It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen, UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic, the Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year when the city was first mentioned. Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The Varangian name of the city Holmgård/Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, Holmgård referred only to the stronghold southeast of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII, in 882, Ruriks successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus.
Novgorods size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus, according to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Konstantin. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise and his son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day. In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki, four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the town of Visby in Gotland functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League.
At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard, later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich, the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the posadnik, or mayor, the tysyatsky, or thousandman, originally the head of the town militia but a commercial and judicial official, was elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars, archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the metropolitan for consecration. While a basic outline of the officials and the Veche can be drawn up. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one officials power ended, throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally
Saratov is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream of Volgograd. The name Saratov may be derived from the Turkic words Saryk Atov, another version of the name origin is Sary Tau, meaning yellow mountain in the Tatar language. Uvek, a city of the Golden Horde, stood near the site of the city of Saratov from the mid-13th century until its destruction by Tamerlane in 1395. While the exact date of the foundation of modern Saratov is unknown,1590, during the reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, who constructed several settlements along the Volga River in order to secure the southeastern boundary of his state. Town status was granted to it in 1708, by the 1800s, Saratov had grown to become an important shipping port on the Volga. The Ryazan-Ural Railroad reached Saratov in 1870, in 1896, the line crossed the Volga and continued its eastward expansion. During World War II, Saratov was a station on the North-South Volzhskaya Rokada, the city of Saratov played an important role in the history of the Volga Germans.
Until 1941, the town of Pokrovsk, located just across the Volga from Saratov, the ethnic German population of the region numbered 800,000 in the early 20th century, with some people whose families had been there for generations. The Volga German community came to include industrialists, scientists and architects, others were expelled to western Europe after World War II ended in 1945. Beginning in the 1980s, a portion of the surviving members of the ethnic Germans emigrated from the Soviet Union to Germany. Reminders of the prominent place of Germans in the city remain. The building was converted into the childrens cinema Pioneer during the Soviet period, a new cathedral was built in 2000 elsewhere in the city, the Cathedral of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Saratov. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Saratov—an administrative unit with the equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Saratov is incorporated as Saratov Urban Okrug, Saratov has moderately continental climate with warm and dry summers and an abundance of sunny days.
The warmest month is July with daily temperature near +23 °C. Summers are hot and dry in Saratov, daytime temperatures of +30 °C or higher are commonplace, up to +40.9 °C during a heat wave in 2010. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season, days well above freezing and nights below −25 °C both occur in the winter. Saratov Oblast is highly industrialized, due in part to the richness in natural and industrial resources of the area, the oblast is one of the more important and largest cultural and scientific centers in Russia
Andrei Alexandrovich Popov
Andrei Alexandrovich Popov was an officer of the Imperial Russian Navy, who saw action during the Crimean War, and became a noted naval designer. Popov trained for the navy, and commanded ships before and during the Crimean War and he rose to the rank of rear-admiral and was assigned to supervise warship design and construction. Though there was no war, Popov spent a year in San Francisco, Popov turned to warship design after his return to Russia, and proposed a series of warships to an unconventional circular design. Only two were built, one of which, Vitse-admiral Popov, was named in honour of him and their radical designs proved troublesome, and were not repeated. Popov was born in Russia on 21 September 1821, and attended the Naval School and he entered the navy after graduating, and rose to command the cruiser Meteor. He commanded a steamship during the Crimean War and was appointed Manager of Artillery Supplies at Sevastopol, when the war ended Popov was appointed to supervise the construction of steamships for the Russian Navy, a post he held for the next 30 years.
The period saw an expansion in naval construction, with Popov overseeing new Russian warships being built at St Petersburg. Popov served at sea, and by 1863 he was commanding a squadron of Russian warships in the Pacific, the American Civil War was being fought at this time, and there were good relations between Russia and the Union. Popov was despatched to America, and arrived in San Francisco in October with six ships, the corvettes Bogatyr, Kalavela and Novik, and the clippers Abrek and Gaidamak. Popov had been in correspondence with the director of the Ministry of Navy, Nikolay Karlovich Krabbe, concerning the threat of war with other European powers over the Polish crisis. During the Russian squadrons stay in the city, a fire out in the wharves. The city council adopted a resolution on 26 October 1863 thanking Popov and a number of his officers for their help in fighting the fire. Popov declared in either late 1863 or early 1864 that he was prepared to defend the city if it was attacked by Confederate forces.
The declaration was greeted with enthusiasm by the population, though Eduard de Stoeckl. Deterred by Popovs announcement, and the presence of the Russian squadron, Russia had been banned from maintaining a battlefleet in the Black Sea after the end of the Crimean War. Fearful of further naval incursions, Russia wanted a fleet of heavily armed shallow-draught coastal defence vessels to guard the Kerch Straits, Popov built a 24-foot steamer and carried out tests in 1870, subsequently proposing a fleet of ten large circular coastal defence vessels. Their circular design would create a gun platform suitable for operations in the shallow water of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The expense involved meant that two were built, the Novgorod and the Kiev
Kostroma is a historic city and the administrative center of Kostroma Oblast, Russia. A part of the Golden Ring of Russian towns, it is located at the confluence of the Volga and Kostroma Rivers. The city was first recorded in the chronicles for the year 1213, like other towns of the Eastern Rus, Kostroma was sacked by the Mongols in 1238. It constituted a small principality, under leadership of Prince Vasily the Drunkard, a younger brother of the famous Alexander Nevsky. Upon inheriting the grand ducal title in 1271, Vasily didnt leave the town for Vladimir, as one of the northernmost towns of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kostroma served for grand dukes as a place of retreat when enemies besieged Moscow in 1382,1408, and 1433. In 1375, the town was looted by Novgorod pirates, the spectacular growth of the city in the 16th century may be attributed to the establishment of trade connections with English and Dutch merchants through the northern port of Archangel. Boris Godunov had the Ipatiev and Epiphany monasteries rebuilt in stone, the construction works were finished just in time for the city to witness some of the most dramatic events of the Time of Troubles.
Kostroma was twice ravaged by the Poles, it took a six-month siege to them from the Ipatiev monastery. The heroic peasant Ivan Susanin became a symbol of the resistance to foreign invaders. The future Tsar, Mikhail Romanov, lived at the monastery and it was here that an embassy from Moscow offered him the Russian crown in 1612. It is understandable why the Romanov Tsars regarded Kostroma as their special protectorate, the Ipatievsky monastery was visited by many of them, including Nicholas II, the last Russian Tsar. The monastery had been founded in the early 14th century by a Tatar prince, the Romanovs had the magnificent Trinity Cathedral rebuilt in 1652, its frescoes and iconostasis are a thing of beauty. A wooden house of Mikhail Romanov is still preserved in the monastery, there are several old wooden structures transported to the monastery walls from distant districts of the Kostroma Oblast. Town status was granted to Kostroma in 1719, in 1773, Kostroma was devastated by a great fire. Afterwards the city was rebuilt with streets radiating from a focal point near the river.
They say that Catherine the Great dropped her fan on the city map, one of the best preserved examples of the 18th century town planning, Kostroma retains some elegant structures in a provincial neoclassical style. These include a palace, a fire tower, a rotunda on the Volga embankment. The First Workers Socialist Club based in Kostroma was one of the best documented workers clubs run by Proletkult, as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Kostroma—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts
Arzamas is a city in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, located on the Tyosha River,410 kilometers east of Moscow. Arzamas was founded in 1578 by Ivan the Terrible in the lands populated at the time by Mordvins, by 1737, more than 7,000 people lived in Arzamas and the town became a major transit center on the route from Moscow to eastern parts of Russia. It was known for its geese and onions as well as leather crafts, catherine the Great in 1781 granted town status to Arzamas and a coat of arms based on the colors of the Arzamas regiment. In the early 19th century, Arzamas had over twenty churches and cathedrals and it was built in the Empire style to commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleon in 1812. Alexander Stupin art school was located in Arzamas between 1802 and 1862 and many famous Russian artists studied there, including Vasily Perov, in 1954-1957, Arzamas was the center of Arzamas Oblast, a short-lived administrative unit that was split from Gorky Oblast and merged back into it. In 1988, the city was the site of the Arzamas train disaster caused the death of ninety-one people.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arzamas serves as the center of Arzamassky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Arzamas—an administrative unit with the equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Arzamas is incorporated as Arzamas Urban Okrug, local industry includes Arzamas Machine-Building Plant, a manufacturer of military and specialized civilian automotive vehicles. It is now part of the GAZ holding company, Arzamas is twinned with, Bulgaria Ruma, Serbia Valozhyn, Belarus Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow Marina Orlova Evgeny Namestnikov Sarov Законодательное собрание Нижегородской области. Закон №184-З от16 ноября2005 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Нижегородской области», в ред. Закона №58-З от5 мая2016 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Нижегородской области Об административно-территориальном устройстве Нижегородской области», Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №218,23 ноября2005 г, Приказ №3-од от27 января2016 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных образований, городских и сельских населённых пунктов Нижегородской области», Опубликован, Нижегородская правда, №27 и №30,19 и26 марта2016 г. Закон №54-З от29 июня2006 г, «Об административных центрах муниципальных районов, сельских поселений в Нижегородской области», в ред. Закона №60-З от8 мая2015 г «О преобразовании муниципальных образований Кулебакского муниципального района Нижегородской области», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №118,1 июля2006 г, Закон №142-З от24 октября2005 г «О утверждении границ и составе территории муниципального образования город Арзамас Нижегородской области», в ред. Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №203,27 октября2005 г
Order of Saint Stanislaus
The Order of Saint Stanislaus, spelled Stanislas, was a Polish order of knighthood founded in 1765 by King Stanisław August Poniatowski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It remained under the Kingdom of Poland between 1765 and 1831, and was incorporated under the Russian Empire from 1831 to 1917, until the Russian revolution. Stanisław August Poniatowski, King of Poland, established the Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, initially, the order was limited to 100 members who were required to prove four generations of nobility. The knights were required to pay for donations to poor people, due to the rising influence of the Russian Empire on Central European affairs, the rules of awarding of the order were broken. After the Partitions of Poland, the order was resurrected in the Duchy of Warsaw, bestowing upon its recipients the title of hereditary nobility, since 1815 in the Polish Kingdom, the order, originally in a single class, was retained and divided into four classes. On 25 January 1831, the Polish Parliament deposed Emperor Nicholas I of Russia from the throne of Poland, the newly founded Order of Polonia Restituta was created as an attributed Polish successor to the order.
Both the Polish and Russian badges hung from a red ribbon with white strips near its borders, the star has essentially the same design in both its Polish and Russian forms. In its original Polish form the knights of the Order wore a red, there is a semi-circle of gold rays between each of the points of arms of the Maltese cross. Two other organisations in Poland, the Ordo Sancti Stanislai and the International Order of Saint Stanislaus, contemporarly describe themselves as merely private charitable organisations
Imperial Academy of Arts
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, the academy promoted the neoclassical style and technique, and sent its promising students to European capitals for further study. Training at the academy was virtually required for artists to make successful careers, formally abolished in 1918 after the Russian Revolution, the academy was renamed several times. It established free tuition, students from across the country competed fiercely for its few places annually, in 1947 the national institution was moved to Moscow, and much of its art collection was moved to the Hermitage. The building in Leningrad was devoted to the Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture, since 1991 it has been called the St. Petersburg Institute for Painting and Architecture.
The academy was located in the Shuvalov Palace on Sadovaya Street, in 1764, Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned its first rector, Alexander Kokorinov, to design a new building. It took 25 years to complete the Neoclassical edifice, which opened in 1789, konstantin Thon was responsible for the sumptuous decoration of the interiors. He designed a quayside in front of the building, with stairs down to the Neva River, Ivan Betskoy reorganized the academy into a de facto government department, it supervised matters concerning art throughout the country, distributing orders and awarding ranks to artists. The academy vigorously promoted the principles of Neoclassicism by sending the most notable Russian painters abroad, in order to learn the ancient and Renaissance styles of Italy and it had its own sizable collection of choice artworks intended for study and copying. The adherents of this movement became known as peredvizhniki, led by Ivan Kramskoi, they publicly broke with the Academy and organized their own exhibitions, which traveled from town to town across Russia.
Ilya Repin, Mikhail Vrubel and some other painters still regarded the academys training as indispensable for the development of professional and technical skills. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Imperial Academy passed through a series of transformations, after the Academys move to Moscow that year, the building in what was called Leningrad was renamed Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture. The national academy has stayed in Moscow, in 1991 it was renamed the Russian Academy of Arts. The old academys art collection, which included works by Poussin, David. During the Soviet era, academies were free of tuition fees as they were financed by the government, many would-be students would apply to the Academy for as many as six or seven years in a row without success. With just twenty places available and thousands of applicants, the competition was brutal, well-known graduates of Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture in 1930–1950s include, The Russian Academy of Arts has been headquartered in Moscow since 1947.
Its current president is Zurab Tsereteli and its vice-president is Tair Salakhov and it is called the St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Fine Arts and Architecture. - Saint Petersburg, NP-Print Edition,2007, the Leningrad School Russian Academy of Arts The St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Fine Arts Sergei V. Ivanov
Military of the Qing dynasty
The Qing dynasty was established by conquest and maintained by armed force. Therefore, military institutions and finance were fundamental to the initial success. The early military system centered on the Eight Banners, an institution that played social, economic. The Banner system was developed on a basis as early as 1601, and formally established in 1615 by Jurchen leader Nurhaci. After 1644, the Chinese troops that surrendered to the Qing were integrated into the Green Standard Army, garrisoned in cities, soldiers had few occasions to drill. The Qing nonetheless used superior armament and logistics to expand deeply into Central Asia, defeat the Dzungar Mongols in 1759, despite the dynastys pride in the Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor, the Qing armies became largely ineffective by the end of the 18th century. It took almost ten years and huge financial waste to defeat the badly equipped White Lotus Rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion, a large-scale uprising that started in southern China, marched within miles of Beijing in 1853.
The Qing court was forced to let its Han Chinese governors-general, first led by Zeng Guofan and this new type of army and leadership defeated the rebels but signaled the end of Manchu dominance of the military establishment. The military technology of the European Industrial Revolution made Chinas armament, in 1860 British and French forces in the Second Opium War captured Beijing and sacked the Summer Palace. The shaken court attempted to modernize its military and industrial institutions by buying European technology and this Self-Strengthening Movement established shipyards and bought modern guns and battleships in Europe. The Qing navy became the largest in East Asia, but organization and logistics were inadequate, officer training was deficient, and corruption widespread. The Beiyang Fleet was virtually destroyed and the ground forces defeated in the 1895 First Sino-Japanese War. The Qing created a New Army, but could not prevent the Eight Nation Alliance from invading China to put down the Boxer Uprising in 1900, the revolt of a New Army corps in 1911 led to the fall of the dynasty.
Sometime before 1607, these companies were grouped into larger units called gūsa, or banners, differentiated by colors, white, red. In 1615 a red border was added to each flag to form a total of eight banners that Jurchen troops carried into battles, as Qing power expanded north of the Great Wall, the Banner system kept expanding too. Hong Taiji was more prudent in integrating Chinese troops, in 1629, he first created a Chinese army of about 3000 men. In 1631 these Chinese troops absorbed men that could build and operate European-style cannon, by 1633 they counted about 20 companies and 4,500 men fighting under black standards. These Chinese companies were grouped into two banners in 1637, four in 1639, and finally eight banners in 1642 and these Hanjun banners are known as the Chinese or Chinese-martial banners
Saint Petersburg Theological Academy
The Saint Petersburg Theological Academy is a theological seminary in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The academy grants master and doctorate degrees preparing theologians and priests for the Eastern Orthodox Church and it was founded in 1797 by Gabriel, Metropolitan of Saint Petersburg, as part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. At the turn of the 20th Century the Saint Petersburg Theological Academy was one of four religious academies of the Russian Orthodox Church, the class of 1898 had a total of 235 students regularly attending classes
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in China from 1966 until 1976. The Revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of power after the Great Leap Forward, the movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected the countrys economy and society to a significant degree. The Revolution was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, to eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that these revisionists be removed through violent class struggle. Chinas youth responded to Maos appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country, the movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi. During the same period Maos personality cult grew to immense proportions, a large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement.
Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed and religious sites were ransacked. Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, after Maos death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping gradually began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1958, after Chinas first Five-Year Plan, Mao called for grassroots socialism in order to accelerate his plans for turning China into an industrialized state. In this spirit, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, established Peoples Communes in the countryside, many communities were assigned production of a single commodity—steel. Mao vowed to increase production to twice 1957 levels. The Great Leap was an economic failure, uneducated farmers attempted to produce steel on a massive scale, partially relying on backyard furnaces to achieve the production targets set by local cadres. The steel produced was low quality and largely useless, the Great Leap reduced harvest sizes and led to a decline in the production of most goods except substandard pig iron and steel.
Furthermore, local authorities frequently exaggerated production numbers and intensifying the problem for several years, in the meantime, chaos in the collectives, bad weather, and exports of food necessary to secure hard currency resulted in the Great Chinese Famine. Food was in shortage, and production fell dramatically. The famine caused the deaths of millions of people, particularly in poorer inland regions, the Great Leaps failure reduced Maos prestige within the Party. Forced to take responsibility, in 1959, Mao resigned as the President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chinas de jure head of state
Kamyshinsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kamyshinsky Municipal District and it is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,563 square kilometers and its administrative center is the city of Kamyshin. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kamyshinsky District is one of the thirty-three in the oblast, the city of Kamyshin serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a town of oblast significance—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Kamyshinsky Municipal District, the city of oblast significance of Kamyshin is incorporated separately from the district as Kamyshin Urban Okrug. Закон №139-ОД от7 октября1997 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от10 июля2015 г, «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Волгоградская правда, №207,1 ноября1997 г. Закон №1022-ОД от5 марта2005 г, «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Камышинского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №1669-ОД от28 апреля2008 г, «О внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от5 марта2005 г. №1022-ОД Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Камышинского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Волгоградская правда, №48,19 марта2005 г, Закон №986-ОД от31 декабря2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом города Камышина», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Волгоградская правда, №10,21 января2005 г