspeakable" "Written on the Wall" "I Need No Other" "Give Me Jesus" "Higher Ground" "Tell Me The Story" "Did You Mean Me?" "Gloria" "The Love of God" "Breakable" "Deep Love of Jesus" "Jesus, the Hope of Glory" "All That I Have"* "Way of the Cross"* "Glory in Your Cross"* "All the World"**Bonus tracks "Joy Unspeakable" "Mercy in Me" "This Is All I Have to Give" "On a Corner in Memphis" "Grace Like Rain"/"My Jesus" Anna Acosta - violin Todd Agnew - guitar, lyricist, producer Jonathan Chu - strings Chris Collins - lyricist Samuel Trevor Francis - lyricist Scott Hardin - guitar, producer, mixing Adam Hill - tambourine, engineer Mike Jackson and the Soul Providers - drums, tambourine Jackie Johnson - background vocals James Joseph - organ, Hammond organ, producer, Wurlitzer Jamie Kenney - piano Henry Francis Lyte - lyricist Tim Mason - piano, Hammond organ Melissa Mattey - vocal engineer, piano engineer Kevin Nix - mastering Larry Nix - mastering Johnson Oatman, Jr. - lyricist Ben Pearson - photography Steve Selvidge - guitar Charlie Shaw - guitar Dave Smith - bass Rick Steff - piano, Hammond organ Richard Thomas - bass, cello Sam Weaver - guitar Curry Weber - producer, mixing assistant Brian Wilson - drums

Robert H. Pruyn

Robert Hewson Pruyn was an American lawyer, militia general and politician from Albany, New York. He was most notable for his service as Speaker of the New York State Assembly, Adjutant General of New York, United States Minister Resident to Japan. Pruyn was born in New York on February 14, 1815, the son of Casparus F. and Ann Pruyn. The Pruyn family of Albany, New York was one of the oldest and most esteemed Dutch families in New York, at the time of Robert's birth there, had resided in Albany for over two centuries. Pruyn graduated from The Albany Academy, received Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees from Rutgers University, he studied law with Abraham Van Vechten, was admitted to the bar, practiced in Albany. Pruyn was a member of the city council. Active in the state militia, he was named Judge Advocate General in 1841, serving until 1846, again in 1851. A political ally and close friend to William Henry Seward, he was a Whig member of the New York State Assembly in 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 and 1854.

On January 30, 1850, after Speaker Noble S. Elderkin left the Assembly to stay at home with his wife, terminally ill, Pruyn was elected Speaker pro tempore, he was again Speaker in 1854. Pruyn was an experienced militia officer, including service as the state judge advocate general. In 1855, Governor Myron Clark appointed him Adjutant General of the New York National Guard, replacing John Watts de Peyster, he achieved the rank of Brigadier General of the militia, was succeeded as adjutant general by Frederick Townsend. At the personal request of Seward, Secretary of State, President Abraham Lincoln appointed him Minister to Japan in 1861, he served in that capacity until 1865, when he returned to New York. Japan–United States relations had only been established with the visits by Commodore Perry in 1852 to 1854. Pruyn's crowning achievement was the successful negotiation following the Shimonoseki bombardment, he was considered successful in his dealings with the shōgun. He signed an agreement to allow shipwrecked Japanese sailors to be repatriated.

He was awarded an LL. D. served on the board of trustees. He went on to become President of the National Commercial Bank and Trust of Albany, was one of the founders of Albany Law School. In 1866, he was the unsuccessful Conservative Union candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York along with gubernatorial candidate, John T. Hoffman, the mayor of New York City. In the Summer of 1869, he was illegally arrested with other Albany and Susquehanna Railroad executive members during Jay Gould and Jim Fisk's attempt to buy the railroad. In 1841, Pruyn married a member of another prominent Albany family, her father, Gerrit Yates Lansing, was a U. S. Representative who served as the Chancellor of the University of the State of New York. Together and Jane were the parents of four children, including: Edward Pruyn Robert Clarence Pruyn, a prominent banker and leader of the American toy industry. Helen Lansing Pruyn Charles Lansing Pruyn He died in 1882 in Albany, his remains are interred at Albany Rural Cemetery, Section 30, Lot 14.

Allaben, Frank. John Watts de Peyster. Frank Allaben Genealogical Company: New York, 1908. ISBN 1-4021-4454-7 Findling, John. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History. Greenwood Press: Westport, 1989. ISBN 0-313-26024-9 Hutchins, S. C. Civil List and Forms of Government of the Colony State of New York. Weed, Parsons & Co.: Albany, 1870. Johnson and Brown, John Howard; the twentieth-century biographical dictionary of notable Americans. The Biographical Society: Boston. 1904. Shavit, David; the United States in Asia: A Historical Dictionary. Greenwood Press: Westport. 1990. ISBN 0-313-26788-X Seward, Frederick W. Autobiography of William H. Seward, from 1801 to 1834. D. Appleton: New York. 1877. Stern, Philip Van Doren; when the Guns Roared: World Aspects of the American Civil War. Doubleday: New York, 1965. Treat, Payson Jackson; the Early Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Japan, 1853-1865. The Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore, 1917. ISBN 0-548-59476-7 American Council of Learned Societies. "Dictionary of American Biography".

Charles Scribner's Sons: New York. 1959. Lee, Edwin B. "Robert H. Pruyn in Japan, 1862–1865". New York History 66 pp. 123–39. Robert H. Pruyn Papers, Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, N. Y. "Friends of Pruyn House web site " Political Graveyard, Robert Hewson. Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States. Pruyn House, Diane Morgan Curator 207 Old Niskayuna Road P. O. Box 212 Newtonville, NY 12128. Robert H. Pruyn at Find a Grave

Mama Tour

The Mama Tour was a North American and United Kingdom concert tour by English rock band Genesis. The tour ended in February 1984 in Birmingham, England. Birmingham dates at National Exhibition Centre in February 1984 were filmed for a video release entitled Genesis: The Mama Tour. "Dodo/Lurker" † "Abacab" "That's All" "Mama" "Eleventh Earl Of Mar" "Squonk" "Behind The Lines" "Firth Of Fifth" † "The Musical Box" "Illegal Alien" "Man on the Corner" † "Who Dunnit?" † "Home by the Sea/Second Home by the Sea" "The Carpet Crawlers" † "Keep It Dark" "It's Gonna Get Better" "Follow You Follow Me" † Medley: "In the Cage" "The Cinema Show" "... In That Quiet Earth" "The Colony of Slippermen" "Afterglow" Drum Duet "Los Endos" † "Misunderstanding" † ""Turn It On Again/ Satisfaction" * † – not included in video release Phil Collinsdrums, electronic percussion, lead vocals Tony Bankskeyboards, Moog Taurus, backing vocals Mike Rutherford – guitars, bass guitar, bass pedals, backing vocals, drums on "Who Dunnit?"Additional Musicians Daryl Stuermer – bass guitar, backing vocals Chester Thompson – drums

RĂ³bert Lovas

Róbert Lovas is a Hungarian computer scientist at MTA-SZTAKI, Hungary. Lovas was born in Hungary, he received his MSc degree in electrical engineering in 1998, PhD degree in informatics at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 2006. He is the Deputy Head of the Laboratory of Parallel and Distributed Systems and Automation Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. High-level programming languages, workflow-oriented tools, integrated software engineering environments for parallel and Grid systems, supercomputers, Grid systems and their applications in science and business areas, Automated correctness debugging of parallel and distributed programs including specification, formal modelling, replay/active control, execution visualisation techniques. From 1997 he has been involved in several national, intergovernmental bilateral, European research projects in the Framework Programmes 4-7. In the HARNESS project he worked as an exchange researcher at the Department of Math and Computer Science, Emory University in 2000.

He has long-running experience in ICT collaborations with academic organizations and enterprises from various application areas of meteorology, computational chemistry, telecommunication. He is a co-author or co-editor of more than 35 scientific papers and books on parallel software engineering and Grid computing from design and application aspects; as lecturer and tutor, he gave more than 100 presentations and demonstrations on international scientific events and exhibitions in Europe, the USA, Asia. He has received the following awards and scholarships: 2011 Exhibit Third Prize at FET11 - The European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition 2008 Institute Award and Automation Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 2002 Award of Aspirants and PhD Students and Automation Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 2002 Excellent Talk Award; the Third Conference of PhD Students in Computer Science, Hungary 2000 Research Scholarship: Department of Math & Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USAHe is the coordinator of the European DEGISCO project, a member of the Technical Committee of the Hungarian Grid Competence Center, the Grid Application Support Center.

He was the deputy member of the Project Management Board of the European ETICS-2 consortium, the Scientific Steering Committee of the CANCERGRID project. He acts as International Liaison in the European Grid Infrastructure project and as a Secretary of the Stichting International Desktop Grid Federation. Balaton et al. 2008: EDGeS: the common boundary between service and desktop grids. In: Grid computing and prospects. Kacsuk, Lovas, Németh. 2008: Distributed and Parallel Systems. In Focus: Desktop Grid Computing. Springer US Kacsuk. 2007: Correctness debugging of message passing programs using model verification techniques. In: Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface. Proc. of 14th European PVM/MPI User’s Group Meeting Lovas et al. 2007: GRID superscalar enabled P-GRADE portal. In: Integrated Research in GRID Computing. Proc. of CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 Lovas. 2006: Enhanced debugging methods for parallel and metacomputing applications based on macrosteps.

PhD thesis, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Lovas and Vécsei. 2005: Integration of Formal Verification and Debugging Methods in P-GRADE Environment. In Juhász et al.: Distributed and Parallel Systems. Cluster and Grid Computing. Springer Lovas et al. 2004: Workflow Support for Complex Grid Applications: Integrated and Portal Solutions. In: Grid Computing. Proc. of Second European AcrossGrids Conference, AxGrids 2004 Németh et al. 2004: The P-GRADE grid portal. In: Computational science and its applications: Proc. of ICCSA 2004 Kacsuk et al. 2003: Demonstration of P-GRADE job-mode for the Grid. In: Euro-Par 2003 Parallel Processing. Proc. of 9th International Euro-Par Conference Lovas et al. 2002: Application of P-grade development environment in meteorology. In: Kacsuk et al.: Distributed and parallel systems. Cluster and grid computing. Springer Lovas and Sunderam. 2002: Debugging of metacomputing applications. In: Proc. of 16th international parallel and distributed processing symposium.

IPDPS 2002. Kovács et al. 2002: Integrating temporal assertions into a parallel debugger. In: Euro-Par 2002. Parallel processing. Proc. of 8th international Euro-Par conference. Lovas and Sunderam. 2001: Extension of macrostep debugging methodology towards metacomputing applications. Computational science - Proc. of ICCS 2001 International conference Kacsuk et al. 2001: The GRADE graphical parallel programming environment. In: Cunha et al.: Parallel program development for cluster computing: methodology and integrated environments. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. NY, USA Dózsa et al. 2000: Translation of a high-level graphical code to message-passing primitives in the GRADE programming environment. In: Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface Proc. of 7th European PVM/MPI Users’ Group Meeting Kacsuk et al. 1999: Systematic debuggin