Anterior auricular muscle
The anterior auricular muscle, the smallest of the three auricular muscles, is thin and fan-shaped, its fibers are pale and indistinct. It arises from the lateral edge of the galea aponeurotica, its fibers converge to be inserted into a projection on the front of the helix; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1035 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Anatomical terms of muscle
Muscles are described using unique anatomical terminology according to their actions and structure. There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body: skeletal and cardiac. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle" joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle maintains posture. Smooth muscle tissue is found in parts of the body; the majority of this type of muscle tissue is found in the digestive and urinary systems where it acts by propelling forward food and feces in the former and urine in the latter. Other places smooth muscle can be found are within the uterus, where it helps facilitate birth, the eye, where the pupillary sphincter controls pupil size. Cardiac muscle is specific to the heart, it is involuntary in its movement, is additionally self-excitatory, contracting without outside stimuli. As well as anatomical terms of motion, which describe the motion made by a muscle, unique terminology is used to describe the action of a set of muscles. Agonist muscles and antagonist muscles refer to muscles that inhibit a movement.
Agonist muscles cause a movement to occur through their own activation. For example, the triceps brachii contracts, producing a shortening contraction, during the up phase of a push-up. During the down phase of a push-up, the same triceps brachii controls elbow flexion while producing a lengthening contraction, it is still the agonist, because while resisting gravity during relaxing, the triceps brachii continues to be the prime mover, or controller, of the joint action. Agonists are interchangeably referred to as "prime movers," since they are the muscles considered responsible for generating or controlling a specific movement. Another example is the dumbbell curl at the elbow; the "elbow flexor" group is the agonist. During the lowering phase the "elbow flexor" muscles lengthen, remaining the agonists because they are controlling the load and the movement. For both the lifting and lowering phase, the "elbow extensor" muscles are the antagonists, they shorten during the dumbbell lowering phase.
Here it is important to understand that it is common practice to give a name to a muscle group based on the joint action they produce during a shortening contraction. However, this naming convention does not mean; this term describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are the muscles that produce an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles; this torque can aid in controlling a motion. The opposing torque can slow movement down - in the case of a ballistic movement. For example, during a rapid discrete movement of the elbow, such as throwing a dart, the triceps muscles will be activated briefly and to accelerate the extension movement at the elbow, followed immediately by a "burst" of activation to the elbow flexor muscles that decelerates the elbow movement to arrive at a quick stop. To use an automotive analogy, this would be similar to pressing your gas pedal and immediately pressing the brake. Antagonism is not an intrinsic property of a particular muscle group. During slower joint actions that involve gravity, just as with the agonist muscle, the antagonist muscle can shorten and lengthen.
Using the example above of the triceps brachii during a push-up, the elbow flexor muscles are the antagonists at the elbow during both the up phase and down phase of the movement. During the dumbbell curl, the elbow extensors are the antagonists for both the lifting and lowering phases. Antagonist and agonist muscles occur in pairs, called antagonistic pairs; as one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. An example of an antagonistic pair is the triceps. "Reverse motions" need antagonistic pairs located in opposite sides of a joint or bone, including abductor-adductor pairs and flexor-extensor pairs. These consist of an extensor muscle, which "opens" the joint and a flexor muscle, which does the opposite by decreasing the angle between two bones. However, muscles don't always work this way. Sometimes during a joint action controlled by an agonist muscle, the antagonist will be activated, naturally; this occurs and is not considered to be a problem unless it is excessive or uncontrolled and disturbs the control of the joint action.
This serves to mechanically stiffen the joint. Not all muscles are paired in this way. An example of an exception is the deltoid. Synergist muscles help perform, the same set of joint motion as the agonists. Synergists muscles act on movable joints. Synergists are sometimes referred to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion. Muscle fibers can only contract up to 40% of their stretched length, thus the short fibers of pennate muscles are more suitable where power rather than range of contraction is required. This limitation in the range of contraction affects all muscles, those that act over several joints may be unable to shorten sufficiently to produce
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The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Superior auricular muscle
The superior auricular muscle, the largest of the three auriculares muscles, is thin and fan-shaped. Its fibers arise from the galea aponeurotica, converge to be inserted by a thin, flattened tendon into the upper part of the cranial surface of the auricula; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1035 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Superior tarsal muscle
The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper eyelid. The superior tarsal muscle originates on the underside of levator palpebrae superioris and inserts on the superior tarsal plate of the eyelid; the superior tarsal muscle receives its innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the superior cervical ganglion, travel via the internal carotid plexus, where small branches communicate with the oculomotor nerve as it passes through the cavernous sinus; the sympathetic fibres continue to the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, where they enter the superior tarsal muscle on its inferior aspect. The superior tarsal muscle works to keep the upper eyelid raised after the levator palpebrae superioris has raised the upper eyelid. Damage to some elements of the sympathetic nervous system can inhibit this muscle, causing a drooping eyelid; this is seen in Horner's syndrome.
The ptosis seen in Horner's syndrome is of a lesser degree than is seen with an oculomotor nerve palsy. The muscle derives its name from Greek ταρσός, meaning'flat surface' used for drying; the term Müller's muscle is sometimes used as a synonym. However, the same term is used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, for the orbitalis muscle that covers the inferior orbital fissure. Given the possible confusion, the use of the term Müller's muscle should be discouraged unless the context removes any ambiguity. Heinrich Müller
Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face. The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual artery and, sheltered by the ramus of the mandible, passes obliquely up beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles, over which it arches to enter a groove on the posterior surface of the submandibular gland, it curves upward over the body of the mandible at the antero-inferior angle of the masseter. The facial artery is remarkably tortuous; this is to accommodate itself to neck movements such as those of the pharynx in deglutition. In the neck, its origin is superficial, being covered by the integument and fascia, it lies upon the middle pharyngeal constrictor and the superior pharyngeal constrictor, the latter of which separates it, at the summit of its arch, from the lower and back part of the tonsil. On the face, where it passes over the body of the mandible, it is comparatively superficial, lying beneath the dilators of the mouth.
In its course over the face, it is covered by the integument, the fat of the cheek, near the angle of the mouth, by the platysma and zygomaticus major. It rests on the buccinator and levator anguli oris, passes either over or under the infraorbital head of the levator labii superioris; the anterior facial vein lies lateral/posterior to the artery, takes a more direct course across the face, where it is separated from the artery by a considerable interval. In the neck it lies superficial to the artery; the branches of the facial nerve cross the artery from behind forward. The facial artery anastomoses with the dorsal nasal artery of the internal carotid artery; the branches of the facial artery are: cervical Ascending palatine artery Tonsillar branch Submental artery Glandular branches facial Inferior labial artery Superior labial artery Lateral nasal branch to nasalis muscle Angular artery - the terminal branch Muscles supplied by the facial artery include: buccinator levator anguli oris levator labii superioris levator labii superioris alaeque nasi levator veli palatini masseter mentalis mylohyoid nasalis palatoglossus palatopharyngeus platysma procerus risorius styloglossus transverse portion of the nasalis Transverse facial artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 553 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Facial artery".
Medcyclopaedia. GE. Anatomy photo:23:09-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Facial Artery and Vein" Anatomy figure: 25:04-04 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Branches of the external carotid artery." Anatomy photo:31:09-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Common Carotid Artery and Branches of the External Carotid Artery"