Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Moshav is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second wave of aliyah. A resident or a member of a moshav can be called a "moshavnik"; the moshavim are similar to kibbutzim with an emphasis on community labour. They were designed as part of the Zionist state-building programme following the green revolution Yishuv in the British Mandate of Palestine during the early 20th century, but in contrast to the collective kibbutzim, farms in a moshav tended to be individually owned but of fixed and equal size. Workers produced crops and goods on their properties through individual and/or pooled labour and resources and used profit and foodstuffs to provide for themselves. Moshavim are governed by an elected council. Community projects and facilities were financed by a special tax; this tax was equal for all households of the community, thus creating a system where good farmers were better off than bad ones, unlike in the communal kibbutzim where all members enjoyed the same living standard.
There are several variants, of which the most common are: Moshav ovdim, a workers' cooperative settlement. This is the more numerous type and relies on cooperative purchasing of supplies and marketing of produce. Moshav shitufi, a collective smallholders' settlement that combines the economic features of a kibbutz with the social features of a moshav. Farming is done collectively and profits are shared equally; this form is closer to the collectivity of the kibbutz: although consumption is family- or household-based and marketing are collective. Unlike the moshav ovdim, land is not allotted to households or individuals, but is collectively worked; the first moshav, was established in the Jezreel Valley on September 11, 1921. By 1986 about 156,700 Israelis worked on 448 moshavim; because the moshav organisation retained the family as the centre of social life, it was much more attractive to traditional Mizrahi immigrants in the 1950s and early 1960s. These so-called "immigrants' moshav" were one of the most-used and successful forms of absorption and integration of Oriental immigrants.
For this reason, the moshav became a Mizrahi institution, whereas the kibbutz movement remained an Ashkenazi institution. Since the Six-Day War in 1967, both moshavim and kibbutzim have relied on outside—including Palestinian—labour. Financial instabilities in the early 1980s hit many moshavim hard, as did their high birth rate and the problem of absorbing all the children who might wish to remain in the community. By the late 1980s, moshav members came to be employed in non-agricultural sectors outside the community, so that some moshavim began to resemble suburbs or commuter towns whose residents commute to work. In general, moshavim never enjoyed the "political elite" status afforded to kibbutzim during the period of Israeli Labor Party dominance. "Kibbutz and Moshav". Chapter 2. Israel: A Country Study. Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1990
Netanya is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain. It is 30 km north of Tel Aviv, 56 km south of Haifa, between the'Poleg' stream and Wingate Institute in the south and the'Avichail' stream in the north. Netanya was named in honor of Nathan Straus, a prominent Jewish American merchant and philanthropist in the early 20th century, the co-owner of Macy's department store, its 14 kilometres of beaches have made the city a popular tourist resort. In addition, the city is known for its large immigrant population. A significant percentage of the city's population consists of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia, the city is home to a notably large population of English-speaking immigrants from the United Kingdom, United States, South Africa and New Zealand. In 2017, it had a population of 214,101. An additional 150,000 people live in the local and regional councils within 10 kilometres of Netanya which serves as a regional center for them.
The city mayor is Miriam Feirberg. The idea to create the settlement of Netanya was drawn up at a meeting of the Bnei Binyamin association in Zikhron Ya'akov; the location was decided upon near the ancient site of Poleg, it was decided to name it in honor of Nathan Straus, co-owner of Macy's department store, New York City Parks Commissioner, president of the New York City Board of Health, who gifted two-thirds of his personal fortune to projects benefiting Jews and Arabs in Palestine. "Netanya... was named for Straus in the hope. When he told them he had no more money to give they were disappointed, but decided to keep the city's name anyway." In 1928 members of Bnei Binyamin and Hanote, an organisation set up after Straus was informed of the establishment of the settlement, purchased 350 acres of Umm Khaled lands. On December 14, 1928 a team led by Moshe Shaked began digging for water at the site, finding it in February 1929. Subsequently, on February 18, 1929, the first five settlers moved onto the land and cultivating it for the first time.
In the weeks that followed, more settlers began arriving. The land was divided between the settlers in June 1929 as the vision of the settlement became reality. Development was set back, however when the 1929 Palestine riots and massacre of Jews caused the settlement to be abandoned for a couple of weeks. By September, development was back on track with the cornerstones for the first 10 houses being laid on Sukkot. In the following years, Netanya continued to grow, with the first kindergarten and shop opening in 1930, the first school in 1931. In the 1931 census of Palestine, Netanya was recorded as having 253 residents. In 1933, the British architect Cliff Holliday proposed a plan for Netanya to become a tourist city. Holliday prepared urban projects in Jaffa, Tiberias and Ramla; the first urban plan for the city, saw it being divided into three sections with a tourism district along the coastline, housing and commerce in the center, agriculture and industry to the east. That year saw the completion of the Tel Aviv Hotel, the first hotel in Netanya, as well as the establishment of two new neighborhoods, Ben Zion and Geva.
The moshava as it was continued to grow in 1934, when the first ship of illegal immigrants carried 350 to Netanya's shoreline. These operations continued until 1939, with over seventeen ships landing near the city, being aided by the residents of Netanya. Whilst flourishing agriculturally, 1934 saw the city diversify with Primazon opening the first factory there, producing fruit and vegetable preserves. Following this, the first industrial zone was set up, whilst the Shone Halahot Synagogue was built and the Bialik School inaugurated; as the settlement continued to grow, 1937 saw a cornerstone laid for a new commercial center and the connection of Netanya to the Tel Aviv-Haifa road. In 1940, the British Mandate government defined Netanya as a local council of which Oved Ben-Ami was elected head of. Expansion continued after this point. In 1944, Netanya had a population of 4,900; the first high school in Netanya opened in 1945. During the Jewish insurgency in Palestine, the Jewish underground group Irgun launched a number of attacks against British military and police forces in the Netanya area.
The town itself was a bastion of support for the Irgun. The most infamous incident happened in what became known as the Sergeants affair. After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death by the British, the Irgun abducted two British sergeants on a Netanya street, hid them in an abandoned factory; the British responded by declaring martial law and placing Netanya and the surrounding area under curfew. The British Army did not find the sergeants. After the three Irgun fighters were hanged, the Irgun hanged the two sergeants in the factory and re-hanged and booby trapped their bodies in an orange grove. In November 1947, an Egged bus which left Netanya for Jerusalem was attacked in Petah Tikva. In 1948, following the withdrawal of British forces from Netanya and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, a large military base was established in the city. On December 3, 1948, after fighting in the area had calmed down, Netanya was designated a city, the first city to be designated in the newly established State of Israel.
A number of nearby settlements, Ramat Tiomkin, Ein Hatchlelet, Pardes Hagdud, Ramat Ephraim, were annexed to Netanya. At this time, Netanya had a population of 11,600. In 1949, the Kiryat Eliezer Kaplan Industrial Zone was inaugurated and t
Herut is a moshav in central Israel. Located in the Sharon plain near Tel Mond, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lev HaSharon Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 1,281; the village was founded in 1930 by the Herut society, an organization of immigrants who settled in Palestine during the Third and Fourth Aliyah. One of the early agricultural crops was peanuts. Landmarks buildings include a culture hall, Beit Ha'am, built in 1959. Among the founders of the moshav were the parents of Nechama Rivlin, who had immigrated from Ukraine. Nechama Rivlin Herut website
Azri'el is a religious moshav in central Israel. Located near Tel Mond, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lev HaSharon Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 913. Moshav Azriel was founded in 1951 by immigrants from Yemen; the moshav is named after a founder of Modern Orthodox Judaism. In 2006, the moshav approved an expansion plan to bring in new families. Twenty families moved in by the summer of 2008
Drom HaSharon Regional Council
The Drom HaSharon Regional Council is a regional council in the Sharon region in central Israel. Its offices are located on Highway 40 near Neve Yarak. Adanim Einat Elishema Eyal Gan Haim Ganei Am Gat Rimon Givat Hen Givat HaShlosha Hagor Horshim Kfar Ma'as Kfar Malal Kfar Sirkin Magshimim Matan Nachshonim Neve Yamin Neve Yerek Nir Eliyahu Nirit Ramat HaKovesh Ramot HaShavim Sdei Hemed Sde Warburg Tzofit Tzur Natan Yarhiv Yarkona Drom HaSharon Regional Council is twinned with: Neuwied, Germany. Official website
Hefer Valley Regional Council
The Hefer Valley Regional Council is a regional council in the Hefer Valley region of the Sharon plain in central Israel. The council covers an area adjacent to Hadera in the north, to Netanya in the south, to the Mediterranean in the west and to Tulkarm and the Green Line in the east, it has a population of about 35,000 residents. The Regional Council offices are located near Kfar Monash, at the Ruppin junction, next to the Ruppin Academic Center. In the early 1900s, a local midwife, Olga Hankin, reported information about the economic state of the families in the region to her husband, Yehoshua Hankin, in charge of land purchase for the Jewish National Fund. In 1927 Yehoshua Hankin resolved the complex legal issues involved in purchasing the land, signed an agreement for the purchase of the Hefer Valley; the only difficulty was that the Jewish National Fund did not have sufficient funds to pay the sum needed for buying the land. The chairman of the JNF, Menachem Ushishkin, set out on a fundraising trip to Canada, returning with $300,000 and undertakings to bring it up to a million, the sum required to purchase the Hefer Valley over a period of seven years.
At the Zionist Congress held in Zurich in 1929, Ushishkin announced that Emek Hefer was now in Jewish hands. A group of 20 young members of the "Vitkin" and "Haemek" movements settled in the newly purchased valley, they moved into an abandoned building and began draining the swamps and preparing the land for agriculture. In April 1933, they built their first houses in the heart of the valley. In 1931, a group from the Hashomer Hatzair movement in Hadera established the settlement of Ein HaHoresh, planting the first citrus grove. A company called. Another group from the Kibbutz HaMeuhad movement, founded Givat Haim in 1932, while the organization of demobilized soldiers from the Jewish Brigade set up the settlement of Avihayil. Ruppin Academic Center was established in the region in 1949. Hadassah Neurim Mevo'ot Yam Official website