A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Federal Housing Administration
The Federal Housing Administration is a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building; the goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, to stabilize the mortgage market. The Commissioner of the FHA is Brian Montgomery, it is different from the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which supervises government-sponsored enterprises. During the Great Depression many banks failed, causing a drastic decrease in home loans and ownership. At that time, most home mortgages were short-term, with no amortization, balloon instruments at loan-to-value ratios below sixty percent; the banking crisis of the 1930s forced all lenders to retrieve due mortgages. Many homes were foreclosed, causing the housing market to plummet. Banks collected the loan collateral but the low property values resulted in a relative lack of assets.
In 1934 the federal banking system was restructured. The National Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration, its intention was to regulate the terms of mortgages that it insured. These new lending practices increased the number of people who could afford a down payment on a house and monthly debt service payments on a mortgage, thereby increasing the size of the market for single-family homes; the FHA calculated appraisal value based on eight criteria and directed its agents to lend more for higher appraised projects, up to a maximum cap. The two most important were "Relative Economic Stability", which constituted 40% of appraisal value, "protection from adverse influences", which made up another 20%. In 1935, Colonial Village in Arlington, was the first large-scale, rental housing project erected in the United States, Federal Housing Administration-insured. During World War II, the FHA financed a number of worker's housing projects including the Kensington Gardens Apartment Complex in Buffalo, New York.
In 1965 the Federal Housing Administration became part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Following the subprime mortgage crisis, FHA, along with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, became a large source of mortgage financing in the United States; the share of home purchases financed with FHA mortgages went from 2 percent to over one-third of mortgages in the United States, as conventional mortgage lending dried up in the credit crunch. Without the subprime market, many of the riskiest borrowers ended up borrowing from the Federal Housing Administration, the FHA could suffer substantial losses. Joshua Zumbrun and Maurna Desmond of Forbes have written that eventual government losses from the FHA could reach $100 billion; the troubled loans are now weighing on the agency's capital reserve fund, which by early 2012 had fallen below its congressionally mandated minimum of 2%, in contrast to more than 6% two years earlier. By November 2012, the FHA was bankrupt. Since 1934, the FHA and HUD have insured over 34 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages.
The FHA has 4.8 million insured single family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio. Mortgage insurance protects lenders from mortgage defaulting. If a property purchaser borrows more than 80% of the property's value, the lender will require that the borrower purchase private mortgage insurance to cover the lender's risk. If the lender is FHA approved and the mortgage is within FHA limits, the FHA provides mortgage insurance that may be more affordable for higher-risk borrowers Lenders can obtain FHA mortgage insurance for 96.5% of the appraised value of the home or building. FHA loans are insured through a combination of an upfront mortgage insurance premium and annual mutual mortgage insurance premiums; the UFMIP is a lump sum ranging from 1 – 2.25% of loan value, paid by the borrower either in cash at closing or financed via the loan. MMI, although annual, is included in monthly mortgage payments and ranges from 0 – 1.35% of loan value. If a borrower has poor to moderate credit history, MMI is much less expensive with an FHA insured loan than with a conventional loan regardless of LTV – sometimes as little as one-ninth as much depending on the borrower's credit score, LTV, loan size, approval status.
Conventional mortgage insurance rates increase as credit scores decrease, whereas FHA mortgage insurance rates do not vary with credit score. Conventional mortgage premiums spike if the borrower's credit score is lower than 620. Due to a increased risk, most mortgage insurers will not write policies if the borrower's credit score is less than 575; when insurers do write policies for borrowers with lower credit scores, annual premiums may be as high as 5% of the loan amount. A borrower's down payment may come from a number of sources; the 3.5% requirement can be satisfied with the borrower using their own cash or receiving a gift from a family member, their employer, labor union, or government entity. Since 1998, non-profit organizations have been providing down payment gifts to borrowers who purchase homes where the seller has agreed to reimburse the non-profit organization and pay an additional processing fee. In May 2006, the IRS determined that this is not "charitable activity" and has moved to revoke the non-profit status of organizations providing down payment assistance in
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans died while waiting for their appointments during extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration.
An investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets. The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.
Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.
In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans". Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of September 11, 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of
Levittown, Puerto Rico
Levittown, Puerto Rico, a suburb of the San Juan MSA and part of the municipality of Toa Baja, is one of the largest planned communities in Puerto Rico. It was developed by Levitt and Sons in 1963. Levittown is divided into eight sections called secciones and several sub-divisions called urbanizaciones. Part of what is known as Levittown is located in the municipalities of Bayamón. Levittown is known for its large, light blue painted water tower, one of the first water towers in Puerto Rico used to provide potable water to residences. To the west sits Levittown Lakes or Los Lagos de Levittown, a small man-made lake formed by draining the marshland over which Levittown was built; the drainage canal that feeds the lake is called Caño El Hato, which extends into the center of Levittown. To the east, the Bayamon River divides Levittown from the fishing village of Palo Seco, next to the Cataño municipality, it has a Blue Flag-rated public beach known as Punta Salinas and one of the bigger public sports centers of the metropolitan area of San Juan with tennis courts and a stadium for track and field meets.
Its Olympic-sized pool has been in use since its construction in 1977. Its high school, Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos High School, was built in 1970 and is named after an important political figure on the island; the school's football team, the Levittown Spartans, have been among the top high school football teams on the island. In 1975 they became the Co-Champions along with the Pirates from Antilles High School, in Fort Buchanan; the Spartans track teams, coached by Wilfredo Meaux were perennial powers during the 1970s and 80s. Levittown High's Basketball team has produced several excellent players including Ramon Rivas, who played for the NBA with the Boston Celtics. Levittown's main avenue is "Bulevar de Levittown", it has the largest collection of small business in the entire community. Los Dominicos Avenue is the second main avenue and connects Levittown to other areas, e.g. Sabana Seca sector and the city of Bayamón. Levittown has more than three shopping centers including Rio Hondo Mall. Highway 165 connects Levittown with Puerto Rico.
It is a scenic route that provides a nice coastal view in which Punta Salinas' radar domes and El Morro can be seen. At night, the Morro Castle's lighthouse and the Palo Seco power plant are visible; the coastal area along the road near the Bayamon River is popular with local surfers and is known as Cochino Beach because of the brownish waters caused by the sediments flowing out from the river. Punta Salinas, the public beach, is the home of a Puerto Rico Air National Guard unit, the 140 ADS, that provides air traffic control support to the FAA, military and law enforcement operations, it is the home of a Civil Air Patrol squadron, one of several in the municipality of Toa Baja. Levittown enjoys tropical weather all year round; the water tower known by pilots as the "Levittown Water Tank" provides a visual navigational checkpoint to aircraft flying either to Isla Grande Airport or to Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. It is served by Route D37 of the Puerto Rico Metropolitan Bus Authority and private commuter buses connecting the community with Cataño and the Tren Urbano Rapid Transit station in Bayamon.
The neighborhood is patrolled by the Toa Baja Municipal Police Department with a precinct in the western part of the neighborhood, the 271st precinct of the Puerto Rico Police Department located behind the water tank and the high school. As of the census of 2010, there are 26,960 people residing in the community; the average family size is of 3.09. The population density is 13,279/mi². There are 11,701 housing units; the racial makeup of the area is 73.9% White, 13.7% African American, 7.7% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. The majority are of Hispanic ethnicity. Of those, 93.5 % are 4.4 % of other Hispanic ethnicity. In the community the population is 46.5 % males. The median age of the population is 38.4 Years. The mean income for a family in the community for 2010 was $36,605. 24.2% of families are below the federal poverty level. The community is a lower-middle-class and working-class neighborhood. From 2008 to 2010, 81 percent of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher.
On the average, 62.9% of its college-age population attend institutions of higher learning. 66.5 percent of Levittown workers drove to work alone in 2010, 17.4 percent carpooled, 3.7 percent took public transportation, 11.5 percent used other means. The remaining 0.9 percent worked at home. Among those who commuted to work, it took them on average 38.0 minutes to get to work. Among the most common occupations were: Sales and office occupations, 36.1 percent. 69.8 percent of the people employed were Private salary workers. Justo Betancourt - Salsa musician, lived in Levittown Oscar Cartaya Bass player for Spyro Gyra Kany García - Songwriter José Huertas "Invader #1" - Professional Wrestler Sixto Lezcano - Major League Baseball Player Ray Reyes - Singer and ex-Menudo, raised in Levittown Ramón Rivas - NBA Basketball Player, grew up in Levittown Jerry Rivera - Salsa musician, raised in Levittown and Bo
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color, it is mowed to ensure an acceptable length, although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. Lawns are used around houses, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent; the term "lawn", referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century. Tied to suburban expansion and the creation of the household aesthetic, the lawn is an important aspect of the interaction between the natural environment and the constructed urban and suburban space.
In many suburban areas, there are bylaws in place requiring houses to have lawns and requiring the proper maintenance of these lawns. In some jurisdictions where there are water shortages, local government authorities are encouraging alternatives to lawns to reduce water use. Lawn is a cognate of llan, derived from the Common Brittonic word landa that means heath, barren land, or clearing. Lawns may have originated as grassed enclosures within early medieval settlements used for communal grazing of livestock, as distinct from fields reserved for agriculture; the word "laune" is first attested in 1540, is related to the Celtic Brythonic word lan/llan/laun, which has the meaning of enclosure in relation to a place of worship. In medieval Europe, open expanses of low grasses became valued among the aristocracy because they allowed those inside an enclosed fence or castle to view those approaching. Lawns became popular with the aristocracy in northern Europe from the Middle Ages onward; the early lawns were not always distinguishable from pasture fields.
The damp climate of maritime Western Europe in the north made lawns possible to manage. They were not a part of gardens in other regions and cultures of the world until contemporary influence. Before the invention of mowing machines in 1830, lawns were managed differently, they were an element of wealthy estates and manor houses, in some places were maintained by the labor-intensive methods of scything and shearing. In most situations, they were pasture land maintained through grazing by sheep or other livestock. Areas of grass grazed by rabbits, horses or sheep over a long period form a low, tight sward similar to a modern lawn; this was the original meaning of the word "lawn", the term can still be found in place names. Some forest areas where extensive grazing is practiced still have these seminatural lawns. For example, in the New Forest, such grazed areas are common, are known as lawns, for example Balmer Lawn. Lawns similar to those of today first appeared in France and England in the 1700s when André Le Nôtre designed the gardens of Versailles that included a small area of grass called the tapis vert, or "green carpet".
It was not until the 17th and 18th century that the garden and the lawn became a place created first as walkways and social areas. They were made up of meadow plants, such as a particular favorite. In the early 17th century, the Jacobean epoch of gardening began. By the end of this period, the English lawn was a symbol of status of the gentry. In the early 18th century, landscape gardening for the aristocracy entered a golden age, under the direction of William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown, they refined the English landscape garden style with the design of natural, or "romantic", estate settings for wealthy Englishmen. Brown, remembered as "England's greatest gardener", designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure, his influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and William Kent are overlooked. His work still endures at Croome Court, Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Bowood House, Milton Abbey, in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations.
His style of smooth undulating lawns which ran seamlessly to the house and meadow, clumps and scattering of trees and his serpentine lakes formed by invisibly damming small rivers, were a new style within the English landscape, a "gardenless" form of landscape gardening, which swept away all the remnants of previous formally patterned styles. His landscapes were fundamentally different from what they replaced, the well-known formal gardens of England which were criticised by Alexander Pope and others from the 1710s; the open "English style" of parkland first spread across Britain and Ireland, across Europe, such as the garden à la française being replaced by the French landscape garden. By this time, the word "lawn" in England had semantically shifted to describe a piece of a garden covered with grass and mown. Wealthy families in America during the late 18th century began mimicking English landscaping styles. In 1780, the Shaker community began the first industrial production of high-quality grass seed in North America, a number of seed companies and nurseries were founded in Philadelphia.
The increased availability of these grasses meant they were in plentiful supply
Crofton is a census-designated place and planned community in Anne Arundel County, United States, located just west of the state capital Annapolis. Crofton is located 24 miles south of Baltimore, 9.8 miles west of Annapolis, 24 miles east-northeast of Washington, D. C; the community was established in 1964. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 27,348. In 1963, after the Crawford Corporation accumulated over 1,600 acres of land, it announced that it would build a new community called Crofton; this new town and planned community was founded at the same time as Reston and Columbia, Maryland. Crofton would be anchored by a community golf course, which became the Crofton Country Club. Crofton was founded in the fall of 1964; the company considered picking an English name for the new town that "sounds well and implies that this is a pleasant place to live." It ended up picking the name "Crofton", named after a small township in England. The English town was called Croft-town, derived from the word "Croft", as the town standing upon the Crofts.
An exclusive gated community, Crofton's gates were opened and they now only serve as a symbol for the community. In July 2007 Crofton was named by Money magazine as one of "100 Best Places to Live" in the United States. Crofton placed 72nd out of 100 cities on the list, it was selected for its relative anonymity while still boasting many major amenities, excellent schools, sought-after location. Crofton was selected again for this time placing 82nd. Crofton was in the national news in late June and early July 2002 after a Northern Snakehead fish was discovered in a local pond; the infestation was found in water behind the Crofton post office and the adjacent shopping center, across Route 3 from local landmark Lake Louise. The snakehead species is aggressive and voracious. In order to ensure that the fish were eliminated, in September 2002 the main pond and two nearby ponds were dosed with rotenone and subsequently with potassium permanganate. Six adult snakeheads and more than one thousand juvenile fish were destroyed.
The incident initiated a national discussion on invasive species. One comparison case was the mute swan an invasive and destructive species of the Chesapeake Bay watershed but, in comparison, quite beautiful, which garnered support from some environmental and animal rights groups. Several movies were inspired by this incident. Syfy aired two movies in relation to the snakehead outbreak: in March 2004, a movie called Snakehead Terror was featured, the movie Frankenfish was aired in June 2004. Ten Pound Films produced a feature film titled Swarm of the Snakehead which related to this incident. In 2007, a documentary titled Fishzilla: Snakehead Invasion aired on the National Geographic Channel, discussing the ecological damage that the snakeheads found in Crofton have done to surrounding areas; the original community of Crofton was built within a triangle formed by three major roads: Crain Highway to the northwest, Davidsonville Road to the northeast, Defense Highway to the south. Within the triangle, Crofton Parkway, a loop road 3.5 miles long, encircles the center of the community.
Crofton Parkway is the scene of yearly parades, two of the community's five elementary schools, the Town Hall, Village Green, community events, Crofton Country Club, walkers and bikers around the loop. Crofton has a community pool, the Crofton Swim and Tennis Club, restricted to those inhabitants of the triangle; the Crofton CDP now extends north and east from the triangle, including Crofton Park and reaching northeast as far as St. Stephens Church Road; the Little Patuxent River borders Crofton on its southwest corner at the intersection of Route 3 and Route 450, providing a buffer between Anne Arundel and Prince Georges counties. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Crofton CDP has a total area of 6.6 square miles, all of it land. Crofton has humid summers and, mild to sometimes cold winters; the record low temperature is −11 °F, recorded on January 27, 1987. The record high temperature is 104 °F, recorded on August 16, 1997. Crofton contains a number of public schools, administered by the Anne Arundel County Public Schools system: Crofton Elementary School, grades K-5 Crofton Meadows Elementary School, grades K-5 Crofton Woods Elementary School, grades K-5 Nantucket Elementary School, grades K-5For grades 6–8, students from all four of these elementary schools attend Crofton Middle School in adjacent Gambrills, Maryland.
Older students from Crofton attend one of two high schools: Arundel High School, grades 9–12 South River High School, grades 9–12 However, a new Crofton area high school is being built. Construction started in late 2018 and planned occupancy is August 2020 for at least two grades. Once this facility opens, students from Crofton Middle School can stay together and attend the same high school. There are some private preschools in Crofton: Crofton Day School Crofton Nursery School Creative Garden Nursery School and Kindergarten Continuing construction and BRAC realignments have increased residential and commercial development in Crofton, schools have become overcrowded. In 2013, a redistricting proposal was approved for Crofton schools to accommodate an increase in students, not planned for. While most current plans address overcrowding in elementary schools, county officials delayed addressing needs at the Middle and High School level. A redistricting committee is