Lewes is an incorporated city on the Delaware Bay in eastern Sussex County, Delaware. According to the 2010 census, the population is 2,747. Along with neighboring Rehoboth Beach, Lewes is one of the principal cities of Delaware's growing Cape Region; the city lies within Maryland -- Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lewes proudly claims to be "The First Town in The First State." Lewes was the site of the first European settlement in Delaware, a whaling and trading post that Dutch settlers founded on June 3, 1631 and named Zwaanendael. The colony had a short existence, as a local tribe of Lenape Native Americans wiped out the 32 settlers in 1632; the area remained rather neglected by the Dutch until, under the threat of annexation from the English colony of Maryland, the city of Amsterdam made a grant of land at the Hoernkills to a group of Mennonites for settlement in 1662. A total of 35 men were to be included in the settlement, led by a Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy of Zierikzee and funded by a sizable loan from the city to get them established.
The settlement was established in 1663, but the timing of the settlement was terrible: In 1664, the English wrested New Netherland from the Dutch, they had the settlement destroyed with British reports indicating that “not a nail” was left there. The area was slow to resettle, but a new settlement regrew around the Hoernkills. In late December 1673, when the area was held again by the Dutch, the settlement was attacked and burned down again by soldiers from the English colony of Maryland. In 1680, under the authority of James Stuart, Duke of York, granted such authority by his brother, King Charles II, the village was reorganized and known for two years as New Deale, Deale County, Delaware. A log courthouse was authorized to be built at this time. A Church of England congregation was established by 1681 and a Presbyterian church was built in 1682. In 1682, the Delaware colonies were given to William Penn by English King Charles II in payment of a family debt; when Penn arrived in the New World that year, he renamed the county as Sussex and the Hoernkills settlement as Lewes, in commemoration of sites back in England.
Lewes became and remained the county seat of Sussex County until 1791, when it was moved to a more west-central county location, the current town of Georgetown. On April 5 and 6, 1813, during the War of 1812, British naval vessels led by HMS Poictiers under the command of Captain Sir John Beresford and ineffectually bombarded the town. A cannonball from the bombardment is lodged in the foundation of Cannonball House, which now serves as the town's maritime museum. Lewes was incorporated by an act of the state assembly on Feb. 2, 1818. The act provided for five persons to be chosen as commissioners to be known as "Trustees of the Town of Lewes." Lewes Beach itself was an important stop on the Underground Railroad in the years leading up to the American Civil War. As a "border state," Delaware was not part of the Confederacy, but was still quite dangerous for fugitive slaves. Several houses in Lewes thus housed escaping slaves. In 1941, the United States built Fort Miles on Cape Henlopen south of Lewes, to defend Delaware Bay and the Delaware River and the oil refineries and factories on its shores, as well as the city of Philadelphia.
It was one of the largest and most armed coastal fortifications built. Fort Miles never saw any major action. Fort Miles was deeded to the State of Delaware. In addition to Fort Miles, the Cape Henlopen Archeological District, Coleman House, Cool Spring Presbyterian Church, De Vries Palisade, Delaware Breakwater and Lewes Harbor, Fisher Homestead, Fisher's Paradise, Col. David Hall House, Hopkins Covered Bridge Farm, Lewes Historic District, Lewes Presbyterian Church, Lightship WAL 539, Maull House, National Harbor of Refuge and Delaware Breakwater Harbor Historic District, Pagan Creek Dike, Roosevelt Inlet Shipwreck, William Russell House, St. George's Chapel, Townsend Site, Wolfe's Neck Site are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Theodore Becker 2014–present James L. Ford 2004–2014 George H. P. Smith 1994–2004 Dr. John Adams 1992–1994 Al Stango 1968–1992 Otis H. Smith 1950–1968 H. Edward Maull 1944–1950 Thomas H. Carpenter 1940–1944 William E. Walsh 1938–1940 David W. Burbage 1936–1938 Dr. Ulysses W. Hocker 1931–1936 Dr. James T. Thompson 1927–1930 Willard H. Collins 1926–1927 Dr. James T. Thompson 1914–1926 Thomas B.
Schellenger 1913–1914 Dr. James T. Thompson 1900–1913 Alfred L. Burton 1898–1900 Six men who served as Delaware governor were born in or made their home in Lewes. Three of the men lived on Lewes' Second Street. Brothers Daniel and Caleb Rodney, sons of John Rodney first cousin of Caesar Rodney, each served as governor of Delaware; each a member of the Federalist Party, Daniel served from 1814 to 1817, while Caleb served as acting governor from 1822 to 1823. Ebe Walters Tunnell moved to Lewes in 1873 to enter the drug and hardware business in part of the old Caleb Rodney House on Second Street. Tunnell worked his way up the state government hierarchy before unsuccessfully running for governor in 1892. Four years the Democrat won the election, served from 1897 to 1901; as Lewes was the earliest settlement in the state, Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution, the town refers to itself as "The First Town in the First State." Lewes is named after t
Lewes is the county town of East Sussex and by tradition of all of Sussex. Lewes remains the police and judicial centre for all of Sussex and is home to Sussex Police, East Sussex Fire & Rescue Service, Lewes Crown Court and HMP Lewes, it is a civil parish and is the centre of the Lewes local government district as well as the seat of East Sussex County Council at East Sussex County Hall. The population of Lewes is now around 17,000; the settlement is a traditional market town and centre of communications and, in 1264, it was the site of the Battle of Lewes. The town's landmarks include Lewes Castle, the remains of Lewes Priory, Bull House, Southover Grange and public gardens, a 16th century timber-framed Wealden hall house known as Anne of Cleves House. Other notable features of the area include the Glyndebourne festival, the Lewes Bonfire and the Lewes Pound. Archaeological evidence points to prehistoric dwellers in the area. Scholars think that the Roman settlement of Mutuantonis was here, as quantities of artefacts have been discovered in the area.
The Saxons built a castle. After the Norman invasion, William the Conqueror rewarded William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, with the Rape of Lewes, a swathe of land along the River Ouse from the coast to the Surrey boundary, he built Lewes Castle on the Saxon site. Lewes was the site of a mint during the Late Anglo-Saxon period and thereafter a mint during the early years after the Norman invasion. In 1148 the town was granted a charter by King Stephen; the town became a port with docks along the River Ouse. The town was the site of the Battle of Lewes between the forces of Henry III and Simon de Montfort in the Second Barons' War in 1264, at the end of which de Montfort's forces were victorious; the battle took place in fields now just west of Landport. At the time of the Marian Persecutions of 1555–1557, Lewes was the site of the execution of seventeen Protestant martyrs, who were burned at the stake in front of the Star Inn; this structure is now the Town Hall. A memorial to the martyrs was unveiled on Cliffe Hill in 1901.
Through the 17th and 18th centuries, Lewes developed as the county town of Sussex, expanding beyond the line of the town wall. It was an active port and developed related iron and ship building industries. In 1846 the town became a railway junction, with lines constructed from the north and east to two railway stations; the development of Newhaven ended Lewes's period as a major port. During the Crimean War, some 300 Finns serving in the Russian army captured at Bomarsund were imprisoned at Lewes. Lewes became a borough in 1881; the name Lewes is the name of the parliamentary constituency and the local district council as well as Lewes Town Council. Lewes is where the East Sussex County Council has its main offices, located at County Hall in St Anne’s Crescent. Lewes District Council is administered from offices in Southover House on Southover Road. Lewes Town Council is based in the Town Hall on Lewes High Street. For many years, Lewes was dominated at local and national levels. In 1991, the Liberal Democrats won the District Council for the first time, the constituency returned a Liberal Democrat MP for the first time in 1997.
The Conservatives won control of the District Council in 2011, strengthened this position in 2015. They won back the parliamentary seat in the 2015 election with Maria Caulfield defeating the incumbent Liberal Democrat of 18 years, Norman Baker by 1,083 votes. In organisational terms, Lewes became one of the non-county boroughs within the Sussex, East county under the Local Government Act 1933. In 1974, Lewes District Council was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, was a merger of the former borough of Lewes along with Newhaven and Seaford urban districts and Chailey Rural District; the election in 2015 was the first time in which Green Councillors had been elected to the Lewes District Council, all from the wards in the town of Lewes. The Lewes Councillor elected to the District Council, Ruth O'Keeffe, was elected as Chairman of the Council; the town of Lewes became a civil parish with the title of town. Lewes Town Council is one of the 300 largest of the 9,800 parish councils in England and Wales, with expenditure budgeted at just over £1 million.
In the 2015 elections for Lewes Town Council, the Green Party were the largest party with 9 seats. But, they lost a seat to an Independent in a by-election and split. There are now 6 Liberal Democrats, 5 Greens, 4 Independents and 3 Independent Green members of Council; the Mayor for 2017/18 is Councillor Michael Chartier and the Deputy Mayor is Janet Baah, both Liberal Democrats. The representation from Lewes wards at local government levels, as at the latest elections, is as follows. On 31 March 2009 Hilary Benn, Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, announced his decision to confirm the designation of the South Downs National Park, which came into being one year and includes the town of Lewes within its boundaries. You can see Lewes lying like a box of toys under a great amphitheatre of chalk hills... on the whole it is set down better than any town I have seen in England. Lewes is situated on the Greenwich Meridian, in a gap in the Sout
USS City of Lewes (SP-383)
USS City of Lewes USS Lewes, was a minesweeper and patrol vessel that served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919. City of Lewes was built as a commercial fishing boat of the same name in 1912 by W. G. Abbott at Milford, Delaware. In May 1917, the U. S. Navy purchased her for use on the section patrol as a minesweeper and patrol vessel during World War I, she was commissioned as USS City of Lewes on 12 May 1917 with Lieutenant J. S. Davis, USNR, in command, although her purchase did not become official until 19 May 1917. In accordance with a United States Department of the Navy general order that all section patrol craft should have their names shortened to surnames or single words, City of Lewes was renamed USS Lewes in July 1917. However, she still was called USS City of Lewes for the remainder of her Navy career. After fitting out as a minesweeper, Lewes departed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 14 August 1917 bound for Brest, which she reached on 18 September 1917. Following voyage repairs, she took up patrol and convoy escort duties, which she pursued for the remainder of World War I.
She engaged in minesweeping to keep shipping channels free of German naval mines, she continued minesweeping work after the end of the war and into 1919. Lewes was sold abroad; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: USS City of Lewes, 1917-1919. Known as Lewes NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive: Lewes ex-City of Lewes
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory; the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon -- Kuskokwim Delta; the average flow is 6,430 m3/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km2; the total area is more than 25 % larger than Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, water quality data from the U. S. Geological Survey shows good levels of turbidity and dissolved oxygen; the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data; the name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.
However, Yukkhana does not correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. Two years the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich ` in words; because the Holikachuks had been trading with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks, the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han from Gwich'in, erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak; the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia.
Others suggest. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake; the Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua; the upper end of the Yukon River was known as the Lewes River until it was established that it was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kluane Lake; the river passes through the communities of Whitehorse and Dawson City in Yukon, crossing Alaska into Eagle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Tanana, Galena, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Pilot Station, St. Marys, Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels.
There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights. Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks. Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river: The Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway. A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, alth
Sir Lewes Lewknor was an English courtier, M. P. writer and Judge who served as Master of the Ceremonies to King James I of England. M. P. for Midhurst in 1597 and for Bridgnorth 1604–10. His career has been described as a "tortuous trajectory rich in false starts and rather nebulous interludes... slippery religious and political allegiances". He was noted for his translations of courtly European literature. Important was the translation of Gasparo Contarini's account of the Venetian republic, The Commonwealth and Government of Venice, which influenced contemporary writers including Shakespeare, he was the author of an original work, The Estate of English Fugitives, a polemic attacking the Spanish and the machinations of Catholic clergy, while defending the rights of English Catholics. He was the son of Thomas Lewknor of his wife Bridget Lewes, he studied at Cambridge and the Middle Temple, working for a short time as a lawyer with his uncle, Richard. His uncle Edmund Lewknor was tutor to the Jesuit priest John Gerard.
In the 1580s he was in the Low Countries, as an exile due to his Catholic sympathies. He attempted a career as a soldier, serving as a captain in the Duke of Parma's army, but suffered a disabling injury to his right arm. Lewkenor would acknowledge the debt he owed to the General under whom he served, Jan Baptista del Monte, his brother Camillo del Monte. In 1587 he was living in Antwerp with his wife, but returned to England after experiencing financial problems, he reported to Lord Burghley about the activities of English Catholics working for the Spanish. He became a member of parliament for Midhurst in 1597. Lewknor served as a Gentleman Pensioner in Ordinary from 1599 to 1603, he appears to have accepted the Church of England after his return from the continent, but he returned to Catholicism after the death of Queen Elizabeth. Lewknor became an expert on ceremonial court protocol and as a Gentleman Pensioner, was required to host foreign ambassadors. In 1600 he looked after the French ambassador.
In the same year he escorted the Moroccan ambassador Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, suggested to be the inspiration for Shakespeare's Othello. After James I came to the throne in 1603, Lewknor's position was regularised, he was knighted in the same year and he was given the newly created post of Master of the Ceremonies, for which he received an annual salary of £200. The post was confirmed for his lifetime in 1605. From this point on Lewknor's life was taken up with his duties to attend foreign dignitaries, he was assisted by John Finet, who succeeded him in the post. The Venetian ambassador Zuane Pesaro described the Lord Chamberlain, William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke as ‘a man of good intention,’ but one, ‘influenced by being related to the Master of the Ceremonies.’At the summoning of James I's first Parliament Lewknor’s uncle, Richard secured his return for Bridgnorth. In the first session of the Parliament Lewes made five speeches and Between 1604 and 1610 he sat on 37 committees; the King selected him to be among those ordered to manage the ‘matter of estate foreign or matter of intercourse’ at the conference with the Lords of 28 April 1604 on the Union with Scotland.
Lewknor's publications were translations of courtly and political works by continental European writers. He translated from French and Italian and is credited with coining'Cashiering' from the Flemish Kasserren. In 1594 Lewknor translated The Resolved Gentleman, Hernando de Acuña's version of Olivier de la Marche's le Chevalier délibéré. Lewknor's version of this chivalric allegory has been interpreted as "a subtle, perceptive but scathing criticism of the Elizabethan court in the 1590's"; the work was prefaced with dedicatory poems by Maurice Kyffin, Sir John Harington. Lewkenor praised his university friend, Edmund Spenser, in his introduction, "the following ages among millions of other noble works penned in her praise, shall as much admire the writer, but far more the subject of The Faerie Queen, as former ages did Homer and his Achilles, or Virgil, his Aeneas," In 1595 A Discourse of the Usage of the English Fugitives, by the Spaniard, was published, which became popular having four reprintings in two years, expanded with the title The Estate of English Fugitives under the king of Spaine and his ministers.
The book gave a colourful account of the author's adventures as a soldier of fortune in the Netherlands. Published under the initials "L. L.", the work has been attributed to Lewknor. Despite the initials, it has been sometimes incorrectly attributed to Lewes' brother Samuel Lewkenor, who had returned from Europe in 1594 and published an account of his travels. Historian Marco Nievergelt, says that Lewes is "generally accepted" as its author. In one paragraph Lewkenor expresses thanks to the general he served under in the Low Countries, Jan Baptista del Monte and his brother Camillo del Monte, he repeats his gratitude in a similar paragraph in his next work The Commonwealth and Government of Venice, his 1599 translation of Gasparo Contarini's De Magistratibus et Republica Venetorum demonstrates "the admiration Englishmen could express towar