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Lewis Morris (governor)

Lewis Morris, chief justice of New York and British governor of New Jersey, was the first lord of the manor of Morrisania in New York. Born on the estate of his parents, Richard Morris and Sarah Morris in 1671, this Lewis Morris was the first in a lengthy string of men with the same name to inherit the prominent estate of Morrisania in the southwest section of today's Bronx. Richard and Sarah moved their estate from Barbados to the Bronx after buying the estate from Samuel Edsall in 1670 when it was still known as Broncksland; as the name suggests, Broncksland was the original settlement of Jonas Bronck and his wife, for whom the borough is named. In the fall of 1672, leaving only the infant Lewis a year old, as the lord of the manor. Although the manor was left in the trust of five prominent Westchester citizens until Lewis could rightfully inherit the estate, Matthias Nicoll, secretary of the colony, sent word to Colonel Lewis Morris, the infant's uncle in Barbados. Col. Lewis made plans to move to Morrisania to care for his young nephew and his nephew's estate, somewhat embezzled.

Col. Lewis made great pains to secure his nephew's lost property, including a few slaves, captured and resold, he was successful in petitioning for an additional land grant with the help of family friend, Walter Webley. When the childless Col. Lewis and his wife, died, the now fully-grown Lewis inherited the estate in 1691. Lewis Morris showed a passion for politics from an early age, first appears on the political scene in 1692, serving in the East New Jersey Provincial Council during the administration of Governor Andrew Hamilton. After the late 1690s the government of East and West Jersey became dysfunctional; this resulted in the surrender by the Proprietors of East Jersey and those of West Jersey of the right of government to Queen Anne. Anne's government united the two colonies as the Province of New Jersey, a royal colony, establishing a new system of government. On July 29, 1703, in the instructions to Governor Viscount Cornbury Morris was appointed to the New Jersey Provincial Council, would serve, with several suspensions, through the administrations of seven governors.

During much of this time Morris was President of Council. Morris and Cornbury soon found themselves at opposition, Cornbury responded by suspending Morris from the upper house; the first time, in September 1704, Morris apologized to the governor and was reinstated, but in December 1704 Cornbury suspended him. Morris was elected to a seat in the New Jersey General Assembly in 1707, representing an at-large constituency within the Eastern Division of New Jersey. After the recall of Cornbury by the Crown, Lewis Morris was reinstated to the Council in the June 27, 1708 instructions to Baron Lovelace. Morris was again reinstated to the Council in the instructions to Governor Robert Hunter, with whom he had a good relationship. Sir William Cosby, who served as governor of New York and New Jersey, showed little interest in New Jersey politics, started a feud with Morris because of a decision of the New York Supreme Court. Morris was Chief Justice, wrote a dissenting minority opinion which Cosby found offensive.

Cosby recommended Morris' removal from the New Jersey Council on February 5, 1735. In 1738, New Jersey petitioned the crown for a distinct administration from New York, Lewis Morris served as Governor of New Jersey until his death in 1746. On March 16, 1715, Morris was appointed Chief Justice of New York; when William Cosby was appointed Governor of New York and New Jersey in 1732, his opponents were called "Morrisites" as Lewis Morris was a prominent critic. In 1733 Morris presided over the case of Van Dam. Although the case was decided in favor of Gov. Cosby, Morris wrote the minority opinion, which infuriated Cosby. Cosby demanded the written opinion from Morris. Morris complied with the Governor, but had the opinion printed for public distribution, along with an explanatory letter stating, If judges are to be intimidated so as not to dare to give any opinion, but what is pleasing to the Governor, agreeable to his private views, the people of this province who are much concerned both with respect to their lives and fortunes in the freedom and independency of those who are to judge them, may not think themselves so secure in either of them as the laws of his Majesty intended they should be.

This further angered Cosby, who removed Morris from the court. His dismissal led directly to the John Peter Zenger trial affirming freedom of speech in the United States. On November 3, 1691, Morris was married to Isabella Graham, the eldest daughter of James Graham, who served as Speaker of the New York General Assembly and Recorder of New York City. Together, they were the parents of: Mary Morris, who married Capt. Vincent Pearse, commander of HMS Phoenix. Sarah Morris, who married Michael Kearney, the treasurer of the Province of East New Jersey. Lewis Morris Jr. who married Katrintje "Catherine" Staats. After her death, he married Sarah Gouverneur. Robert Hunter Morris, who served as New Jersey Chief Justice. Anne Morris, who married Edward Antrill, they were the parents of Lt. Col. Edward Antill. Arabella Morris, who married her first cousin, James Graham III. Isabella Morris, who married Richard Ashfield. Euphemia Morris, who married Capt. Matth

Siege of Oudenaarde

The Siege of Oudenaarde took place in 1452. It was one of the major engagements in the Revolt of Ghent; the city was besieged by forces of the rebellious city of Ghent and defended by forces led by Simon de Lalaing, one of the leading captains of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. The siege included one of the largest artillery bombardments seen in Europe; the relief of the town by forces under Philip and his allies opened the way for an attack on Ghent by the Burgundian forces. In 1453 the rebels were defeated at the Battle of Gavere; the revolt of Ghent began as resistance of the civic representatives to the growing power of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy over their city, with popular support over attempts by the Duke, Philip the Good to impose indirect taxes, including a salt tax on the city, similar to the French Gabelle, from 1447. The civic authorities were overthrown by a popular movement. Most the major neighbouring towns, afraid of popular revolt in their own locations, sided with the Duke and he declared war on Ghent on 31 May 1452.

The Duke attempted to blockade the city by garrisoning surrounding towns, including Oudenaarde, which lies further up on the River Scheldt, which he put under the command of one of his leading captains Simon de Lalaing. Ghent attempted to take these surrounding towns to break the blockade and to form a line of defence against the forces of the Duke and his allies. Under the command of three unnamed captains, the Ghenters laid siege to Oudenaarde on 14 April 1453 occupying Espierres, attacking Aalst and unsuccessfully attempting to take Grammont, they threw two bridges over the Scheldt on either side of the city so that they could attack from both banks. De Lalaing prepared to resist the attackers by burning the suburbs of the city; the Ghenters transported a large amount of artillery by the river, described by one chronicler as including bombards, cannons and serpentines. Among these was the huge bombard known as Dulle Griet, which weighed more than 16 tons; the defenders had a large number of artillery pieces and the resulting artillery duel over the course of the siege was one of the largest seen in Europe until that point.

The defenders organised firewatch parties to counter incendiary projectiles launched into the city at night and tanks of water in the street to put out fires. The attackers used psychological warfare, shooting messages into the city that indicated that De Lalaing was planning to betray the city to them, they parading two boys, which they claimed were De Lalaing's two sons, captured in a raid into Hainault and promising to kill them if he did not surrender, to which De Lalaing replied with a cannonade. De Lalaing was killed when he fell into the river as he was returning from inspecting the watch, but this was unknown to the besiegers. While the siege was underway the Duke mustered his main force at Grammont and his cousin and ally John II, Count of Nevers, his forces at Seclin; the count with 3,000 men took the bridge at Espierres and nearby Helchin and advanced to relieve the city on 24 April. The Ghenters on the west bank of the city fled, abandoning most of their artillery, including Dulle Griet, their baggage.

The rebel forces on the east bank also fled and were pursued by the Duke's forces to the gates of Ghent. According to the Duke, large numbers were killed; the chronicler Enguerrand de Monstrelet stated that the common opinion was that more than 3,000 Ghenters were killed in the pursuit, while the Count lost only one man, a Man-at-Arms. The three captains escaped to Ghent, but were executed and five new leaders elected in their place. From 1 to 15 May Ghent was bombarded by the Burgundians, who pulled back to Aalst and Oudenaarde; the final attack on the rebels was delayed by an embassy from Charles VII of France, peace negotiations and financial difficulties in paying the ducal army. The next year the rebels were decisively at the Battle of Gavere on 23 July 1453 and signed a treaty, the Peace of Gavere, which restored the traditional government of the city and enhanced ducal authority

Peter Huybers

Peter Huybers is an American climate scientist, Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University, in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Peter Huybers received a B. S. in physics in 1996 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, a Ph. D. in climate chemistry and physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2004. He was a NOAA Postdoctoral Fellow in Climate and Global Change in the Geology and Geophysics Department at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution from 2004-2006. Huybers has multiple research interests related to climate science. First, Huybers is investigating the long-term climate cycles, he has advanced the hypothesis that a 41,000 year period of change connected to the Earth's tilt on its axis is dominant during the past 800,000 years, that every second or third of these cycles produce a major deglaciation event. This deglaciation appears to trigger changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide in part coming from radically increased volcanic activity during deglaciation.

Second, he is studying annual temperature variations. Huybers is developing models to estimate historic temperatures based on the limited evidence available to us. Huybers has published in Science, Geophysical Research Letters, Quaternary Science Reviews, Climate of the Past and the Journal of Physical Oceanography. After completing West Point, his military career included leading a tank platoon as part of peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and testing technologies to reduce friendly fire at the Mounted Warfare Testbed at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Huybers is married to Downing Lu, a military physician assigned to the pediatric intensive care unit at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, he is the recipient of multiple awards, including a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 2009, a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering in 2009, the AGU James B. Macelwane Medal in 2009, a Harvard University Center for the Environment Fellowship in 2005, the MIT Carl-Gustaf Rossby Prize in 2004, a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship in 2001.

Peter Huybers: ‘Ice ages are the outstanding mystery in Earth sciences’

Francesco Grillo

Francesco Grillo is an Italian economist and manager. After graduating in economics from LUISS Guido Carli, he obtained an MBA from Boston University. In 1993 he became an associate at McKinsey, where he applied tools used in multinational companies within other contexts, such as the evaluation of public policies. Having left McKinsey, Grillo founded consultancy firm think tank Vision. Both companies focus research efforts on the effects of the Internet industrial revolution on businesses and governments. In 2012, Grillo obtained a PhD in "Political Economy" at London School of Economics and Political Science with a thesis on factors that enable growth across different regions in the new millenium. Grillo’s thesis contests the conventional hypothesis that greater R&D expenditure generates a more rapid growth of GDP. While at Oxford Internet Institute and St Antony’s College at University of Oxford and at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna in Pisa, Grillo continued this line of research along with one ranging from pensions to regional development, lines of research he has popularized as a columnist for The Guardian, Il Messagero, Corriere della Sera, Linkiesta.

In Italy, he is a regular guest on news shows for RaiNews24, La7, SkyTG24. Grillo’s research focuses on the so-called “innovation paradox", first observed by Robert Solow in 1987. Observing data available at the time, Solow observed how the rates of growth of GDP had decreased despite the exponential increase of the quantity of information accessible at any given moment. Grillo identifies the cause of the paradox in what he terms the “technological obsolescence” of liberal democracies. To illustrate the reasons of the crisis, the economist traces a historical parallel between Internet and the invention of the press by Johannes Gutenberg: both media disintermediated the monopolistic reproduction of information. Since a redistribution of power tends to follow a reallocation of information, 21st Century liberal democracies are in crisis: they no longer possess the tools to govern Internet-triggered societal changes. In comparing Western countries to China, Grillo notes that the Communist country has been more able to govern a technological revolution begun in the West.

Meanwhile, Western countries have become more risk-adverse, thus widening the gap in terms of societal impact of technologies with China. While similar in some regards to Mariana Mazzucato’s work on the Entrepreneurial State, Grillo reflects more on the impact of the Internet on the form of the State itself. Through this comparison with China, Grillo proposes ways to give back to Western democracies the chance to use information to increase the efficiency and efficacy of government. Democracy and Growth in the Twenty-first Century, Springer Nature, London, 2019 Lezioni Cinesi, Solferino Libri, Milan, 2019 Innovation and Efficiency: Exploring the Innovation Puzzle within the European Union’s Regional Development Policies, London, 2016 Public Investments in R&D as a Tool for Regional Economic Development Merits and Paradoxes of Regional Innovation Policies, Local Economy Volume 26, Paragraphs 6-7, pp. 544–561 Abramovitz, M. Catching Up, Forging Ahead, Falling Behind, in The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 46, No.

2, The Tasks of Economic History, pp. 385-406 Ahmad, N. Ribarsky, J. and Reinsdorf, M. Can Potential Mismeasurement of the Digital Economy Explain the Post-Crisis Slowdown in GDP and Productivity Growth?, in OECD Statistics Working Papers, No. 09, OECD Publishing, Paris Eggertsson, G. B. Mehrotra, N. R. and Summers, L. H. Secular Stagnation in the Open Economy, in American Economic Review, 106, pp. 503-507 Gordon, R. J; the Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U. S. Standard of Living since the Civil War, Princeton University Press Landes D. S; the Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present, Cambridge University Press Mazzucato, M. The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths, Anthem Press, London Solow, R. Reflections on Growth Theory in Handbook of Economic Growth, in Aghion, P. and Durlauf, S. Elsevier, Amsterdam Yong-Hwan N. and Kyeongwon Y. Internet and Growth, in Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 30, Issue 6, 2008, pp. 1005-1016

Yitzhak Gruenbaum

Yitzhak Gruenbaum was a noted leader of the Zionist movement among Polish Jewry in the interwar period and of the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine. Gruenbaum was the first Interior Minister of the State of Israel. Yitzhak Gruenbaum was born in Poland. While a student of jurisprudence, he began activities on behalf of the Zionist movement and engaged in journalism, he served as editor of several periodicals circulated among Polish Jewry, including the Hebrew Ha-Zefirah and the Hebrew weekly Ha-Olam. Under his editorship, the Yiddish daily, took on a pro-Zionist slant. In Poland, Gruenbaum headed the Radical Zionist faction known in Poland as Al Hamishmar. In 1919 he was elected to the Sejm, together with Apolinary Hartglas, he organized a "Jewish bloc" that united most of the Jewish parties, he was the moving force in forming a collaboration with other minority parties represented in the Sejm, including Germans and others, to form a Bloc of National Minorities alliance in 1922, that acted to represent the rights of minority populations in Poland.

His efforts brought about an increase of Jewish representation in the Sejm, accompanied by a rise of the political Zionism. Gruenbaum was known for his courageous and militant stance against his opponents and on behalf of minorities' interests, while critical of the ultra-orthodox party Agudat Israel and Jewish lobbying. After moving to Paris in 1932, Gruenbaum immigrated to Mandatory Palestine in 1933 after being elected to the Jewish Agency Executive, during the Eighteenth Congress of the Zionist Organization. During the Holocaust, he served on the "Committee of Four" chosen at the outbreak of World War II to maintain contact with Polish Jewry and aid in their rescue. In 1942, when word reached the Yishuv of the mass extermination by the German occupying forces taking place in Eastern Europe, Gruenbaum was chosen to head a 12-member Rescue Committee comprising representatives of the various parties. Due to circumstances prevailing at the time, their rescue efforts failed to accomplish much.

At the war's end, he endured a personal crisis involving Eliezer Gruenbaum. The latter, a Holocaust survivor, was accused in Paris by two other Holocaust survivors of having served as a Kapo and acting with cruelty towards Jewish prisoners. During his son's detention and trial, Gruenbaum remained at his side; when the case closed, Eliezer immigrated to Palestine but continued to be attacked by right-wing and religious groups eager to discredit his father. Not long afterwards, Eliezer was killed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. In 1946, Gruenbaum was among the Jewish Agency directors arrested by the British and interned in a detention camp at Latrun, he spent his years on Kibbutz Gan Shmuel, died in 1970. Gruenbaum was among a group of 13 leaders forming the provisional government of the emerging State, and, as a member of Provisional State Council, signed its declaration of independence. Between 1948 and 1949 he served as a member of the Provisional State Council and was the first Minister of the Interior in that formative period.

His initial stance was with the General Zionists. He became an adherent of the Mapam socialist-Zionist party, was known as a declared secularist. Gruenbaum headed an independent list in the elections for the first Knesset, but failed to obtain the minimum number of votes to secure a seat, he was a candidate for President in the 1952 presidential election alongside Yitzhak Ben-Zvi of Mapai, Peretz Bernstein of the General Zionists and Mordechai Nurock of Mizrachi. However, he was beaten by Ben-Zvi, he served as editor of the Hebrew Ha-Zefirah, the Hebrew weekly Ha-Olam and the Yiddish daily, Haynt. Gruenbaum was the editor of the Encyclopedia of Diaspora Communities, The Zionist Movement and its Development and many other books. Alonei Yitzhak, an Israeli youth village near Binyamina in northern Israel, is named for him. One cow in Palestine is worth more than all the Jews in Europe. I think it is necessary to state here – Zionism is above everything. I will not demand that the Jewish Agency allocate a sum of 300,000 or 100,000 pounds sterling to help European Jewry.

And I think that. Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 7, pp. 943–944. The Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem site. Office of Yitzhak Gruenbaum, personal papers Yitzhak Gruenbaum on the Knesset website

Capo Mannu

Capo Mannu is a promontory in Sardinia, Italy. The cape is situated in the territory of the Comune of San Vero Milis, in the Province of Oristano 22 km north of Oristano, it is the northern tip of the Sinis peninsula, it is part of the Marine Protected Area Sinis Peninsula and the island of Mal di Ventre. Capo Mannu is renowned attraction for surfers and kiters, both nationally and internationally; the mistral, the dominant wind of the area, gives rise to waves up to 4–5 metres high. Every year, several surfing and kiteboarding competitions take place in the area, the most well known being the Capo del Capo windsurfing and kitesurfing competition