St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States, it extends for some 3,700 miles from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is administered by the National Park Service, but sites along the trail are managed by federal land management agencies, local and private organizations; the trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington; the official headquarters for the trail is located at the National Park Service Midwest Regional Headquarters, in Omaha, Nebraska. The visitor center features exhibits about the explorers and their historic trip, as well as information about sites along the trail.
In 1948 the National Park Service proposed a "Lewis and Clark Tour-way" along the Missouri River from St. Louis to Three Forks, Montana. Jay "Ding" Darling proposed the development of the expedition route as a recreational trail. Following a 1966 report by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, the National Trails System Act of 1968 listed the route for study as a possible National Scenic Trail. In 1978 the law was amended by the National Parks and Recreation Act to provide for a new category of trail, National Historic Trails, one of, to be the Lewis and Clark trail. From 2003 to 2006, the National Park Service commemorated the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Corps of Discovery II traveling exhibit. Bassman, John H.. A navigation companion for the Lewis & Clark Trail. Volume 1, camp locations and daily summaries of expedition activities. United States: John H. Bassman. National Park Service. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan for Management and Use. United States: United States Department of the Interior.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Lewis and Clark Trust lewisandclarktrail.org
Astoria is a port city and the seat of Clatsop County, United States. Founded in 1811, it is the oldest American settlement west of the Rocky Mountains and the oldest city in the state of Oregon. Astoria is located on the south shore of the Columbia River, where the river meets the Pacific Ocean; the city is named for John Jacob Astor, an investor from New York City whose American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site. Astoria was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 20, 1876; the city is served by the deepwater Port of Astoria. Transportation includes the Astoria Regional Airport with U. S. Route 30 and U. S. Route 101 as the main highways, the 4.1-mile Astoria–Megler Bridge connecting to neighboring Washington across the river. The population was 9,477 at the 2010 census; the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent the winter of 1805–1806 at Fort Clatsop, a small log structure south and west of modern-day Astoria. The expedition had hoped a ship would come by to take them back east, but instead they endured a torturous winter of rain and cold returning the way they came.
Today the fort is now a historical park. In 1811, British explorer David Thompson, the first person known to have navigated the entire length of the Columbia River, reached the constructed Fort Astoria near the mouth of the river, he arrived just two months after the Tonquin. The fort constructed by the Tonquin party established Astoria as a U. S. rather than a British, became a vital post for American exploration of the continent and was used as an American claim in the Oregon boundary dispute with European nations. The Pacific Fur Company, a subsidiary of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, was created to begin fur trading in the Oregon Country. During the War of 1812, in 1813, the company's officers sold its assets to their Canadian rivals, the North West Company; the fur trade would remain under British control until U. S. pioneers following the Oregon Trail began filtering into the town in the mid-1840s. The Treaty of 1818 established joint U. S. – British occupancy of the Oregon Country.
In 1846, the Oregon Treaty divided the mainland at the 49th parallel north, the southern portion of Vancouver Island south of this line was awarded to the British. Washington Irving, a prominent American writer with a European reputation, was approached by John Jacob Astor to mythologize the three-year reign of his Pacific Fur Company. Astoria, written while Irving was Astor's guest, cemented the importance of the region in the American psyche. In Irving's words, the fur traders were "Sinbads of the wilderness", their venture was a staging point for the spread of American economic power into both the continental interior and into the Pacific; as the Oregon Territory grew and became more colonized by Americans, Astoria grew as a port city near the mouth of the great river that provided the easiest access to the interior. The first U. S. post office west of the Rocky Mountains was established in Astoria in 1847 and official state incorporation in 1876. Astoria attracted a host of immigrants beginning in the late 19th century: Nordic settlers Finns, Chinese soon became larger parts of the population.
The Finns lived in Uniontown, near the present-day end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge, took fishing jobs. By the late 1800s, 22% of Astoria's population was Chinese. In 1883, again in 1922, downtown Astoria was devastated by fire because it was wood and raised off the marshy ground on pilings. After the first fire, the same format was used, the second time around the flames spread again, as collapsing streets took out the water system. Frantic citizens resorted to dynamite, blowing up entire buildings to stop the fire from going further. Astoria has served as a port of entry for over a century and remains the trading center for the lower Columbia basin, although it has long since been eclipsed by Portland and Seattle, Washington, as an economic hub on the coast of the Pacific Northwest. Astoria's economy centered on fishing, fish processing, lumber. In 1945, about 30 canneries could be found along the Columbia; the lumber industry declined. From 1921 to 1966, a ferry route across the Columbia River connected Astoria with Pacific County, Washington.
In 1966, the Astoria–Megler Bridge was opened. The bridge completed U. S. Route 101 and linked Astoria with Washington on the opposite shore of the Columbia, replacing the ferry service. Today, Astoria's growing art scene, light manufacturing are the main economic activities of the city. Logging and fishing at a fraction of their former levels, it is a port of call for cruise ships since 1982, after $10 million in pier improvements to accommodate these larger ships. To avoid Mexican ports of call during the Swine Flu outbreak of 2009, many cruises were re-routed to include Astoria; the floating residential community MS The World visited Astoria in June 2009. The town's seasonal sport fishing tourism has been active for several decades and has now been supplanted with visitors coming for the historic elements of the city; the more recent microbrewery/brewpub scene and a weekly street market have helped popularized the area as a destination. In addition to the replicated Fort Clatsop
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Washington State Route 14
State Route 14 is a 180.66-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Washington. The highway travels east-west on the north side of the Columbia River, opposite Interstate 84 to the south in Oregon. SR 14 forms a section of the Lewis and Clark Trail Scenic Byway and begins at an interchange with I-5 in Vancouver; the highway travels east as a four-lane freeway through Camas and Washougal and intersects I-205. SR 14 continues east as a two-lane highway through Clark, Skamania and Benton counties before it ends at an interchange with I-82 and U. S. Route 395 near Plymouth. SR 14 was established in 1968 as the successor to US 830, created in 1926 with the original United States Numbered Highways, Primary State Highway 8. PSH 8 was added to the state highway system in 1905 as a short road along the Columbia River between Washougal and Lyle and was extended westwards to Vancouver and eastwards to Maryhill by 1913. PSH 8, designated as the Evergreen Highway, was extended east to the Tri-Cities in 1949 and this section was retained during the 1964 state highway renumbering and the decommissioning of US 830.
SR 14 begins as a continuation of the Lewis and Clark Trail Scenic Byway in downtown Vancouver at a partial cloverleaf interchange with I-5, Washington Street, C Street, located on the first exit on I-5 north of the Interstate Bridge, which provides access to Portland, Oregon. The four-lane freeway travels eastward, between the Columbia River and the Seattle Subdivision of the BNSF Northern Transcon route to the south and Pearson Field to the north, intersects Southeast Columbia Way in a single-point urban interchange, providing access to the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District. SR 14 continues southeast through suburban Vancouver, intersecting Riverside Drive in a partial cloverleaf interchange, Lieser Road in a diamond interchange, Ellsworth Avenue in a partial diamond interchange, before reaching a partial cloverleaf interchange with I-205 north of the Glenn L. Jackson Memorial Bridge, providing access to eastern suburbs of Portland. SR 14 travels east through an interchange with Southeast 164th Avenue before leaving Vancouver, heading towards Camas.
The freeway intersects Southeast 192nd Avenue in unincorporated Clark County before entering the city of Camas at an interchange with its business route on 6th Avenue. SR 14 enters downtown Camas after crossing the Camas Slough; the highway serves as a four-lane freeway bypass of Camas and travels through two partial double roundabout interchanges with SR 500, which travels northwestward to Orchards, 2nd Street in Washougal. SR 14 continues east past the Steigerwald Lake, Franz Lake, Pierce national wildlife refuges, all located within Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area in Clark and Skamania counties; the highway passes the Bonneville Dam in North Bonneville and the Bridge of the Gods before reaching Stevenson, the county seat of Skamania County. SR 14 leaves Stevenson traveling eastwards through the community of Carson River Valley and a series of tunnels along the Columbia River before crossing over the White Salmon River into Klickitat County near Underwood; the highway intersects SR 141 Alternate and the Hood River Bridge, unsigned SR 35, before reaching the cities of White Salmon and Bingen, where it passes the local Amtrak station and travels through a junction with SR 141.
SR 14 continues east and crosses the Klickitat River into Lyle and forms the southern terminus of SR 142, which travels northeast towards Goldendale. The highway travels east to a junction with US 197 near Dallesport and to Wishram, passing its Amtrak station. SR 14 leaves the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area west of Maryhill, where the highway intersects its spur route and US 97, forming a short concurrency with the latter. SR 14 continues northeast along the Columbia Hills and the Columbia River into Benton County, reaching a junction with SR 221 in Paterson; the highway ends at a diamond interchange with I-82 and US 395 northeast of Plymouth, located north of the Umatilla Bridge. Every year, the Washington State Department of Transportation conducts a series of surveys on its highways in the state to measure traffic volume; this is expressed in terms of average annual daily traffic, a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year. In 2012, WSDOT calculated that the busiest section of SR 14 was east of its interchange with I-205 in Vancouver, serving 72,000 vehicles, while the least busiest section of the highway was in Maryhill, serving 500 vehicles.
SR 14 between Vancouver and Maryhill is designated as part of the National Highway System for its whole length, classifying it as important to the national economy and mobility. WSDOT designates the same corridor as a Highway of Statewide Significance, which includes highways that connect major communities in the state of Washington; the first highway that traveled through the Columbia River Gorge was surveyed in 1905 at a cost of $15,000 by the state of Washington as a wagon road connecting Washougal in Clark County to Lyle in Klickitat County, designated as secondary State Road 8. State Road 8 was extended east from Lyle to Maryhill and northeast to the county seat of Goldendale in 1907; the secondary highway, named the North Bank Highway, was re-aligned in 1913 to follow closer to the Columbia River and was extended west to Vancouver and east to Mabton via Satus Pass. State Road 8 was co-signed with US 830 after the United States Numbered Highways were approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials on November 11, 1926 creating a short concurrency with US 97.
The North Bank Highway was constructed with macadam pavement and was dedicated from Ly
East Fairview, North Dakota
East Fairview is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in McKenzie County, North Dakota, United States. Its population was 76 as of the 2010 census; the community is located on the North Dakota-Montana border, which separates it from Fairview, Montana