A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It most indicates the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the recipient has met the criteria for receiving the medal in multiple theatres; when used in conjunction with decorations for exceptional service, such as gallantry medals, the term "and bar" means that the award has been bestowed multiple times. In the example, "Group Captain Leonard Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and two bars, DFC", "DSO and two bars" means that the Distinguished Service Order was awarded on three separate occasions. A British convention is to indicate bars by the use of asterisks. Bars are used on long service medals to indicate the length of service rendered; the two terms are used because terms. Prior to the early 19th century and decorations were only awarded to ranking officers. One exception was the Army Gold Medal issued to higher ranking participants in the Peninsular War.
A medal was given with a clasp for each battle fought. After four clasps were earned the medal was turned in for a cross with the battle names on the arms, additional clasps were added; the maximum was achieved with a cross and nine clasps. Over the next 40 years, it became customary for governments to present a medal to all soldiers and officers involved in a campaign; these medals were engraved with the names of the major battles the recipient had fought in during the campaign. The main disadvantages of this system were that new medals had to be created for each campaign or war, that it was impossible to tell at a glance if the recipient was only a participant in the campaign overall, or if he had been involved in one or several major actions; the Sutlej Medal was the earliest medal. It was awarded to British Army and Honourable East India Company soldiers who fought in the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845 and 1846; the first battle the recipient participated in would be engraved on the medal itself.
If the recipient had participated in multiple engagements, silver bars bearing the name of each additional battle were attached to the medal's ribbon. This method of notation evolved again on the Punjab Campaign medal, where the standard medal was awarded to all that had served during the campaign, with bars produced for the three major battles; the creation of bars led to the development of'General Service' medals, which would be presented to any soldier serving in a general region or time frame. Bars would be awarded to denote the particular war the recipient fought in; the 1854 India General Service Medal was awarded to soldiers over a 41-year period. Twenty-three clasps were created for this award, becoming one of the more extreme uses of this system; the British Naval General Service Medal, was authorised in 1847 with some 231 clasps for actions ranging from minor skirmishes to certain campaigns and all full-fledged battles between 1793 and 1840. The Crimea Medal was issued with ornate battle bars.
Since the general trend has been to have simple horizontal devices. Campaign bars or battle bars are used to denote the particular campaign, battle, or region the recipient operated in to receive the award; this is the most common use of medal bars on military decorations. In the United Kingdom, campaign bars are known as clasps and when the ribbon alone is worn they are sometimes indicated by rosettes, although this is not authorised. Examples of ones that were issued are the "under enemy fire" clasp on the 1914 Star and the Battle of Britain clasp on the 1939-45 Star. In the United States Military, Service stars are used to indicate participation in multiple battles or campaigns, although the World War I Victory Medal had an extensive system of bars. Starting with World War II the Arrowhead device was authorized for assault landings. In this conflict a unique variation of the Service star was the Wake Island Device, a "W" placed on the ribbons of the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medals.
This was issued to represent the medal bar for fighting in the Battle of Wake Island. Achievement bars are used to indicate a additional feat associated with the medal; as an example, the Wintered Over Device attached to the United States Antarctica Service Medal indicates that the recipient performed a tour of duty during the Antarctic winter. Service bars indicate the length of service a person has provided to the organisation presenting the award; this type of bar is most found on long service medals for the military and emergency services. Multiple award bars display the number of times a decoration for merit or distinguished service has been awarded. In the United States, Oak Leaf Clusters and Stars, rather than bars, are issued for receiving the same award multiple times. In the United Kingdom, each bar is indicated by a rosette. Dorling, Henry Taprell. Ribb
Hove is a town in East Sussex, England west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove. It forms a single conurbation with Brighton and some smaller towns and villages running along the coast; as part of local government reform and Hove were merged, to form the borough of Brighton and Hove in 1997. In 2001, the new borough attained city status. Hove is bordered by Brighton to the east and Portslade-by-Sea in the west, the distance between the boundaries being some 2.25 mi. During mid 19th-century building work near Palmeira Square, workmen levelled a substantial burial mound. A prominent feature of the landscape since 1200 BC, the 20 feet -high tumulus yielded, among other treasures, the Hove amber cup. Made of translucent red Baltic Amber and the same size as a regular china tea cup, the artefact can be seen in the Hove Museum and Art Gallery. There are entries for Brighton and Portslade and small downland settlements like Hangleton, but nothing for the location of Hove itself.
The first known settlement in Hove was around the 12th century when St Andrew's Church was established. Hove remained insignificant for centuries, consisting of just a single street running north-south some 250m from the church, which by the 16th century was recorded as being in ruins. Hangleton Manor is a well-preserved 16th-century flint manor building, it is believed to have been built c. 1540 for Richard Belingham, twice High Sheriff of Sussex, whose initials are carved into a fireplace, whose coat of arms adorns a period plaster ceiling. The Manor is serving as a pub-restaurant and whilst it was once on open downland, it is now surrounded by the 20th-century Hangleton housing estate. In 1723 a traveller, the antiquary John Warburton, wrote,'I passed through a ruinous village called Hove which the sea is daily eating up and is in a fair way of being quite deserted. However, The Ship Inn had been built at the seaward end of the street in around 1702. In 1724, Daniel Defoe wrote in reference to the south coast,'I do not find they have any foreign commerce, except it be what we call smuggling and roguing.
The census of 1801 recorded only 101 residents. By 1821, the year the Prince Regent was crowned George IV, Hove was still a small village but the population had risen to 312; the dwellings were still clustered on either side of Hove Street, surrounded by an otherwise empty landscape of open farmland. This isolated location was ideal for smuggling and there was considerable illicit activity. Hove smugglers became notorious, with contraband being stored in the now repaired St. Andrew's Church. Tradition has it that The Ship Inn was a favourite rendezvous for the smugglers, in 1794 soldiers were billeted there. In 1818 there was a pitched battle on Hove beach between revenue men and smugglers, from which the latter emerged as the victors; as part of the concerted drive by Parliament to combat smuggling, a coastguard station was opened at the southern end of Hove Street in 1831, next to The Ship Inn. At the bottom of Hove Street was the bull-ring. At a bull-bait in 1810 the bull escaped, scattering spectators before being recaptured and dragged back to the ring.
This was the last bull-bait to take place in Hove. The fertile coastal plain west of the Brighton boundary had significant deposits of brickearth and by c.1770 a brickfield had been established on the site of what would become Brunswick Square. Other brickfields were established further west, remaining until displaced by housing development. In the years following the Coronation of 1821 the Brunswick estate of large Regency houses boasting a theatre, riding schools and their own police was developed on the seafront near the boundary with Brighton. Although within Hove parish the residents of these elegant houses studiously avoided the name of the impoverished village a mile to the west as an address. Straggling development along the coast loosely connected the estate to fashionable Brighton, so that name was used instead. Dating from 1822, the Brighton to Shoreham turnpike crossed the north of Hove parish along the route of the present Old Shoreham Road; the Brighton General Gas Light Company was formed in 1825.
Although production of coal gas was notorious for the smell it produced, the company acquired land in the fields between Hove Street and St. Andrew's Church, in 1832 built a gasworks on a two-acre site; the process required substantial tonnage of coal, delivered by horse-drawn cart on the unmade tracks in the vicinity, removal of by-products including coke, coal tar and ammonia. An industrial site such as this, with a tall chimney and two gasometers next to the churchyard was a considerable intrusion on the populace of Hove, but not for still-distant and growing Brighton, the main centre of consumption. Being situated in Hove it avoided the duty of £1 per 8 tons levied on coal by the Brighton Town Act of 1773. A gasworks built east of Brighton in 1819, therefore exempt, was supplied by sailing brigs grounding at high tide, the crew tipping the coal down chutes into horse-drawn carts re-floating on the next tide; this method, inherently dirty and disruptive, would have been used at Hove until the arrival of the railway in 1840.
By 1861 the site had doubled in size and there were now five gasometers, ranging in size from small to large. Due to spiralling demand a large new works was opened in Shoreham Harbour at Portslade-by-Sea in 1871, by 1885 all gas manufacture in
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty before replacing Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1940. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874; the couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.
It was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during which she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack would be warm, they were close at various points in their lives. In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess, while he and his brother were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany". Visits home were to Connaught Place in L
Robert Guy Newton was an English stage and film actor. Along with Errol Flynn, Newton was one of the most popular actors among the male juvenile audience of the 1940s and early 1950s with British boys. Known for his hard living lifestyle, he was cited as a role model by the actor Oliver Reed and the Who's drummer Keith Moon. Newton is best remembered for his portrayal of the feverish-eyed Long John Silver in the 1950 film adaptation of Treasure Island, the film that became the standard for screen portrayals of historical pirates, he would continue to portray pirates in Blackbeard in 1952 and Long John Silver again in the 1954 film of the same name, which spawned a miniseries in the mid-'50s. Born in Dorset in the West Country of England and growing up in Cornwall near Lands End, his exaggeration of his West Country accent is credited with popularising the stereotypical "pirate voice". Newton has become the "patron saint" of the annual International Talk Like a Pirate Day. Robert Guy Newton was born in Shaftesbury, Dorset, a son of the landscape painter Algernon Newton, R.
A. He was educated in Lamorna near Penzance, where he lived with his family from 1912 to 1918 at Exeter School and St Bartholomew's School in Newbury, Berkshire, his acting career began at the age of 16 at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1921. He appeared in many repertory shows until he went to Canada where he worked on a cattle ranch for a year, he returned to England and performed in many plays in the West End of London, including Bitter Sweet by Noël Coward, The Letter with Gladys Cooper, Cardboard Lover with Tallulah Bankhead. He appeared in Private Lives on Broadway, taking over the role from his friend Laurence Olivier. From 1932 to 1934, he was the manager of the Shilling Theatre in London, he had a small role in the film Reunion. Newton was put under contract to Alexander Korda who cast him in small roles in the cinema films Fire Over England, Dark Journey, Farewell Again and The Squeaker, he had a part as Cassius in the abandoned version of I, Claudius and in 21 Days. Newton was borrowed by 20th Century Fox for The Green Cockatoo.
Newton had a good role supporting Charles Laughton in Vessel of Wrath. He had his first film lead in Dead Men are Dangerous, he made another with Laughton, Jamaica Inn, playing the romantic male lead, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. In 1939, he played Horatio to Laurence Olivier's Hamlet at the Old Vic, in a production that included Alec Guinness and Michael Redgrave. Newton kept busy as a film actor, appearing in Hell's Cargo. Newton continued as a supporting actor in films, appearing in Gaslight, Busman's Honeymoon, Bulldog Sees It Through, Channel Incident and Major Barbara, directed by Gabriel Pascal from the play by George Bernard Shaw. Newton got another chance opposite Deborah Kerr and James Mason, he consolidated his status by playing opposite Anna Neagle in the Amy Johnson biopic They Flew Alone, playing Jim Mollison. Newton enlisted in the Royal Navy and saw active service in the rank of an Able Seaman on board HMS Britomart, which fought as an escort ship on several Russian convoys. After two and a half years in the Royal Navy he was medically discharged in 1943.
On resuming his acting career Newton played the lead in This Happy Breed, a role played on stage by Noël Coward. Directed by David Lean, it was a huge hit. So too was the Laurence Olivier version of Henry V, in which Newton played Ancient Pistol; these appearances helped British exhibitors vote him the 10th most popular British film star of 1944. During the war, he starred in the West End in No Orchids for Miss Blandish, a hit. Newton had the star role in a thriller Night Boat to Dublin had a showy cameo role in Odd Man Out, he stayed in leads for Temptation Snowbound. Lean cast him as Bill Sikes in a huge success critically and commercially, he made a series of films with Hollywood stars and/or financing: Kiss the Blood Off My Hands, a noir with Joan Fontaine and Burt Lancaster. He played Long John Silver in Walt Disney's version of Treasure Island, with Bobby Driscoll and directed by Byron Haskin; this was a big hit in Britain and seen in the US. Less well known is Waterfront, his final performance on stage was in the 1950 production of Gaslight with Rosamund John at the Vaudeville Theatre.
Treasure Island's success prompted Newton to relocate to Hollywood. He was one of several British actors in an Imperial adventure tale, he returned to Britain for Tom Brown's Schooldays to play Thomas Arnold was cast by 20th Century Fox as Javert in their version of Les Misérables. In 1951 he was voted the sixth most popular British star in Britain. Gabriel Pascal gave him the star lead in another Shaw adaptation and the Lion, it was made by RKO. Fox asked him back for a war film, The Desert Rats, playing a drunken school teacher who discovers bravery during World War Two, he was one of several names in the Mighty. Back in Britain, Newton was given the lead in The Beachcomber, a remake of Vessels of Wrath, this time in the part played by Charles Laughton, he again played Long John Silver in a 1954 Aus
Sir Reginald Carey Harrison, known as Rex Harrison, was an English actor of stage and screen. Harrison began his career on the stage in 1924, he won his first Tony Award for his performance as Henry VIII in the play Anne of the Thousand Days in 1949. He won his second Tony for the role of Professor Henry Higgins in the stage production of My Fair Lady in 1957, he reprised the role for the 1964 film version, which earned him both a Golden Globe Award and Academy Award for Best Actor. In addition to his stage career, Harrison appeared in numerous films, including Anna and the King of Siam, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir and played the title role of the English doctor who talks to animals, Doctor Dolittle. In July 1989, Harrison was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. In 1975, Harrison released his first autobiography, his second, A Damned Serious Business: My Life in Comedy, was published posthumously in 1991. Harrison had two sons: Noel and Carey Harrison, he continued working in stage productions until shortly before his death from pancreatic cancer in June 1990 at the age of 82.
Harrison was born at Derry House in Huyton, the son of Edith Mary and William Reginald Harrison, a cotton broker. He was educated at Liverpool College. After a bout of childhood measles, Harrison lost most of the sight in his left eye, which on one occasion caused some on-stage difficulty, he first appeared on the stage in 1924 in Liverpool. Harrison's acting career was interrupted during World War II while serving in the Royal Air Force, reaching the rank of Flight Lieutenant, he acted in various stage productions until 11 May 1990. He acted in the West End of London when he was young, appearing in the Terence Rattigan play French Without Tears, which proved to be his breakthrough role, he alternated appearances in London and New York in such plays as Bell and Candle, Venus Observed, The Cocktail Party, The Kingfisher and The Love of Four Colonels, which he directed. He won his first Tony Award for his appearance at the Shubert Theatre as Henry VIII in Maxwell Anderson's play Anne of the Thousand Days and international superstardom for his portrayal of Henry Higgins in the musical My Fair Lady, where he appeared opposite Julie Andrews.
Appearances included Pirandello's Henry IV, a 1984 appearance at the Haymarket Theatre with Claudette Colbert in Frederick Lonsdale's Aren't We All?, one on Broadway at the Brooks Atkinson Theatre presented by Douglas Urbanski, at the Haymarket in J. M. Barrie's The Admirable Crichton with Edward Fox, he returned as Henry Higgins in the revival of My Fair Lady directed by Patrick Garland in 1981, cementing his association with the plays of George Bernard Shaw, which included a Tony nominated performance as Shotover in Heartbreak House, Julius Caesar in Caesar and Cleopatra, General Burgoyne in a Los Angeles production of The Devil's Disciple. Harrison's film debut was in The Great Game, other notable early films include The Citadel, Night Train to Munich, Major Barbara, Blithe Spirit and the King of Siam, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, The Foxes of Harrow, he was best known for his portrayal of Professor Henry Higgins in the 1964 film version of My Fair Lady, based on the eponymous Broadway production, for which Harrison won a Best Actor Oscar.
He starred in 1967's Doctor Dolittle. At the height of his box office clout after the success of My Fair Lady, Harrison proved a domineering force during production, demanding auditions for prospective composers after musical playwright Leslie Bricusse was contracted and demanding to have his singing recorded live during shooting, only to agree to have it re-recorded in post-production, he disrupted production with incidents with his wife, Rachel Roberts and deliberate misbehaviour, such as when he deliberately moved his yacht in front of cameras during shooting in St. Lucia and refused to move it out of sight due to contract disputes. Harrison was at one point temporarily replaced by Christopher Plummer, until he agreed to be more cooperative, he starred in the 1968 comedy a modern adaptation of Ben Jonson's play Volpone. Two of his co-stars, Maggie Smith and Cliff Robertson, were to become lifelong friends. Both spoke at his New York City memorial at the Little Church Around the Corner when Harrison died in 1990.
Harrison was not by any objective standards a singer. "Talk to the Animals", which Harrison performed in Doctor Dolittle, won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1967. Despite excelling in comedy, he attracted favourable notices in dramatic roles such as his portrayal of Julius Caesar in Cleopatra and as Pope Julius II in The Agony and the Ecstasy, opposite Charlton Heston as Michelangelo, he acted in a Hindi film Shalimar alongside Indian Bollywood star Dharmendra as well as appearing opposite Richard Burton as two ageing homosexuals in Staircase. Harrison was married six times. In 1942, he divorced his first wife, Colette Thomas, married actress Lilli Palmer the next year. In 1947, while married to Palmer, Harrison began an affair with actress Carole Landis. Landis committed suicide in 1948 after spending the evening with Harrison. Harrison's involvement in the scan
Friedrich Robert Donat was an English film and stage actor. He is best remembered for his roles in Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps and Goodbye, Mr. Chips, winning for the latter the Academy Award for Best Actor. In his book, The Age of the Dream Palace, Jeffrey Richards wrote that Donat was "The British cinema's one undisputed romantic leading man in the 1930s". "The image he projected was that of the romantic idealist with a dash of the gentleman adventurer."Donat suffered from chronic asthma, which affected his career and limited him to appearing in only 20 films. Donat was born in Withington, the fourth and youngest son of Ernst Emil Donat, a civil engineer of German origin from Prussian Poland, his wife, Rose Alice Green, he was of English, Polish and French descent and was educated at Manchester's Central High School for Boys. He took elocution lessons with James Bernard, he left school at 15. Donat took part in dramatic recitals at various venues across the North West of England. Donat made his first stage appearance in 1921 at age 16 with Henry Baynton's company at the Prince of Wales Theatre, playing Lucius in Julius Caesar.
His break came in 1924 when he joined the company of Shakespearean actor Sir Frank Benson, where he stayed for four years. He worked in provincial repertory theatre. In 1928 he began a year at the Liverpool Playhouse, starring in plays by Galsworthy and Brighouse, among others. In 1929 he played at the Festival Theatre in Cambridge under the direction of Tyrone Guthrie, he appeared in a number of plays, some with Flora Robson, directed. Donat married Ella Annesley Voysey in 1929. In 1930 Donat moved to London, where he made his debut in Knave and Quean at the Ambassadors Theatre, he received acclaim for a performance in a revival of St Joan. In 1931 he achieved notice as Gideon Sarn in an adaptation of Precious Bane, he played roles at the 1931 Malvern Festival. Around 1930 and 1931, he was known as "screen test Donat" in the industry because of his many unsuccessful auditions for film producers. MGM's producer Irving Thalberg spotted him on the London stage in Precious Bane, Donat was offered a part in the American studio's Smilin' Through.
He rejected this offer. Donat made his film debut in a quota quickie Men of Tomorrow for Alexander Korda's London Films. An abysmal screen test for Korda had ended with Donat's laughter. Reputedly, Korda in response exclaimed: "That's the most natural laugh I have heard in my life. What acting! Put him under contract immediately."Korda cast Donat in the lead in That Night in London, directed by Rowland V. Lee, he had a key role in Cash, co starring Edmund Gwenn. Donat's first great screen success came in his fourth film; this was as Thomas Culpeper in The Private Life of Henry VIII for the same producer. The film, starring Charles Laughton in the title role, was an enormous success around the world, including Hollywood. Donat started receiving Hollywood offers. At the 1933 Malvern Festival Donat received good reviews for his performance in A Sleeping Clergyman, which transferred to the West End, he was in St Joan. Korda loaned Donat to Edward Small for the only film Donat made in Hollywood, The Count of Monte Cristo.
The film was successful and Donat was offered the lead role in a number of films for Warners, including Anthony Adverse and another swashbuckler, Captain Blood. However Donat returned to Britain, he played on stage in Mary Read opposite Flora Robson. In England, Donat had the star role in Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps opposite Madeleine Carroll, his performance was well-received: "Mr. Donat, who has never been well served in the cinema until now blossoms out into a romantic comedian of no mean order", wrote the film critic C. A. Lejeune in The Observer at the time of the film's release. Lejeune observed that he possessed "an easy confident humour that has always been regarded as the perquisite of the American male star. For the first time on our screen we have the British equivalent of a Clark Gable or a Ronald Colman, playing in a purely national idiom. Mr. Donat, himself, I fancy, is hardly conscious of it, all to the good."Hitchcock wanted Donat for the role of the agent in Secret Agent and Detective in Sabotage, but this time Korda refused to release him.
John Loder played the role. MGM wanted him for Romeo and Juliet but he turned them down. Sam Goldwyn made several offers which were turned down, as was an offer from David O. Selznick to appear in The Garden of Allah and Small to make The Son of Monte Cristo. Donat's next film was for Korda, The Ghost Goes a comedy directed by René Clair. In 1936 Donat took on the management of the Queen's Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue, where he produced Red Night by J. L. Hodson. Korda wanted Donat to make Hamlet. Instead the actor appeared in Korda's Knight Without Armour. Korda became committed to the latter project because of Donat's indecision. Madeleine Carroll had read the James Hilton novel while shooting The 39 Steps, had persuaded Donat that it could be a good second film for them to star in together. Donat passed them on to Korda, although by now Carroll was unavailable, his eventual co-star, Marlene Dietrich, was the source of much attention when she arrived in Britain, in which Donat was involved, this was enough for him to suffer a nervous collapse a few days into the shooting schedule.
Donat entered a nursing home