Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Aspen Art Museum
Founded in 1979, the Aspen Art Museum is a non-collecting contemporary art museum located in Aspen, Colorado. AAM exhibitions include drawings, sculptures, multimedia installations and electronic media. Housed in a converted hydroelectric plant at 590 North Mill Street, the Aspen Art Museum opened its new facility to the public at 637 East Hyman Avenue on August 9, 2014; the building is designed by architect Shigeru Ban, recipient of the 2014 Pritzker Prize for Architecture. It is Ban's first US museum to be constructed; the 33,000-square-foot, four-level facility houses eight exhibition spaces: six gallery spaces, a roof top sculpture garden, an outdoor commons. There are five main architectural features within the building's design plan: Grand Stair, Moving Glass Room Elevator, Woven Wood Screen, Wood Roof Truss and Walkable Skylights; the Aspen Art Museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. The museum is a member institution of the Association of Art Museum Directors, which represents directors of art museums throughout the United States and Mexico.
In March 2009, the AAM joined other Aspen area businesses through becoming certified under a jointly run City of Aspen Environmental Health Department and Canary Initiative “ZGreen” program. Environmental efforts undertaken by the AAM through the ZGreen program include recycling and zero waste events; the AAM's Distinguished Artist in Residence Program was first established in 2006. The Aspen Art Museum’s annual artist in residency program brings artists to Aspen, Colorado, to work on creating a new body of work, which will be exhibited in the AAM galleries. Artists in residence hold a lecture as part of their residency; the AAM provides educational and public programming, including community-based programming through art workshops, public lecture events, guided tours of museum exhibitions and private collections, member art trips. Exhibition in a Box Launched as a pilot program in 2007, Exhibition in a Box is tied to National Standards of Learning and focuses on object-based learning, the creative process, visual literacy and critical thinking skills.
The program is available to all public and private elementary schools located within a 2-½ hour drive of Aspen. Following a museum representative’s visit to the classroom, the program continues with a museum field trip where students tour the facility, meet museum staff, see in-person the works of the artists discussed at their school. Education Workshops Over the course of nine weeks each summer, the AAM offers art workshops for children using museum exhibitions as a foundation. Young Curators of the Roaring Fork The AAM’s Young Curators of the Roaring Fork program brings together high school students from Aspen to Rifle, Colorado, to curate an exhibition of artwork by their peers. Participants in the program learn the process of exhibiting contemporary artwork—from identifying a theme and soliciting work, to promoting and installing a museum-quality exhibition. Throughout the academic year, the Young Curators meet with museum staff, attend museum functions, visit with artists to gain the knowledge necessary to curate and administrate their own exhibition.
The Questrom Education Fund The Questrom Education Fund was established in 2012. The QEF provides for education-based outreach programs. Family Workshops Offered on select Saturdays, families create hands-on art projects Story Art Held once a month at area libraries, this program introduces children to the basic foundations of art through storybooks, looking activities, hands-on art projects. Art Studio Art Studio is an ongoing program held from September–June, designed to explore art through three age levels: 2–5 years olds, K-4th grade, 5th - 8th grade. Teacher’s Workshops Designed for educators, these workshops introduce current exhibitions and provide learning tools to integrate contemporary art into classroom curriculum; the Questrom Lecture Series Questrom Lecture Series events include lectures and public discussions with visiting artists, important scholars and critics. Sunday Cinema Sunday Cinema is a moving image program series, presenting various formats of film on the last Sunday of each month.
Art Matters! Television Program “Art Matters!” is the AAM’s bi-weekly half-hour television program aired on Aspen’s GrassRootsTV12 local community television access station. “Art Matters!” Episodes include in-studio conversations with renowned artists and arts professionals, virtual tours of galleries, private art collections, art fairs, artists’ studios, as well as being available in streaming video and video-on-demand formats on the GrassRootsTV12 station web site.“Art Matters!” shows have included such guests as artists Doug Aitken, Lisa Anne Auerbach, Walead Beshty, Phil Collins, Harrell Fletcher, Jim Hodges, Friedrich Kunath, Yan Lei, Julie Mehretu, Jason Middlebrook, William O'Brien, Mai-Thu Perret, Catherine Sullivan, Fred Tomaselli, Richard Tuttle, Mark Wallinger, architect Shigeru Ban, curators Ian Berry, Peter Eleey, Massimiliano Gioni, Sylvie Gilbert, Paul Ha, Jens Hoffmann, John Hanhardt, as well as other art-world professionals. Architecture Lecture Series The AAM Architecture Lecture Series brings international architects to Aspen to discuss the role of public architecture in our society and how its form and purpose impact our engineered landscapes.
Art In The Outdoors The AAM offers a series of programs to explore art outdoors. The Aspen Art Museum collaborates with other Aspen area non-profits, community institutions and organizations, including: Anderson Ranch Arts Center, Aspen Center for Environmental Studies, Aspen Historical Society, Aspen Institute/Aspen Ideas Festival, Aspen Music Festival and School, Aspen Writer
Koreatown, Los Angeles
Koreatown is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, centered near Eighth Street and Irolo Street, west of MacArthur Park. The rectangular area covers about 150 blocks, spanning 15 avenues. While significant links with Korean culture remain, the residents are a broad mix, with half Latino and a third Asian. Koreans found housing in the Mid-Wilshire area. Many opened businesses as they found tolerance towards the growing Korean population. Many of the historic Art deco buildings with terra cotta facades have been preserved because the buildings remained economically viable for the new businesses. Today, Koreatown is becoming one of LA's most popular neighborhoods. Despite the name evoking a traditional ethnic enclave, the community is complex and has an impact on areas outside the traditional boundaries. While the neighborhood culture has been oriented to the Korean immigrant population, Korean business owners are creating stronger ties to the Latino community in Koreatown; the community is diverse ethnically, with half the residents being Latino and a third being Asian.
Two-thirds of the residents were born outside of the United States, as a high figure compared to the rest of the city. In 1882, the United States and Korea established the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882, which ended Korea’s self-imposed isolation; the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Korea paved the way for Korean immigration to Hawaii in the late 1880s. In the early 1900s, Korean immigrants began making their way to Los Angeles, where they created communities based around ethnic churches; as the number of Koreans increased to the hundreds, their residential and commercial activities spread to the southwestern corner of the Los Angeles business district, putting them within walking distance of Little Tokyo and Chinatown. By the 1930s 650 Koreans resided in Los Angeles, they established churches and community organizations, as well as businesses that focused on vegetable and fruit distribution. In 1936, the Korean National Association, one of the largest Korean immigrant political organizations, moved its central headquarters from San Francisco to Los Angeles to continue promoting political, cultural and religious activities.
However, racial covenant laws and economic constraints limited Korean residents to an area bounded by Adams Boulevard to the north, Slauson Avenue to the south, Western Avenue to the west, Vermont Avenue to the east. The 1930s saw the height of the area's association with Hollywood; the Ambassador Hotel hosted the Academy Awards ceremony in 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934. As the entertainment industry grew in the surrounding Koreatown area, Koreans remained segregated into low-income districts because of discriminatory housing policies. After the 1948 Shelley v. Kraemer Supreme Court case prohibited racially restrictive housing policies, Koreans began to move north of Olympic Boulevard to establish new homes and businesses. In the late 1960s, the surrounding neighborhood began to enter a steep economic decline; the once-glamorous mid-Wilshire area became filled with vacant commercial and office space that attracted wealthier South Korean immigrants. They found many opened businesses in Koreatown. Many of the area's Art Deco buildings with terracotta facades were preserved because they remained economically viable with the new commercial activity that occupied them.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed restrictions on Asian migration and helped further the growth of the immigrant community in Koreatown. By the late 1970s, most businesses in the Olympic Boulevard and 8th Street areas were owned by Koreans; this economic boom led to the creation of Korean media outlets and community organizations, which played a key role in developing a sense of communal identity in the neighborhood. The ethnic enclave was able to establish itself as the primary hub of the Korean community in Southern California, the residents lobbied for the installation of the first Koreatown sign in 1982; the 1992 Los Angeles riots had a significant impact on the community, solidifying the importance of community-based nonprofit organizations, such as the Koreatown Youth and Community Center and Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance. These organizations advocated for reparations and protections for Korean Americans, who received little support from government authorities as a result of their low social status and language barrier.
During the time of the riots and Korean Americans were facing racial strife. In many predominately Black neighborhoods, Korean citizens owned the majority of businesses; when white residents left the area, Koreans purchased their businesses from them for little money. Rapper Ice Cube spoke of this, along with Asian suspicion of Black residents in his 1988 album "Death Certificate" during the song "Black Korea". On March 16, 1991, a Korean store owner, Soon Ja Du, shot and killed a 15-year old, black customer, Latasha Harlins. Du accused Harlins of stealing orange juice, after watching her slamming down the jug and turning to leave, shot her in the head; some historians view Du's posting bail as the breaking point in tensions. The 1992 unrest stimulated a new wave of political activism among Korean-Americans, but split them into two camps; the liberals sought to unite wit
Wilshire Park, Los Angeles
Wilshire Park is a residential district in the Central Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The boundaries of Wilshire Park are Wilshire Boulevard on the north, Olympic Boulevard on the south, Wilton Place on the east and Crenshaw Boulevard on the west. Attempts to rename Wilshire Park as part of the Koreatown district were rebuffed in August 2010, with passage of Los Angeles City Council File 09-0606 establishing the western boundary of Koreatown as Western Avenue, nearly 0.5 miles from the western boundary of Wilshire Park. Wilshire Park is identified in the Thomas Guide on page 633:G:3. Windsor Square and Hancock Park are to the north, Country Club Park is to the south, Country Club Heights is to the east, Windsor Village, Longwood Highlands and Miracle Mile are to the west. Major thoroughfares include Crenshaw Boulevard. Most of Wilshire Park is in ZIP code 90005, but includes a small area of 90019. Wilshire Park, with the exception of the block bounded by Wilshire/Crenshaw/8th and Bronson, is covered by Olympic Division, at 1130 South Vermont Avenue.
Wilshire Park has three elementary schools educating 1500 children: Wilshire Park Elementary, Wilton Place Elementary, St. Gregory Nazianzen Catholic School. Wilshire Park School opened in September 2006. There are 550 students enrolled Wilton Place School was constructed in 1918 to accommodate the new residents following the post-World War I boom, it has an reported enrollment of 780 students. St. Gregory Nazianzen is a Catholic church owned by the Archdiocese of Los Angeles since 1923; the current cast concrete building and adjacent school were dedicated in 1938, but the area around the intersection of Norton and 9th Street had been operating as a church and school for fifteen years prior. Wilshire Park is a neighborhood of one- and two-story historic Dutch Colonial, Spanish Colonial, American Craftsman, Colonial Revival, Minimal Traditional, Mediterranean style single-family homes and multi-family homes. On tree-lined streets of mature magnolias and sycamores; the first recorded residence in Wilshire Park was built in 1908.
The transitional Prairie School style home is an example of the work of architect Lloyd Wright. The neighborhood features a 1938 apartment complex by the only female architect in Los Angeles at the time, by Edith Mortensen Northman. Most of Wilshire Park was built out by 1926; the graph shows the pattern of development. There are three Wilshire Park homes designated as Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments: the William J. Weber House, pictured above, designed by Lloyd Wright and built in 1921. W. Black Residence, designed by John Frederick Soper and built in 1913. Munson, built in 1923; the area has served as a film and television production location, dating back to the days of the 1925 Buster Keaton comedy classic Seven Chances. With the 1960s, one Wilshire Park home attained TV immortality by serving as the exterior for the Douglas family home on the long-running series, My Three Sons. Wilshire Park was designated a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2008, by a unanimous vote of the Los Angeles City Council.
Since 2002, residents had begun advocating the creation of a Wilshire Park historic district in order to prevent teardowns and to encourage residents to only make exterior changes to their homes consistent with the historical period and architectural style of those homes. Wilshire Park was granted an Interim Control Ordinance on November 13, 2006. Wilshire Park became the first neighborhood in Los Angeles history in which residents conducted and completed their own survey and analysis of each home and parcel, overseen by a professional architectural consulting group; this Survey of Historic Resources was self-funded, utilizing no funds from the city. The HPOZ was accomplished after years of door-to-door conversations about preservation, the circulation of a pro-HPOZ petition signed by the majority of residents, many outreach meetings involving panel discussions, frequent discussions of preservation in the neighborhood newsletter, dozens of mailings to residents, as well as a 2007 Home and Garden tour fund-raiser sponsored by affiliate neighborhood West Adams.
In August, 2008, Wilshire Park Association hosted, at the National Register of Historic Places Art Deco landmark Wiltern Theater, a public meeting for all residents regarding the neighborhood's proposed designation as a Historic District known as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone. City officials of the Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources held a forum as part of the event attended by over 120 residents at the landmark Ebell of Los Angeles. On November 13, 2008 Wilshire Park was designated as an Historic Preservation Overlay Zone. On October 20, 2010, the ordinance was amended to adopt the Wilshire Park Preservation Plan and establish an HPOZ Board shared with the newly adopted Windsor Village and Country Club Park HPOZs. In an effort to streamline the HPOZ process and to make the HPOZ program financially viable, the "Triplets" agreed to share an HPOZ Board and Preservation Plan, while retaining their own HPOZ ordinances, periods of significance, context statements and identity.
In partnership with Hancock Park, the Wilshire Park Association lobbied the city's planners to impose height limits and mandatory free parking on commercial buildings being constructed on the "Park Mile" in the Mid-Wilshire area, a stretch of Wilshire, one of the last undeveloped parcels in Mid-Wilshire. The process began in 1983 and was completed in 1987; the blocks of Wilshire Park between Wilshir
Zev Yaroslavsky is a politician from Los Angeles County, California. He was a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors from District 3, which includes the San Fernando Valley, the Westside of Los Angeles and coastal areas between Venice and the Ventura County line, he was first elected to the board in 1994. Yaroslavsky served on the Los Angeles City Council from 1975 to 1994, he was active in the areas of the environment, health care and cultural affairs. Zev Yaroslavsky, the son of David and Minna Yaroslavsky, was born on December 21, 1948, in Los Angeles, he and his older sister, were the children of Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire and grew up in a Zionist household in Boyle Heights. His father was a founder of the Hebrew Teachers Union in Los Angeles, both parents, who were born in Ukraine, were founders of North American Habonim, a Labor Zionist youth movement. Yaroslavsky recalled that his parents spoke to their children only in Hebrew to prepare them for emigrating to Israel.
They took their children to that country when Shimona was thirteen and Zev was five. Shimona emigrated permanently. Yaroslavsky was married to the former Barbara Edelston, whom he met as a student at UCLA. In 1985, while Yaroslavsky was a City Council member, a newspaper reporter noted Yaroslavsky's frugality when described their home in the Fairfax District as "a drab yellow structure with peeling paint and a dirt-patched front lawn." The reporter noted that Yaroslavsky was known for frugality in his public and private life, spending much of his spare time following world events in newspapers and on television. Barbara Yaroslavsky was first appointed to the Medical Board of California in 2003 and has subsequently served multiple terms as its President; the couple has two children. Yaroslavsky attended Melrose Avenue Elementary School, Bancroft Junior High School and Fairfax High School, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in history and economics from UCLA in 1971 and a master of arts in history, specializing in the British Empire, from the same school in 1972.
Afterward, he taught Hebrew at temples in Bel Air. Yaroslavsky first gained public notice as a UCLA student who had begun orchestrating high-profile protests in Los Angeles against oppressive treatment of Jews in the Soviet Union. After a revelatory trip to visit relatives in Russia, he formed the California Students for Soviet Jews, which, as its first major action, picketed Soviet athletes in town for a track and field event at the Coliseum. Although a self-described "flaming liberal" at the time, Yaroslavsky recruited conservative TV newsman and commentator George Putnam, Yaroslavsky said, "was anti-Soviet and favorable to Soviet Jews." In December, 1969, they organized a candlelight protest march that would attract more than 5,000 people, including then-Mayor Sam Yorty and television performer Steve Allen. In 1971, as executive director of the Southern California Council on Soviet Jewry, Yaroslavsky made news again when he led protests against the Bolshoi Ballet and boated into Los Angeles Harbor to paint "Let My People Go" on the side of a Soviet freighter.
He was arrested during one Bolshoi protest but no charges were filed. He was "deeply involved" in a campaign to burn Standard Oil credit cards after the company sent a letter to 300,000 stockholders that appeared to support a pro-Arab Middle East policy, he resigned from that $150-a-week job to campaign for the City Council. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1975 and after. Yaroslavsky's 1975 election to the City Council's 5th District on Los Angeles' Westside stunned the city's political establishment, which had supported his opponent, Frances M. Savitch, a former aide to then-Mayor Tom Bradley. Savitch had secured endorsements from, among others, California's two U. S. senators, members of Congress and an assortment of state office holders—"some of the strongest political muscle assembled in a City Council race," as the Los Angeles Times put it in a post-election analysis. In the primary, Yaroslavsky ran second to Savitch, eliminating from the race Rosalind Wiener Wyman, seeking to retake the seat she held from 1953 to 1965.
Wyman endorsed Yaroslavsky in his grass-roots general election campaign. When Yaroslavsky was sworn in as the council's then-youngest member at age 26, Mayor Bradley quipped: "Congratulations. Now you're part of the establishment." "Yes," Yaroslavsky recalled retorting, "but the establishment is not part of me."During his tenure, Yaroslavsky served as chairman of two of the council's most powerful committees—one that oversaw the city's budget and finances, the other that oversaw the Los Angeles Police Department. He had a reputation among his colleagues as driven and bright, someone who "knows the value of…good box office issues." Like his predecessor, Edmund D. Edelman, Yaroslavsky vacated his seat early, after his successful election to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. In a 1994 story marking his first day as a supervisor, the Los Angeles Times noted that "Yaroslavsky was more than not a dominant player in every municipal initiative of note since he joined the City Council in 1975."
Soon after his election, Yaroslavsky began confronting development and traffic issues across his Westside district, which included such communities as Bel Air, Westwood and Pico-Robertson. Among other things, he obtained ordinances that reduced neighborhood building heights and imposed severe restrictions on hillside development. Yaroslavsky led an effort to limit the scale of development in Century City, once envisioned by developers as a "mini Manhattan." Yaroslavsky was credited with orchestrating the negotiations concerning the use, for the first time, of potent
Park La Brea, Los Angeles
Park La Brea is a sprawling apartment community in the Miracle Mile District of Los Angeles, California. With 4,255 units located in eighteen 13-story towers and thirty-one 2-story "garden apartment buildings", it is the largest housing development in the U. S. west of the Mississippi River. It sits on 160 acres of land with numerous lawns. Park La Brea is bounded by 3rd Street on the north, Cochran Avenue on the east, 6th Street on the south, Fairfax Avenue on the west; the complex is notable for its octagonal street layout, with many thoroughfares at a 45° angle of displacement relative to the English street grid. After the arrival of the Spanish in the 1780s and the displacement of the area's indigenous population, most of the area, now Park La Brea became part of the Rancho La Brea land grant, remained devoted to agriculture and petroleum production well into the 20th century; the growth of Hollywood and the Miracle Mile made the adjacent areas desirable centers for residential development in the 1920s, but the mid-rise apartment towers that give the district its current name were built between 1944 and 1948.
Park La Brea represents something of a historical anomaly, having been built at a time when most visions of Los Angeles' development were dominated by low-rise tracts of single-family houses along freeway corridors. As the towers are isolated from the rest of the Miracle Mile — set far back from major thoroughfares in a nod to Le Corbusier, they developed a reputation as "the projects", since they are reminiscent of such notorious housing developments as Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes and New York's Queensbridge; the street layout was created in a masonic pattern as a reference to the masonic heritage of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which built the complex toward the end of World War II and thereafter. Metropolitan Life Insurance constructed a sister complex, Parkmerced in San Francisco, which features a similar street layout as Park La Brea. At the same time, they built Stuyvesant Town and Peter Cooper Village in Manhattan, Parkchester in The Bronx, Parkfairfax in Alexandria, Virginia just outside Washington, DC.
The Park La Brea townhouses were designed by Leonard Schultz & Son with associate architect Earl T. Heitschmidt in 1941; the style of the architecture has been described as Modern Colonial. The Park La Brea Towers were designed by Leonard Schultz Associates with consulting architects Stanton + Kaufmann in 1948. Inspired by the innovative housing of Le Corbusier in Paris, this architectural team set out to create innovative multifamily housing, their plans included square-block sized formations of town houses surrounding shared common green space. The combined shared lawn spaces creates both tree-dappled open space; the Landmark Towers, in a revolutionary "X" structure with a unique placement, became icons of the Los Angeles skyline. The ingeniously designed plan ensured. In the 2000s, Park La Brea had become a desirable rental community with its own community center, health club and pool, beauty parlor, drycleaner in addition to its convenient proximity to local museums, Farmers Market, The Grove at Farmers Market shopping complex.
In recent years, additional improvements have been made, such as adding new pools. The complex completed another $8 million renovation in 2010. In 2017, the complex lost a $3.5-million bedbug lawsuit. Residents are zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Three different elementary schools serve portions of this neighborhood: Carthay Center Elementary School Hancock Park Elementary School Wilshire Crest Elementary SchoolAll of the neighborhood is zoned to John Burroughs Middle School and Fairfax High School. Co-op City Cooperative Village Mitchell Lama Parkchester, Bronx Parkfairfax, Virginia Parkmerced, San Francisco Penn South Riverton Houses Rochdale Village, Queens Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village Official Park La Brea website Apartmentratings.com: Park La Brea rating Yelp.com: Park La Brea ratings
Lafayette Square, Los Angeles
LaFayette Square is a historic semi-gated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Although founded in 1913 by real estate developer George L. Crenshaw, it is named after the French marquis who fought alongside Colonists in the American Revolution, it sits just off of Crenshaw Boulevard in the Mid-City area. It was designated by the city as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2000 for its significant residential architecture and history. LaFayette Square is regarded for large homes; the neighborhood is notable for its central location to the entire city—an important incentive for many residents. According to the Los Angeles Conservancy, "LaFayette Square was the last and greatest of banker George L. Crenshaw's ten residential developments in the City of Los Angeles." Around the turn of the twentieth century, there was a large oil boom in southern California: Between the extraordinary climate that California had to offer and the rich resources that provided jobs to the oil and agricultural industries, the state experienced great population booms.
In Los Angeles, Crenshaw invested in and oversaw the development of ten residential real estate ventures to help satiate the population growth. LaFayette Square was developed during the early 20th century. Wrought-iron gates surrounding the district are a recent addition, coming only in 1989; the addition of the iron gates eliminated cut-through commuter traffic. LaFayette Square is situated about 7 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles, 2 miles east of Beverly Hills, 4 miles south of Hollywood; the nearest beach is Santa Monica Beach, about 9 miles away. It consists of eight blocks, centered on St. Charles Place, situated between Venice Boulevard on the north, Washington Boulevard on the south, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and West Blvd on the west. There are 236 homes in the neighborhood, it is south of Victoria Park, southeast of the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and north of Wellington Square. The central region of Los Angeles experiences warm and dry summers, with average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, this area has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Crenshaw wanted this development to have a European flair so it was designed as an elegant residential park centered on St. Charles Place—a broad palm tree-lined avenue with a landscaped median; the houses in Lafayette Square reflect residential styles popular during the 1910s and 1920s such as Tudor Revival architecture, Mediterranean Revival, Neo-Federalist, American Craftsman, Spanish Colonial Revival, American Colonial Revival. Several houses, such as architect Paul Williams’ own home, were designed in the Modern style, exemplifying an important trend in Los Angeles’ architectural development; the neighborhood was designed for wealthy families and now-historic houses have 5,000 to 6,000 square feet floor plans, although the average home size is 3,600 square feet. According to a Los Angeles Times real-estate section article on the district, "Most of the properties have period details: Juliet balconies, mahogany staircases and libraries, sitting rooms, stained glass windows, triple crown molding, soaring ceilings—even four-car garages."
Lafayette Square has shifted between white-only homeownership during the 1920s through the 1940s to nearly all African American homeownership in the 1950s after restrictive deed covenants preventing African Americans from buying homes there, as well as in other well-to-do Los Angeles neighborhoods, were lifted in the 1940s. The community is more racially mixed now as more white families began moving back into the neighborhood over a decade ago. Most of the families in the neighborhood do not send their children to public school, and those that do use public schools tend to use Charter schools outside of the district. Some nearby private schools used by families in the neighborhood are: Marlborough School, private high for young women, 250 South Rossmore Avenue Loyola High School, Jesuit preparatory school for young men The neighborhood is zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District; the neighborhood is zoned to the following schools: Alta Loma Elementary School Johnnie L. Cochran Jr.
Middle School Los Angeles High School George Pepperdine Paul R. Williams, famous architect W. C. Fields Fatty Arbuckle Norton Simon and art collector Joe Louis, American professional boxer and former heavyweight champion Princess Conchita Sepulveda Chapman Pignatelli Alexander Pantages Syd Tha Kyd Taco Bennett of Odd Future Kris Bowers the Crenshaw family Lafayette Square Association