Lantfrid was duke of Alamannia under Frankish sovereignty from 709 until his death. He was the son of duke Gotfrid. Lantfrid's brother was Theudebald. Following Gotfrid's death in 709 and the accession of Lantfrid and his brother Theudebald, the Frankish maior domus Pepin of Herstal invaded Alamannia and fought against yet another duke, whose territory was restricted to the Ortenau in western Alamannia; this campaign can be seen as an attempt by Pepin to impose royal authority on the duchy following the death of Gotfrid and to assert his right to influence or control the succession within the duchy. Pepin’s campaign against Willehari might therefore have taken place to assist Lantfrid and Theudebald in their claim to the duchy. However, both Lantfrid and Theudebald were hostile to Pepin’s successor. After Pipin’s death in 714, Lantfrid dissolved all links with the royal court and its new maior domus Charles Martell. Alamannic resistance against Frankish supremacy was tenacious. In 722 Charles Martel forcefully subdued the duchies of Alamannia and Bavaria but in the following year both duchies again rose against Carolingian supremacy.
In 724 Pirmin founded the Reichenau Abbey under the protection of Charles Martel and Theudebald considered this a provocation and in 727 Theudebald ob odium Karoli evicted first Pirmin and, in 732, his successor Heddo from Reichenau. The Abbey of St. Gall, founded 719 by the Alamannic monk Otmar, was favoured by the dukes of Alamannia and the regional aristocracy. Between 724 and 730 Lantfrid usurped the right to issue a law-code whereas up until law-giving had been one of the major activities of the Merovingian kings, he instigated a revision of the Laws of the Alamans, a sign and an expression of his claim to be an independent ruler. Though in the law-code the king is mentioned as dominus, there is no reference to the role of the maior domus, an indication of Lantfrid’s loyalty towards the Merovingian dynasty. In 730 Charles Martell invaded the duchy with an army once again. Lantfrid's death is recorded for the same year. Whether this occurred as a result of the fighting is not clear, his brother Theudebald succeeded to the duchy as sole ruler.
E. Ewig. Die Merowinger und das Frankenreich. 4th ed. Kohlhammer: Köln. ISBN 3-17-017044-9. D. Geuenich. Geschichte der Alemannen. Kohlhammer: Köln. ISBN 3-17-012095-6. R. Kaiser. Das römische Erbe und das Merowingerreich. Oldenbourg: München. ISBN 3-486-53691-5. R. Schieffer. Die Karolinger. 3rd ed. Kohlhammer: Köln. ISBN 3-17-016480-5. J. M. Wallace-Hadrill; the Long-Haired Kings. Orig. publ. 1962, University of Toronto Press: Toronto. ISBN 0-8020-6500-7. I. Wood; the Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. Longman: Harlow. ISBN 0-582-49372-2
The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, expanded into present-day Alsace, northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German language in those regions, by the eighth century named Alamannia. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were Christianized during the seventh century; the Lex Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the eighth century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was nominal. After an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility and installed Frankish dukes. During the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire, the Alemannic counts became independent, a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance.
The chief family in Alamannia was that of the counts of Raetia Curiensis, who were sometimes called margraves, one of whom, Burchard II, established the Duchy of Swabia, recognized by Henry the Fowler in 919 and became a stem duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. The area settled by the Alemanni corresponds to the area where Alemannic German dialects remain spoken, including German Swabia and Baden, French Alsace, German-speaking Switzerland and Austrian Vorarlberg; the French language name of Germany, Allemagne, is derived from their name, from Old French aleman, from French loaned into a number of other languages. The Spanish name for Germany is Alemania, Welsh is Yr Almaen. According to Gaius Asinius Quadratus, the name Alamanni means "all men", it indicates. The Romans and the Greeks called them as such mentioned; this derivation was accepted by Edward Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and by the anonymous contributor of notes assembled from the papers of Nicolas Fréret, published in 1753.
This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the name. An alternative suggestion proposes derivation from *alah "sanctuary". Walafrid Strabo in the 9th century remarked, in discussing the people of Switzerland and the surrounding regions, that only foreigners called them the Alemanni, but that they gave themselves the name of Suebi; the Suebi are given the alternative name of Ziuwari in an Old High German gloss, interpreted by Jacob Grimm as Martem colentes. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213. At that time, they dwelt in the basin of the Main, to the south of the Chatti. Cassius Dio portrays the Alemanni as victims of this treacherous emperor, they had asked for his help, according to Dio, but instead he colonized their country, changed their place names, executed their warriors under a pretext of coming to their aid. When he became ill, the Alemanni claimed to have put a hex on him. Caracalla, tried to counter this influence by invoking his ancestral spirits.
In retribution, Caracalla led the Legio II Traiana Fortis against the Alemanni, who lost and were pacified for a time. The legion was as a result honored with the name Germanica." The fourth-century fictional Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Caracalla, relates that Caracalla assumed the name Alemannicus,"at which Helvius Pertinax jested that he should be called Geticus Maximus," because in the year before he had murdered his brother, Geta. Through much of his short reign, Caracalla was known for unpredictable and arbitrary operations launched by surprise after a pretext of peace negotiations. If he had any reasons of state for such actions, they remained unknown to his contemporaries. Whether or not the Alemanni had been neutral, they were further influenced by Caracalla to become thereafter notoriously implacable enemies of Rome; this mutually antagonistic relationship is the reason why the Roman writers persisted in calling the Alemanni barbari," meaning "savages." The archaeology, shows that they were Romanized, lived in Roman-style houses and used Roman artifacts, the Alemannic women having adopted the Roman fashion of the tunica earlier than the men.
Most of the Alemanni were at the time, in fact, resident in or close to the borders of Germania Superior. Although Dio is the earliest writer to mention them, Ammianus Marcellinus used the name to refer to Germans on the Limes Germanicus in the time of Trajan's governorship of the province shortly after it was formed, around 98-99 AD. At that time, the entire frontier was being fortified for the first time. Trees from the earliest fortifications found in Germania Inferior are dated by dendrochronology to 99-100 AD. Ammianus relates that much the Emperor Julian undertook a punitive expedition against the Alemanni, who by were in Alsace, crossed the Main, entering the forest, where the trails were blocked by felled trees; as winter was upon them, they reoccupied a "fortification, founded on the soil of the Alemanni that Trajan wished to be called with his own name". In this context, the use of Alemanni is an anachronism, but it reveals that Ammianus believed they were the same people, consistent with the location of the Alemanni of Caracalla's campaigns.
Germania by Tacitus in Chapter 42 states that the Hermunduri were a tribe located in the region that became
Paris, BN, lat. 4404
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. 4404 is a medieval manuscript from the 9th century containing, among other legal texts, the Breviary of Alaric, is notable for containing illustrations of rulers. The earliest examples of illustrations of rulers may have been illuminations in legal manuscripts, with lat. 4404 cited as an instance: its frontispiece depicts Theodosius, Valentian and Majorian. The Breviary of Alaric is the only text in the manuscript with annotations; the version of the Lex Salica was called a shortened version by Georg Heinrich Pertz, but Jean Marie Pardessus and Georg Waitz referred to it as amplification. Waitz, following Pardessus, refers to the Lex Salica in 4404 as "the only manuscript where no trace of Christianity can be found" neglecting the introduction to the text which speaks of the Franks as a people of God. While those authors saw in the version in 4404 "the most ancient" version of the text, Simon Stein argues that the number of mistakes alone is sufficient to prove that this is not the case.
The manuscript hails from Gaul, early 9th century, most from Tours or thereabouts. Some date and locate it more precisely—Samuel Collins dates production in 804, in the Tours scriptorium. A note by Étienne Baluze explains that the manuscript came from Gallia Narbonensis and became part of the library of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Before that, it was most owned by Julien Brodeau, a lawyer from Paris. Breviary of Alaric Lex Salica Lex Alamannorum Lex Ripuaria Paris, BN, lat. 4404 at the Bibliothèque nationale de France
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about 180,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany; as of 2016, the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland. The initiative Trinational Eurodistrict Basel of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007; the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local Basel German dialect. The city is known for its many internationally renowned museums, ranging from the Kunstmuseum, the first collection of art accessible to the public in Europe and the largest museum of art in the whole of Switzerland, to the Fondation Beyeler; the University of Basel, Switzerland's oldest university, the city's centuries-long commitment to humanism, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Holbein family, Friedrich Nietzsche and in the 20th century Hermann Hesse and Karl Jaspers.
The city of Basel is Switzerland's second-largest economic centre after the city of Zürich and has the highest GDP per capita in the country, ahead of the cantons of Zug and Geneva. In terms of value, over 94% of Basel City's goods exports are in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors. With production facilities located in the neighboring Schweizerhalle, Basel accounts for 20% of Swiss exports and generates one third of the national product. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the city has been a commercial hub and an important cultural centre since the Renaissance, has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the 20th century. In 1897, Basel was chosen by Theodor Herzl as the location for the first World Zionist Congress, altogether the congress has been held there ten times over a time span of 50 years, more than in any other location; the city is home to the world headquarters of the Bank for International Settlements.
In 2019 Basel, was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Geneva. There are traces of a settlement at the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of Basel-Gasfabrik, to the northwest of the Old City identical with the town of Arialbinnum mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana; the unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an oppidum on the site of Basel Minster in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a castra was built on the site of the Celtic oppidum; the city of Basel grew around the castra. In AD 83, Basel was incorporated into the Roman province of Germania Superior. Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian; the Germanic confederation of the Alemanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled.
However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace and a large part of the Swiss Plateau. From that time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement; the Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, by the 7th century, the former bishopric of Augusta Raurica was re-established as the Bishopric of Basel. Based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019. At the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but it passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870; the city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion in 917. The rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032.
From the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II of Metz in 999 until the Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops. In 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under Holy Roman Emperor. In 1225–1226, a bridge, now known as the Middle Bridge, was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun and Lesser Basel founded as a bridgehead to protect the bridge; the bridge was funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between Lake Constance and the sea"; the Bishop allowed the furriers to establish a guild in 1226. About 15 guilds were established in the 13th century, they increased the town's, hence the bishop's, reputation and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market. The plague came to Europe in 1347, but did not reach Basel until June 1349. The
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety; this secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a safe place for humans, such as a political sanctuary. Sanctuary is a word derived from the Latin sanctuarium, which is, like most words ending in -arium, a container for keeping something in—in this case holy things or cherished people; the meaning was extended to places of holiness or safety, in particular the whole demarcated area many acres, surrounding a Greek or Roman temple. Similar usage may be sometimes found describing sacred areas in other religions. In Christian churches "sanctuary" has a specific meaning, covering part of the interior, covered below. In many Western Christian traditions including Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican churches, the area around the altar is called the sanctuary. In many churches the architectural term chancel covers the same area as the sanctuary, either term may be used.
In some Protestant churches, the term sanctuary denotes the entire worship area while the term chancel is used to refer to the area around the altar-table. In many Western traditions altar rails sometimes mark the edge of the chancel. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches of Syro-Malabar Church, Byzantine rite and Coptic Orthodox Churches, the sanctuary is separated from the nave by an iconostasis a wall of icons, with three doors in it. In other Oriental Orthodox traditions, a sanctuary curtain is used; the terminology that applies the word "sanctuary" to the area around the altar does not apply to Christian churches alone: King Solomon's temple, built in about 950 BC, had a sanctuary where the Ark of the Covenant was, the term applies to the corresponding part of any house of worship. In most modern synagogues, the main room for prayer is known as the sanctuary, to contrast it with smaller rooms dedicated to various other services and functions. In Europe, Christian churches were sometimes built on land considered to be a holy spot where a miracle or martyrdom was believed to have taken place or where a holy person was buried.
Examples are St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and St. Albans Cathedral in England, which commemorate the martyrdom of Saint Peter and Saint Alban, respectively; the place, therefore the church built there, was considered to have been sanctified by what happened there. In modern times, the Catholic Church has continued this practice by placing in the altar of each church, when it is consecrated for use, a box containing relics of a saint; the relics box is removed. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the antimension on the altar serves a similar function, it is a cloth icon of Christ's body taken down from the cross, has the relics of a saint sewn into it. In addition, it is signed by the parish's bishop, represents his authorization and blessing for the Eucharist to be celebrated on that altar. In the classical world, some temples offered sanctuary to runaway slaves; when referring to prosecution of crimes, sanctuary can mean one of the following: Church sanctuary A sacred place, such as a church, in which fugitives were immune to arrest.
While the practice of churches offering sanctuary is still observed in the modern era, it no longer has any legal effect and is respected for the sake of tradition. Political sanctuary Immunity to arrest afforded by a sovereign authority; the United Nations has expanded the definition of "political" to include race, religion, political opinions and membership or participation in any particular social group or social activities. People seeking political sanctuary do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum. Many ancient peoples recognized a religious right of asylum, protecting criminals from legal action and from exile to some extent; this principle was adopted by the early Christian church, various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was. In England, King Æthelberht made the first laws regulating sanctuary in about AD 600, though Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae says that the legendary pre-Saxon king Dunvallo Molmutius enacted sanctuary laws in the Molmutine Laws as recorded by Gildas.
By Norman times, there had come to be two kinds of sanctuary: All churches had the lower-level kind, but only the churches the king licensed had the broader version. The medieval system of asylum was abolished in England by James I in 1623. During the Wars of the Roses of the 15th century when the Lancastrians or Yorkists would gain the upper hand by winning a battle, some adherents of the losing side might find themselves surrounded by adherents of the winning side and unable to return to their own side, so they would rush to sanctuary at the nearest
Code of law
A code of law called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification. Though the process and motivations for codification are similar in different common law and civil law systems, their usage is different. In a civil law country, a code of law exhaustively covers the complete system of law, such as civil law or criminal law. By contrast, in a common law country with legislative practices in the English tradition, a code of law is a less common form of legislation, which differs from usual legislation that, when enacted, modify the existing common law only to the extent of its express or implicit provision, but otherwise leaves the common law intact. A code replaces the common law in a particular area, leaving the common law inoperative unless and until the code is repealed. In a third case of different usage, in the United States and other common law countries that have adopted similar legislative practices, a code of law is a standing body of statute law on a particular area, added to, subtracted from, or otherwise modified by individual legislative enactments.
The legal code was a common feature of the legal systems of the ancient Middle East. The Sumerian Code of Ur-Nammu the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, are among the earliest and best preserved legal codes, originating in the Fertile Crescent. In the Roman empire, a number of codifications were developed, such as the Twelve Tables of Roman law and the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian known as the Justinian Code. However, these law codes did not exhaustively describe the Roman legal system; the Twelve Tables were limited in scope, most legal doctrines were developed by the pontifices, who "interpreted" the tables to deal with situations far beyond what is contained therein. The Justinian Code collected together existing legal material at the time; the Hebrew Written Torah and Oral Torah constitute the earliest and best preserved ethical code at the same time. Halakha is the oldest collective body of religious laws and jurisdictions still in use. In ancient China, the first comprehensive criminal code was the Tang Code, created in 624 AD in the Tang Dynasty.
This, subsequent imperial codes, formed the basis for the penal system of both China and other East Asian states under its cultural influence. The last and best preserved imperial code is the Great Qing Legal Code, created in 1644 upon the founding of the Qing Dynasty; this code was the exclusive and exhaustive statement of Chinese law between 1644 and 1912. Though it was in form a criminal code, large parts of the code dealt with civil law matters and the settlement of civil disputes; the Code ceased its operation upon the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, but significant provisions remained in operation in Hong Kong until well into the 1970s due to a peculiar interaction between it and the British common law system. In Europe, Roman law the Corpus Juris Civilis, became the basis of the legal systems of many countries. Roman law was either adopted through processing by jurists; the accepted Roman law is then codified and forms part of the central Code. The codification movement gathered pace after the rise of nation-states after the Treaty of Westphalia.
Prominent national civil codes include the Napoleonic Code of 1804, the German civil code of 1900 and the Swiss codes. The European codifications of the 1800s influenced the codification of Catholic canon law resulting in the 1917 Code of Canon Law, replaced by the 1983 Code of Canon Law and whose Eastern counterpart is the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Meanwhile, African civilizations developed their own legal traditions, sometimes codifying them through consistent oral tradition, as illustrated e.g. by the Kouroukan Fouga, a charter proclaimed by the Mali Empire in 1222-1236, enumerating regulations in both constitutional and civil matters, transmitted to this day by griots under oath. The Continental civil law tradition spread around the world along with European cultural and military dominance in recent centuries. During the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted a new Civil Code, based on the French civil code and influenced by the German code. After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 in China, the new Republic of China government abandoned the imperial code tradition and instead adopted a new civil code influenced by the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, influenced by the Japanese code.
This new tradition has been maintained in the legal system of the People's Republic of China since 1949. Meanwhile, codifications became more common in common law systems. For example, a criminal code is found in a number of common law jurisdictions in Australia and the Americas, continues to be debated in England. In the Americas, the influence of Continental legal codes has manifest itself in two ways. In civil law jurisdictions, legal codes in the Continental tradition are common. In common law jurisdictions, there has been a strong trend towards codification; the result of such codification, however, is not always a legal code as found in civil law jurisdictions. For example, the California Civil Code codifies common law doctrine and is different in form and content from all other civil codes. A civil code forms the core of civil law systems; the legal Code covers exhaustively the entire system of private law. Civil codes are sometimes found in common law systems in the Unit