The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
The Three Questions
"The Three Questions" is a short story by Russian author Leo Tolstoy first published in 1885 as part of the collection What Men Live By, Other Tales. The story takes the form of a parable, it concerns a king who wants to find the answers to what he considers the three most important questions in life. Bibliography of Leo Tolstoy "The Works of Tolstoi." Black's Readers Service Company: Roslyn, New York. 1928. The Three Questions at The Literature Network
Anna Karenina is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published in book form in 1878. Many authors consider Anna Karenina the greatest work of literature written, Tolstoy himself called it his first true novel, it was released in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. A complex novel in eight parts, with more than a dozen major characters, it is spread over more than 800 pages contained in two volumes, it deals with themes of betrayal, family, Imperial Russian society and rural vs. city life. The plot centers on an extramarital affair between Anna and dashing cavalry officer Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky that scandalizes the social circles of Saint Petersburg and forces the young lovers to flee for Italy in a futile search for happiness. Returning to Russia, their lives further unravel. Trains are a recurring motif throughout the novel, which takes place against the backdrop of rapid transformations as a result of the liberal reforms initiated by Emperor Alexander II of Russia, with several major plot points taking place either on passenger trains or at stations in Saint Petersburg or elsewhere in Russia.
The novel has been adapted into various media including opera, television, figure skating and radio drama. The first of many film adaptations has not survived. Countess Anna Arkadyevna Karenina: Stepan Oblonsky's sister, Karenin's wife and Vronsky's lover. Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky: Lover of Anna, a cavalry officer Prince Stepan "Stiva" Arkadyevich Oblonsky: a civil servant and Anna's brother, a man about town, 34, his nickname is a Russianized form of Steve. Princess Darya "Dolly" Alexandrovna Oblonskaya: Stepan's wife, 33 Count Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin: a senior statesman and Anna's husband, twenty years her senior. Konstantin "Kostya" Dmitrievich Lëvin/Lyovin: Kitty's suitor, old friend of Stiva, a landowner, 32. Nikolai Dmitrievich Lëvin/Lyovin: Konstantin's elder brother, an impoverished alcoholic. Sergei Ivanovich Koznyshev: Konstantin's half-brother, a celebrated writer, 40. Princess Ekaterina "Kitty" Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya: Dolly's younger sister and Levin's wife, 18. Princess Elizaveta "Betsy" Tverskaya: Anna's wealthy, morally loose society friend and Vronsky's cousin Countess Lidia Ivanovna: Leader of a high society circle that includes Karenin, shuns Princess Betsy and her circle.
She maintains an interest in the Russian Orthodox mystical and spiritual Countess Vronskaya: Vronsky's mother Sergei "Seryozha" Alexeyich Karenin: Anna and Karenin's son, 9. Anna "Annie": Anna and Vronsky's daughter. Anna Karenina is the tragic story of Countess Anna Karenina, a married noblewoman and socialite, her affair with the affluent Count Vronsky; the story starts when she arrives in the midst of a family broken up by her brother's unbridled womanizing—something that prefigures her own situation, though she would experience less tolerance by others. A bachelor, Vronsky is eager to marry Anna if she will agree to leave her husband Count Karenin, a senior government official, but she is vulnerable to the pressures of Russian social norms, the moral laws of the Russian Orthodox Church, her own insecurities, Karenin's indecision. Although Vronsky and Anna go to Italy, where they can be together, they have trouble making friends. Back in Russia, she is shunned, becoming further isolated and anxious, while Vronsky pursues his social life.
Despite Vronsky's reassurances, she grows possessive and paranoid about his imagined infidelity, fearing loss of control. A parallel story within the novel is that of Konstantin Lëvin or Ljovin, a wealthy country landowner who wants to marry Princess Kitty, sister to Princess Dolly and sister-in-law to Anna's brother Prince Oblonsky. Konstantin has to propose twice; the novel details Konstantin's difficulties managing his estate, his eventual marriage, his struggle to accept the Christian faith, until the birth of his first child. The novel explores a diverse range of topics throughout its one thousand pages; some of these topics include an evaluation of the feudal system that existed in Russia at the time—politics, not only in the Russian government but at the level of the individual characters and families, morality and social class. The novel is divided into eight parts, its epigraph is Vengeance. The novel begins with one of its most often-quoted lines: The novel opens with a scene that introduces Prince Stepan Arkadyevich Oblonsky, a Moscow aristocrat and civil servant, unfaithful to his wife, Princess Darya Alexandrovna.
Dolly has discovered his affair with the family's governess, the household and family are in turmoil. Stiva informs the household that his married sister, Countess Anna Arkadyevna Karenina, is coming to visit from Saint Petersburg in a bid to calm the situation. Meanwhile, Stiva's childhood friend, Konstantin Dmitrievich Levin, arrives in Moscow with the aim of proposing to Dolly's youngest sister, Princess Katerina Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya. Levin is a passionate, but shy aristocratic landowner who, unlike his Moscow friends, chooses to live in the country on his large estate, he discovers t
Childhood is the first published novel by Leo Tolstoy, released under the initials L. N. in the November 1852 issue of the popular Russian literary journal The Contemporary. It is followed by Boyhood and Youth. Published when Tolstoy was just twenty-three years old, the book was an immediate success, earning notice from other Russian novelists including Ivan Turgenev, who heralded the young Tolstoy as a major up-and-coming figure in Russian literature. Childhood is an exploration of the inner life of a young boy and one of the books in Russian writing to explore an expressionistic style, mixing fact and emotions to render the moods and reactions of the narrator. "Will the freshness, the need for love, strength of faith which you have in childhood return? What better time than when the two best virtues -- innocent joy and the boundless desire for love -- were the only motives in life?" Works related to Childhood at Wikisource Childhood at Project Gutenberg Full text of Childhood in the original Russian Childhood public domain audiobook at LibriVox
"Father Sergius" is a short story written by Leo Tolstoy between 1890 and 1898 and first published in 1911. The story begins with the childhood and exceptional and accomplished youth of Prince Stepan Kasatsky; the young man is destined for great things. He discovers on the eve of his wedding that his fiancée Countess Mary Korotkova has had an affair with his beloved Tsar Nicholas I; the blow to his pride is massive, he retreats to the arms of Russian Orthodoxy and becomes a monk. Many years of humility and doubt follow, he is ordered to become a hermit. Despite his being removed from the world, he is still remembered for having so remarkably transformed his life. One winter night, a group of merry-makers decide to visit him, one of them, a divorced woman named Makovkina, spends the night in his cell, with the intention to seduce him. Father Sergius discovers he is still weak and in order to protect himself, cuts off his own finger. Makovkina is stunned by this act, leaves the next morning, having vowed to change her life.
A year she has joined a convent. Father Sergius' reputation for holiness grows, he becomes known as a healer, pilgrims come from far and wide. Yet Father Sergius is profoundly aware of his inability to attain a true faith, he is still tortured by boredom and lust. He fails a new test, when the young daughter of a merchant beds him; the morning after, he leaves the monastery and seeks out Pashenka, whom he, with a group of other boys, had tormented many years ago. He finds her, now in all the conventional senses a failure in life, yet imbued with a sense of service towards her family, his path is now clearer. He begins to wander, until eight months he is arrested in the company of a blind beggar who makes him feel closer to God, he is sent to Siberia, where he now works as the hired man of a well-to-do peasant, teaching the gentleman's young children and working in the gardens. Father Sergius Father Sergius The Sun Also Shines at Night "Father Sergius", full text in various formats Full text of "Father Sergius" in the original Russian Translation of "Father Sergius" in OnlineLiterature.com "Father Sergius" audiobook at librivox
Family Happiness is an 1859 novella written by Leo Tolstoy, first published in The Russian Messenger. The story concerns the love and marriage of a young girl and the much older Sergey Mikhaylych, an old family friend; the story is narrated by Masha. After a courtship that has the trappings of a mere family friendship, Masha's love grows and expands until she can no longer contain it, she reveals it to Sergey Mikhaylych and discovers that he is in love. If he has resisted her it was because of his fear that the age difference between them would lead the young Masha to tire of him, he likes to be still and quiet, he tells her, while she will want to explore and discover more and more about life. Ecstatically and passionately happy, the pair engages to be married. Once married they move to Mikhaylych's home, they are both members of the landed Russian upper class. Masha soon feels impatient with the quiet order of life on the estate, notwithstanding the powerful understanding and love that remains between the two.
To assuage her anxiety, they decide to spend a few weeks in St. Petersburg. Sergey Mikhaylych agrees to take Masha to an aristocratic ball, he hates "society" but she is enchanted with it. They go again, again, she becomes a regular, the darling of the countesses and princes, with her rural charm and her beauty. Sergey Mikhaylych, at first pleased with Petersburg society's enthusiasm for his wife, frowns on her passion for "society". Out of respect for her, Sergey Mikhaylych will scrupulously allow his young wife to discover the truth about the emptiness and ugliness of "society" on her own, but his trust in her is damaged. They confront each other about their differences, they do not treat their conflict as something that can be resolved through negotiation. Both are shocked and mortified that their intense love has been called into question. Something has changed; because of pride, they both refuse to talk about it. The trust and the closeness are gone. Only courteous friendship remains. Masha yearns to return to the passionate closeness they had known before Petersburg.
They go back to the country. Though she gives birth to children and the couple has a good life, she despairs, they can be together by themselves. She asks him to explain why he did not try to guide and direct her away from the balls and the parties in Petersburg. Why did they lose their intense love? Why don't they try to bring it back? His answer is not the answer she wants to hear, but it settles her down and prepares her for a long life of comfortable "Family Happiness". A passage of the book is quoted in the book and film Into the Wild: "I have lived through much, now I think I have found what is needed for happiness. A quiet secluded life in the country, with the possibility of being useful to people to whom it is easy to do good, who are not accustomed to have it done to them, and on top of all that, you for a mate, children perhaps—what more can the heart of man desire?" Another passage is quoted in the book Into the Wild: The last page of the story is quoted in full in the Philip Roth novel The Counterlife.
The Mountain Goats song "Family Happiness" takes its name from the novella and includes the line "Started quoting Tolstoy into the machine/I had no idea what you meant". Theater Atelier Piotr Fomenko in Moscow adapted the novella to the stage; the play remains part of the theater's repertoire. Full text of Семейное счастье in the original Russian
Boyhood is the second novel in Leo Tolstoy's autobiographical trilogy, following Childhood and followed by Youth. The novel was first published in the Russian literary journal Sovremennik in 1854. Boyhood at Project Gutenberg