Bruno Parma is a Slovene chess player and Grandmaster. Parma was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia and he first played in the World Junior Chess Championship in 1959, sharing second place. Two years at age 21 he won the next Junior Championship, FIDE granted him the grandmaster title based on his outstanding performance at the Beverwijk tournament in 1963. He was the third Slovene to become a grandmaster, after Milan Vidmar and he won the Slovenian Chess Championship in 1959 and 1961 and shared third place with Dragoljub Minić, Milan Matulović, and Bojan Kurajica in the 1968 Yugoslav Championship in Čateške Toplice. In an international tournament at San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1969 he was together with two American grandmasters, Arthur Bisguier and Walter Browne, behind Boris Spassky. His best results was shared first with Georgi Tringov in Vršac 1973 ahead of Wolfgang Uhlmann, Parma played for the Yugoslav team in the Chess Olympiads eight times,1962,1964,1966,1968,1970,1974,1978, and 1980. The Yugoslav team won four medals and two bronze medals in those years.
Bruno Parma rating card at FIDE Bruno Parma player profile and games at Chessgames. com
The World Chess Federation, FIDE, awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title. Titles generally require a combination of Elo rating and norms, once awarded, FIDE titles are held for life, though a title may be revoked in exceptional circumstances. Open titles may be earned by all players, whilst the womens titles are restricted to female players, a strong female player may have a title in both systems. A chess title, usually in a form, may be used as an honorific. For example, Viswanathan Anand may be styled as GM Viswanathan Anand, fIDEs first titles were awarded in 1950 and consisted of 27 Grandmasters,94 International Masters, and 17 International Women Masters. FIDEs first GMs were, The standards for FIDE titles were not formally defined, in 1957, FIDE introduced norms for FIDE titles. The term Grandmaster had been in use for strong chess players for several decades before its official institution by FIDE in 1950. At the same time FIDE instituted the lesser rank of International Master, the requirements for each rank have varied over time, but generally require having demonstrated suitably strong skill in rated competition.
The title Grandmaster is awarded to outstanding players by FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain, once achieved, the title is generally held for life. In chess literature it is abbreviated to GM. The abbreviation IGM for International Grandmaster can sometimes be found and this title can be awarded to the players with an Elo rating greater than 2500 who achieve the required three title norms. Players with an Elo rating greater than 2700, such as Viswanathan Anand, Garry Kasparov, Magnus Carlsen, there were 47 players in the May 2014 FIDE ratings list with a rating of at least 2700. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, since about 2000, most of the top 10 women have held the GM title. This should not be confused with the Woman Grandmaster title, the December 2013 FIDE rating list records 1441 players holding the GM title, of whom 31 are women. The title International Master is awarded to chess players.
Instituted in 1950, it is a title, usually abbreviated as IM in chess literature. Normally three norms in international tournaments involving other IMs and Grandmasters are required before FIDE will confer the title on a player, IMs usually have an Elo rating between 2400 and 2500
Glossary of chess
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. Some of these have their own pages, like fork and pin, absolute pin A pin against the king is called absolute since the pinned piece cannot legally move out of the line of attack. Describes a piece that controls a number of squares, or a piece that has a number of available for its next move. An active defense is a defense employing threat or counterattack, adjournment Suspension of a chess game with the intention to finish it later. It was once common in high-level competition, often occurring soon after the first time control. Adjudication Decision by a chess player on the outcome of an unfinished game. This practice is now uncommon in over-the-board events, but does happen in online chess when one refuses to continue after an adjournment. Adjust To adjust the position of a piece on its square without being required to move it, a player may only do this on his or her turn to move, and he or she must first say I adjust, or the French equivalent Jadoube.
Advanced pawn A pawn that is on the side of the board. An advanced pawn may be if it is overextended, lacking support and difficult to defend. An advanced passed pawn that threatens to promote can be especially strong, advantage A better position with the chance of winning the game. Evaluation factors can include space, time and threats, alekhines gun A formation in which a queen backs up two rooks on the same file. Algebraic notation The standard way to record the moves of a chess game, Amateur The distinction between professional and amateur is not very important in chess as amateurs may win prizes, accept appearance fees, and earn any title, including World Champion. In the 19th century, Amateur was sometimes used in published game scores to conceal the name of the player in a Master vs. Amateur contest. It was thought to be impolite to use a name without permission. See NN or N. N. analysis The study of a position to determine best play for both sides, annotation Written commentary on a game using a combination of comments, chess symbols or notation.
Antipositional A move or a plan that is not in accordance with the principles of positional play, antipositional is used to describe moves that are part of an incorrect plan rather than a mistake made when trying to follow a correct plan. Antipositional moves are often pawn moves, since pawns cannot move backwards to return to squares they have left, anti-Sicilian An opening variation that White uses against the Sicilian Defense other than the most common plan of 2. Nf3 followed by 3. d4 cxd44. Nxd4
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is a point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. The citys Sea Life Centre was home to Paul the Octopus, Oberhausen was named for its 1847 railway station which had taken its name from the Castle Oberhausen. The new borough was formed in 1862 following inflow of people for the coal mines. Awarded town rights in 1874, Oberhausen absorbed several neighbouring boroughs including Alstaden, parts of Styrum, Oberhausen became a city in 1901, and they incorporated the towns of Sterkrade and Osterfeld in 1929. The Ruhrchemie AG synthetic oil plant was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II. In 1973 Thyssen employed 14,000 people in Oberhausen in the steel industry, in 1954 the city began hosting the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen, and the 1982 Deutscher Filmpreis was awarded to a group that wrote the Oberhausen Manifesto.
The age breakdown of the population is, There are 12. 5% non-Germans living in Oberhausen
Algebraic notation (chess)
Algebraic notation is a method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess. It is based on a system of coordinates to identify each square on the chessboard. It is now standard among all chess organizations and most books, magazines, in English-speaking countries, the parallel method of descriptive notation was generally used in chess publications until about 1980. A few older players still use descriptive notation but it is no longer recognised by FIDE, Algebraic notation exists in various forms and languages and is based on a system developed by Philipp Stamma. Stamma used the names of the squares, but he used p for pawn moves. This article describes standard algebraic notation required by FIDE, each square of the chessboard is identified by a unique coordinate pair—a letter and a number. The vertical columns of squares from Whites left to right are labeled a through h, the horizontal rows of squares are numbered 1 to 8, starting from Whites side of the board. Thus each square has an identification of file letter followed by rank number.
Each piece type is identified by an uppercase letter, English-speaking players use the letters K for king, Q for queen, R for rook, B for bishop, and N for knight. S was used for the knight in the days of algebraic notation and is still used in chess problems. Players who speak other languages may employ different letters, for example and this style known as figurine algebraic notation. Pawns are not identified by letters, but rather by the absence of one. Distinguishing between pawns is not necessary for recording moves, since only one pawn can move to a given square, each move of a piece is indicated by the pieces uppercase letter, plus the coordinate of the destination square. When a piece makes a capture, an x is inserted immediately before the destination square, when a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used to identify the pawn. A colon is used instead of x, either in the same place the x would go or at the end. En passant captures are indicated by specifying the capturing pawns file of departure, the x, the square.
Some texts, such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, omit indication that any capture has been made, when it is unambiguous to do so, a pawn capture is sometimes described by specifying only the files involved. These shortened forms are called minimal or abbreviated algebraic notation
Lajos Portisch is a Hungarian chess Grandmaster, whose positional style earned him the nickname, the Hungarian Botvinnik. Portisch set several records in Chess Olympiads. In Hungarian Chess Championships, he shared the title or won it outright a total of eight times. He won many international tournaments during his career. In 2004, Portisch was awarded the Nemzet Sportoloja, Hungarys highest national sports achievement award and he still competes occasionally at his age. His main hobby is singing operatic arias, he has a baritone voice, a quality shared by Vasily Smyslov. His younger brother, Ferenc, is an International Master, Portisch represented Hungary at the World Junior Chess Championship, Antwerp 1955. He scored 4. 5/7 in the round to advance to the final, where he scored 5. 5/9, to finish fourth. Portisch tied for first through third places in an event at Budapest 1956, along with Joszef Szily and Bela Sandor, ahead of Pal Benko. In a second event at Budapest 1956, Portisch made 7. 5/11.
He was in the pack at Debrecen 1956 with 5. 5/11, Portisch successfully represented Hungary in several team matches in 1956 and 1957, against Poland, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He made his first Student Olympiad and full Olympiad appearances for Hungary in 1956 and he excelled at his first individual international event, winning at Balatonfüred 1958 with 9/11, ahead of strong Grandmasters László Szabó and Alexander Tolush. He earned the International Master title and he finished second at Hastings 1958–59 with 7/9, behind Wolfgang Uhlmann. Portisch made his first national appearance in 1955 at age 18. He would eventually win or share the title on nine occasions. His complete Hungarian Championship results follow, Portisch was awarded the grandmaster title by FIDE in 1961. Portisch won the Halle Zonal 1963 with 14/19 to advance to the next Interzonal, Portisch qualified from the Amsterdam Interzonal 1964, with 14. 5/23, in a tied eighth/ninth place. Portisch defeated Samuel Reshevsky in a match to advance to the Candidates series for the first time
Chessgames. com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members. The site maintains a database of chess games, where each game has its own discussion page for comments. Limited primarily to games where at least one player is of master strength, basic membership is free, and the site is open to players at all levels of ability, with additional features available for Premium members. While the primary purpose of Chessgames, members can maintain their own discussion pages, and there are features to assist study of openings and sacrifices. The front page features a puzzle of the day, player of the day, and game of the day. Chessgames. com was founded in 2001 by Daniel Freeman and Alberto Artidiello in association with 20/20 Technologies and they developed software to integrate a chess database with a discussion forum, so that all games and players have a unique message board. The concept was popular as users can kibitz on multiple games and pages throughout the site. The Kramnik–Lékó World Championship 2004 match in Brissago was broadcast live on the site and this led to substantial growth in membership and interest, which has steadily increased since due to other live events and multiple site enhancements.
Co-founder Alberto Artidiello died on March 1,2015, at the age of 56, the sites database of games was originally constructed by combining six large databases while weeding out duplicate games. The primary factor for inclusion in the Chessgames. com database is one of the players should be master strength to reduce low quality games. Their original goal was 750,000 games, their estimate of the number of serious chess games ever recorded through 2005. The database presently contains over 700,000 games, each game page lists a user feedback process to eliminate bad games, help correct errors, and remove any duplicates. Each game on Chessgames. com is hosted on a web page to allow internal and external weblinks to that particular game. Although other online databases may contain more games, they typically do not permit links to individual games. According to its webmaster, Chessgames strives for quality games without participating in the mentality that produces chess databases containing millions of questionable games.
The site has over 197,000 registered members, with 2,500 new members per month, at any time, several hundred people are actively using the site. A sample of Group demographics from a 2005 questionnaire,98 percent male,50 percent from North America, members post messages under a specific username, which may be their real identity or an anonymous handle. Since other collections of amateurs have represented The World versus one grandmaster with varying degrees of success, Chessgames. com began team play as The World in 2006 and defeated noted computer expert GM Arno Nickel
Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary, one of the largest cities in the European Union and sometimes described as the primate city of Hungary. It has an area of 525 square kilometres and a population of about 1.8 million within the limits in 2016. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, the history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century and their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–1242. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century, following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule, the region entered a new age of prosperity, and Budapest became a global city after its unification in 1873. It became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a power that dissolved in 1918.
Budapest was the point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919, the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and it is the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, further famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. It has around 80 geothermal springs, the worlds largest thermal water system, second largest synagogue. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College, over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Budapest is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name Buda-Pest was in 1831 in the book Világ, written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure, according to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the name Buda comes from the name of its founder, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila. The theory that Buda was named after a person is supported by modern scholars, an alternative explanation suggests that Buda derives from the Slavic word вода, voda, a translation of the Latin name Aquincum, which was the main Roman settlement in the region. There are theories about the origin of the name Pest. One of the states that the word Pest comes from the Roman times. According to another theory, Pest originates from the Slavic word for cave, or oven, the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation, the use of the name Chess Olympiad for FIDEs team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games. For the 1924 Olympics an attempt was made to chess in the Olympic Games. While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad took place in Paris, FIDE was formed on Sunday, July 20,1924, the closing day of the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad. FIDE organised the first Official Olympiad in 1927 which took place in London, the Olympiads were occasionally held annually and at irregular intervals until World War II, since 1950 they have been held regularly every two years. Chess is not recognized as a sport by the International Olympic Committee, the tests were first introduced in 2002 under significant controversy, with the widespread belief that it was impossible to dope in chess.
Research carried out by the Dutch chess federation failed to find a single performance-enhancing substance for chess. Players such as Artur Yusupov, Jan Timman and Robert Hübner either refused to play for their team or to participate in events such as the Chess Olympiad where drug tests were administered. All 802 tests administered at the 2002 Olympiad came back negative, however, in the 36th Chess Olympiad in 2004, two players refused to provide urine samples and had their scores cancelled. Four years later, Vassily Ivanchuk was not penalized for skipping a drug test at the 38th Chess Olympiad in 2008, in 2010, a FIDE official commented that due to the work of the FIDE Medical Commission, the tests were now considered routine. In November 2015, FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced they are working with WADA to define, each FIDE recognized chess association can enter a team into the Olympiad. Each team is made of up to five players, four regular players, initially each team played all other teams but as the event grew over the years this became impossible.
At first team seeding took place before the competition, certain drawbacks were recognized with seeding and in 1976 a Swiss tournament system was adopted. The trophy for the team in the open section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup. The cup is kept by the team until the next event. The trophy for the womens team is known as the Vera Menchik Cup in honor of the first Womens World Chess Champion. The 2010 Olympiad was held in Khanty-Mansiysk, the 2012 Olympiad was held in Istanbul, the 2014 Olympiad was in Tromsø, Norway. The 2016 Olympiad was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, in addition to competition, each Olympiad gives opportunities for associated cultural activities
World Chess Championship
The World Chess Championship is played to determine the World Champion in chess. From 1886 to 1946, the set the terms, requiring any challenger to raise a sizable stake. From 1948 to 1993, the championship was administered by FIDE, in 1993, the reigning champion broke away from FIDE, which led to the creation of the rival PCA championship. The titles were unified at the World Chess Championship 2006, other separate events and titles are the Womens World Chess Championship, the World Junior Chess Championship, and the World Senior Chess Championship. There is a World Computer Chess Championship, which is the only event computers may participate in, the concept of a world chess champion started to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, and the phrase world champion appeared in 1845. Until 1948 world championship contests were matches arranged privately between the players, as a result, the players had to arrange the funding, in the form of stakes provided by enthusiasts who wished to bet on one of the players.
In the early 20th century this was sometimes a barrier that prevented or delayed challenges for the title, however these attempts were unsuccessful in practice, as the same issues continued to delay or prevent challenges. The first attempt by an organization to manage the world championship was in 1887–89. A system for managing regular contests for the title went into operation in 1948, under the control of FIDE, however, in that year reigning champion Kasparov and challenger Short were so dissatisfied with FIDEs arrangements for their match that they set up a break-away organization. The first match proclaimed by the players as for the championship was the match that Wilhelm Steinitz won against Johannes Zukertort in 1886. However, a line of players regarded as the strongest in the world extends back hundreds of years beyond them, and they include Ruy López de Segura around 1560, Paolo Boi and Leonardo da Cutri around 1575, Alessandro Salvio around 1600, and Gioachino Greco around 1623. At present de La Bourdonnais, like Alexander the Great, is without heir, the earliest recorded use of the term World Champion was in 1845, when Howard Staunton was described as the Chess Champion of England, or.
The winner of the battle in Paris should not be proud of his special position. Although Kennedy was a member of the committee for the tournament. The 1851 London tournament was won by the German Adolf Anderssen, Anderssen has been described as the first modern chess master. Anderssen was himself defeated in an 1858 match against the American Paul Morphy. Morphy played matches against several leading players, crushing them all, soon after, Morphy offered pawn and move odds to anyone who played him. Finding no takers, he retired from chess the following year