The Insubres or Insubri were a Gaulish population settled in Insubria, in what is now the Italian region of Lombardy. They were the founders of Mediolanum. Though Gaulish at the time of Roman conquest, they were the result of the fusion of pre-existing Ligurian and Celtic population with Gaulish tribes; the Insubres are mentioned by Cicero, Livy, Pliny the Elder and Caecilius Statius. Polybius called the Insubres the most important Celtic tribe of the Italian peninsula, while according to the Livy they were the first to inhabit Cisalpine Gaul, from the 7th century BC; the Insubres were part of the Golasecca culture, which takes its name from a town near Varese, where Abbot Giovanni Battista Giani made the first findings of about fifty Celtic graves with pottery and metal objects. It is a culture that developed at the end of the Late Bronze Age, between the rivers Po, Serio and Sesia, which has its counterpart in the Central European Hallstatt culture; the Insubres culture followed what was a slow end of its own evolution.
Thanks to the cultural and commercial exchanges with neighboring areas, such as Etruria and Transalpine Gaul, the Insubres knew progress and created a distinct society of their own. In the light of archaeological findings it can be assumed that it was an oligarchic society, where power was in the hands of a few Lords; the History of the Insubres, like that of other Gauls and of Italic peoples, was written by ancient Roman and Greek writers. Apart from Livy's section on the Gallic Invasion of northern Italy, their writings came in the context of their covering Roman history and concentrated on battles between the Romans and the Insubres and other Gallic tribes in northern Italy In 225 BC, the Insubres and the Boii, their Gallic neighbours to the south of the River Po, rebelled against Rome; this was prompted by developments that started in 283 BC, when unspecified Celts besieged Arretium and defeated a Roman force that came to the aid of the city. The Romans sent envoys to negotiate the release of Roman prisoners.
A Roman army was sent to the ager Gallicus, the name the Romans gave to an area on the Adriatic coast, conquered by the Senone Gauls. This army routed a Senone force, occupied their territory, killed most of the Senones and drove the rest out of their land. Afraid that the same fate might occur to them, the neighbouring Boii joined the Etruscans in a rebellion, their combined force was defeated at the Battle of Lake Vadimo in the same year. What prompted the Insubres to join the Boii in another rebellion was a law passed in Rome that provided for the subdivision of the ager gallicus into Roman administrative units; this created fears among the Boii and Insubres that the Romans were now fighting wars to exterminate and expel the enemy and annex their territoryIn 225 BC, the Boii and Insubres paid large sums of money to Gaesatae mercenaries led by Aneroëstes and Concolitanus. The Gaesatae were Gauls from the Roman name for what is now southern France. A force of up to 70,000 men ravaged Etruria.
The Gauls encountered Roman forces near Clusium. They defeated the Romans at the Battle of Faesulae, they were routed by the combined forces of the two Roman consuls, Lucius Aemilius Papus and Gaius Atilius Regulus, at the Battle of Telamon. After the Battle of Telamon, the Romans attacked and defeated the Boii and forced them to submit to Rome. In 224 BC, the Romans attacked Insubre territory. In 223 BC, the Insubres sued for peace; the Romans were now determined to be in control of Gallia Cisalpina, the Roman name for the area where the Gallic tribes of northern Italy lived. In 222 BC, the Romans besieged Acerrae, an Insubre fortification on the right bank of the River Adda between Cremona and Laus Pompeia; the Insubres could not relieve Acerrae because the Romans controlled all the strategic points around it. Therefore, they hired 30,000 Gaesatae mercenaries and, led by Viridomarus, they besieged Clastidium, an important and strategically well placed town of the Marici, a Ligurian people who were Roman allies, hoping that this would force the Romans to lift their siege.
Instead, the Romans split their forces. The consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus headed for Clastidium and his colleague Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus continued the siege of Acerrae. At the Battle of Clastidium, Marcus Claudius defeated the Gallic forces and killed Viridomarus in single battle. Meanwhile, Gnaeus Cornelius took Acerrae. With the fortress taken and the Insubre king dead, the Romans easily took the capital of the Insubres, which they named Mediolanum; the Insubres were forced to become Roman allies. The Romans founded garrisoned colonies at Placentia; the former was on the north bank of the River Po and the latter was close to its south bank. This was done to secure the crossing of the gateway to Liguria, they established a garrison at Mutina, to become a colony in 182 BC. In 218 BC, the Insubres and the Boii rebelled in anticipation of Hannibal's invasion of Italy in the Second Punic War, they attacked Cremona and Placentia, forcing the settlers to flee to Mutina, besieged. The praetor Lucius Manlius Vulso set off from Ariminum with 1,600 cavalry.
He was ambushed twice on the way. He was in turn besieged nearby; the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio was sent to support him with fresh troops. Meanwhile, Hannibal reached Italy, he defeated Publius Scipius at the Battle of Ticinum, in In
Caesar's Civil War
The Great Roman Civil War known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar, his political supporters, his legions, against the Optimates, the politically conservative and traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey and his legions. Prior to the war, Caesar had served for eight years in the Gallic Wars, he and Pompey had, along with Marcus Licinius Crassus, established the First Triumvirate, through which they shared power over Rome. Caesar soon emerged as a champion of the common people, advocated a variety of reforms; the Senate, fearful of Caesar, demanded. Caesar refused, instead marched his army on Rome, which no Roman general was permitted to do. Pompey organized an army in the south of Italy to meet Caesar; the war was a four-year-long politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Greece, Egypt and Hispania.
Pompey defeated Caesar in 48 BC at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but was himself defeated much more decisively at the Battle of Pharsalus. The Optimates under Marcus Junius Brutus and Cicero surrendered after the battle, while others, including those under Cato the Younger and Metellus Scipio fought on. Pompey was killed upon arrival. Scipio was defeated in 46 BC at the Battle of Thapsus in North Africa, he and Cato committed suicide shortly after the battle. The following year, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuo of Rome; the changes to Roman government concomitant to the war eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic and led to the Roman Empire. Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, begun with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome.
The First Triumvirate, comprising Julius Caesar and Pompey, ascended to power with Caesar's election as consul, in 59 BC. The First Triumvirate was unofficial, a political alliance the substance of, Pompey's military might, Caesar's political influence, Crassus' money; the alliance was further consolidated by Pompey's marriage to Julia, daughter of Caesar, in 59 BC. At the conclusion of Caesar's first consulship, the Senate tasked him with watching over the Roman forests; this job, specially created by his Senate enemies, was meant to occupy him without giving him command of armies, or garnering him wealth and fame. Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senate's decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies. By these acts, Caesar was promoted to Roman Governor of Cisalpine Gaul. Transalpine Gaul was added later; the various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of four legions. The term of his proconsulship, thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year.
His term was extended by another five years. During this ten-year period, Caesar used his military forces to conquer Gaul and invade Britain, without explicit authorisation by the Senate. In 52 BC, at the First Triumvirate's end, the Roman Senate supported Pompey as sole consul. Knowing he hoped to become consul when his governorship expired, the Senate, politically fearful of him, ordered he resign command of his army. In December of 50 BC, Caesar wrote to the Senate agreeing to resign his military command if Pompey followed suit. Offended, the Senate demanded he disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people: an illegal political bill, for he was entitled to keep his army until his term expired. A secondary reason for Caesar's immediate desire for another consulship was to delay the inevitable senatorial prosecutions awaiting him upon retirement as governor of Illyricum and Gaul; these potential prosecutions were based upon alleged irregularities that occurred in his consulship and war crimes committed in his Gallic campaigns.
Moreover, Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinus, vetoed the bill, were expelled from the Senate. They joined Caesar, who had assembled his army, whom he asked for military support against the Senate. In 50 BC, at his Proconsular term's expiry, the Pompey-led Senate ordered Caesar's return to Rome and the disbanding of his army, forbade his standing for election in absentia for a second consulship. On January 10, 49 BC, commanding the Legio XIII Gemina, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, the boundary between the province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south; as crossing the Rubicon with an army was prohibited, lest a returning general attempt a coup d'etat, this triggered the ensuing civil war between Caesar and Pompey. The general population, who regarded Caesar as a hero, approved of his actions; the historical records differ about which decisive comment Caesar made on crossing the Rubicon: one report is Alea iacta est. Caesar's own acc
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy. The city was settled by the Insubres around 600 BC, conquered by the Romans in 222 BC, developed into a key centre of Western Christianity and capital of the Western Roman Empire, it declined under the ravages of the Gothic War, its capture by the Lombards in 569, their decision to make Ticinum the capital of their Kingdom of Italy. During the Principate the population was 40,000 in 200 AD. Mediolanum appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, after whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul— "Gaul this side of the Alps"— and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain."
Mediolanum was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. Polybius describes the country as abounding in wine, every kind of grain, in fine wool. Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, the people were well known for their generosity. During the Augustan age Mediolanum was famous for its schools. A large stone wall encircled the city in Caesar's time, was expanded in the late third century AD, by Maximian. Mediolanum was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria by Hadrian, Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy. In the third century Mediolanum possessed a horreum and imperial mausoleum. In 259, Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus soundly defeated the Alemanni in the Battle of Mediolanum. In 286 Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum, he chose leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain.
Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers, it was from Milan that the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of the Empire. Constantine was in Milan to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. There were Christian communities in Mediolanum, which contributed its share of martyrs during the persecutions, but the first bishop of Milan who has a firm historical presence is Merocles, at the Council of Rome of 313. In the mid-fourth century, the Arian controversy divided the Christians of Mediolanum. Auxentius of Milan was a respected Arian theologian. At the time of the bishop St. Ambrose, who quelled the Arians, emperor Theodosius I, Mediolanum reached the height of its ancient power; the city possessed a number of basilicas, added in the late fourth century AD.
These are San Simpliciano, San Nazaro, San Lorenzo and the chapel of San Vittore, located in the basilica of Sant'Ambrogio. In general, the Late Empire encouraged the development of the applied arts in Mediolanum, with ivory and silver work being common in public building projects. In the crypt of the Duomo survive ruins of the ancient church of Saint Tecla and the baptisty where St. Augustine of Hippo was baptized. In 402, the city was besieged by the Goths and the Imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, it was besieged again by Attila, but the real break with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when Mediolanum was laid to waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of the Goths, with great loss of life; the Lombards took Ticinum as their capital, Early Medieval Milan was left to be governed by its archbishops. Some of the monuments of the Roman Mediolanum still to be seen in Milan: in the basilica of S. Ambrogio: the Chapel of S. Vittore, with Late Antique mosaics the so‑called "Tomb of Stilicho", assembled from a Roman sarcophagus and other material.
A large collection of inscriptions. The Colonne di San Lorenzo, a colonnade in front of the church of S. Lorenzo. Roman lapidary material in the Archi di Porta Nuova; the scant remains of a large amphitheatre, now in an archaeological park dedicated to their preservation. A tower of the circus, now inside the Convento di San Maurizio Maggiore. A bit of moenia and a tower with 24 sides the church of San Lorenzo and the
Ticinum was an ancient city of Gallia Transpadana, founded on the banks of the river of the same name a little way above its confluence with the Padus. It is said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres, its importance in Roman times was due to the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum to the Padus, which it crossed at Placentia and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum and the other to Ticinum, thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum or to Pollentia. The branch to Eporedia must have been constructed before 100 BC. Ticinum is mentioned by classical writers, it was a municipium, but we learn little of it except that in the 4th century there was a manufacturer of bows and a mint there. The first Christian bishops of the city are identified as Syrus.
It was pillaged by Attila in 452 and by Odoacer in 476, but rose to importance as a military centre in the Gothic period. At Dertona and here the grain stores of Liguria were placed, Theodoric the Great constructed a palace and amphitheatre and new town walls. From this point, navigation on the Padus seems to have begun. Narses recovered it for the Eastern Empire, but after a long siege, the garrison had to surrender to the Lombards in 572; the name Papia, from which the modern name Pavia comes, does not appear until Lombard times, when it became the seat of the Lombard kingdom, as such one of the leading cities of Italy. Cornelius Nepos, the biographer, appears to have been a native of Ticinum. Of Roman remains little is preserved; this is not unnatural, for Pavia was never destroyed. Its gates were preserved until early in the 8th century; the picturesque covered bridge, which joins Pavia to the suburb on the right bank of the river, was preceded by a Roman bridge, of which only one pillar, in blocks of granite from the Baveno quarries, exists under the remains of the central arch of the medieval bridge, the rest having no doubt served as material for the latter.
The medieval bridge dated from 1351‑1354. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ticinum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 934
Latin Rights was a term for a set of legal rights, granted to the Latins who had not been incorporated into the Roman Republic after the Latin War and to the settlers of Roman colonies with Latin status, which colonies were denominated "Latin colonies". With the Roman unification of Italy, the title of Latini was awarded by Rome to the rest of the Italic peoples; this introduced a status, intermediate between the Roman citizens and the foreigners who lived in Roman provinces. "Latinitas" was used by Roman jurists to denote this status. All the Latini of Italy obtained Roman citizenship as a result of three laws which were introduced during the Social War between the Romans and their allies among the Italic peoples which rebelled against Rome; the Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis Danda of 90 BC conferred Roman citizenship on all citizens of the Latin towns and the Italic towns who had not rebelled. The Lex Plautia Papiria de Civitate Sociis Danda of 89 BC granted Roman citizenship to all federated towns in Italy south of the River Po.
The Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis of 89 BC granted the ius Latii to the communities of Transpadania, a region north of the Po, which had sided with Rome during the Social War. It granted Roman citizenship to those who became officials in their respective municipia. Outside of Italy, the term Latinitas continued to be used in other cases. Cicero used this term in relation to Julius Caesar's grant of Latin rights to the Sicilians in 44 BC; this use of "ius Latii" or "Latinitas" persisted to the reign of Emperor Justinian I in the sixth century AD. This status was given to whole towns and regions: Emperor Vespasian granted it to the whole of Hispania and Emperor Hadrian gave it to many towns; the ius Latii included, under Roman law, the: Ius commercii: the right to trade, i. e. the right to have commercial relations and trade with Roman citizens on equal status and to use the same forms of contract as Roman citizens. Rome was one of the many Latin cities of Italy. From 340 to 338 BC the Latin League, a confederation of circa 30 towns in Latium, allied with Rome, rebelled in what has been called the Latin War.
The Romans dissolved the Latin League. Many of the city-states of Latium were incorporated into the Roman Republic, while others were given limited rights and privileges which could be exercised in dealings with Roman citizens; these came to be known as ius Latii. The ius Latii was given to some Roman colonies which were founded around Italy in the fourth and third centuries BC to strengthen Roman control, as Rome expanded its hegemony over the peninsula, they were colonies which were given Latin legal status, their settlers the ius Latii, instead of the Roman legal status of other colonies whose settlers were given Roman citizenship. Colonies of Latin status were called "Latin colonies" and those of Roman status were called "Roman colonies". Roman citizens who settled in a Latin colony acquired ius Latii. Latin colonies were smaller than Roman colonies. With Roman expansion beyond Italy, Latin colonies were founded outside Italy, e. g. Carteia, founded in Hispania in 171 BC and was the first Latin colony outside of Italy.
In 122 BC, the plebeian tribune Gaius Gracchus introduced a law which extended the ius Latii to all other residents of Italy. This reflected the increasing ties between Rome and the Italic peoples through trade and the ties between the leading families in the Italian towns and patrician families in Rome. In 44 BC, Julius Caesar granted the ius Latii to all free-born Sicilians. Following the great spate of colonial settlements under Julius Caesar and Augustus, the ius Latii was used more as a political instrument that aimed at integration of provincial communities via their local leadership. Latin status included the acquisition of Roman citizenship upon the holding of municipal magistracy, which presumed a trajectory of development that would carry at least the local magistrates along the path to the institution of a Roman-style community. In AD 123, Emperor Hadrian made a key modification to Latin rights, he introduced "Latium maius", which conferred Roman citizenship on all the decurions of a town as opposed to "Latium minus", which conferred it only on those who held a magistracy.
The acquisition of ius Latii was wholly dependent on imperial gift. This beneficence could span the whole range from grants to individuals to awards made to whole towns, could be applied to an entire population, as when Emperor Vespasian gave the ius Latii to all of Hispania in AD 74. Although this decree could encompass whole cities, it is important to note that it did not entail the establishment of a municipium; as in Hispania, formal municipia might have been constituted several years after the initial grant. "ius Latii" from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1875. "jus Latii" from Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007 "Latin Revolt" Livy XLIII. 3-4. Cf. Galsterer 1971, 8-9:. Bowman, A. K. Champlin, E. Lintott, A; the Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69, Cambridge University Press, 2nd Edition, 1996.
Lucius Roscius Fabatus
Lucius Roscius Fabatus was a military officer and politician of the late Roman Republic. Belonging to the plebeian gens Roscii, he was born around 95–90 BC in Lanuvium, a town in Latium known for its temple and cult of Juno Sospita, he began his political career as a moneyer in 64 BC. In 55 BC he was elected tribune of the plebs and co-sponsored at least one law, the lex Mamilia Roscia Alliena Peducaea Fabia. Associated with the faction of the populares, he supported Julius Caesar, he was a member of Caesar's staff in the Gallic Wars and was charged with various tasks, including commanding the Thirteenth Legion on the Lower Rhine, in the winter of 54 BC. It was during this winter that Ambiorix induced the Eburones and Nervii to attack in detail the quarters of the Roman legions, but in the operations resulting from their revolt Fabatus seems to have taken no part, since the district in which he was stationed remained quiet, he informed Caesar, about hostile movements in Armorica in the same winter.
After his service in Gaul, he supported Caesar in the Senate. Elected praetor in 49 BC, he sought to mediate between Caesar and his opponents in Caesar's Civil War. In 49 BC, he promulgated a law bearing his name, which gave full Roman citizenship to the populations of Cisalpine Gaul in Transpadania. After Caesar crossed the Rubicon, Pompey sent Fabatus with Lucius Caesar and other senators from Rome to meet Caesar at Ariminum, with proposals of accommodation both public and private. Caesar charged Fabatus with counter-proposals, which he delivered to Pompey and the consuls at Capua. Caesar's opponents were willing to accept Caesar's proposals with substantial amendments, which Fabatus and L. Caesar reported to Caesar. Caesar rejected these amendments and Fabatus's missions did not prevent the escalation of the civil war. After the assassination of Caesar, Fabatus took part in the ensuing civil wars, he was killed on April 14 or 15th, 43 BC, in the Battle of Forum Gallorum between Mark Antony and the legions of the senate.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Bodham. "Fabatus, L. Roscius". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 2. P. 130
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws and governance. A male Roman citizen enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship. Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. Though held in high regard they were not allowed to stand for civil or public office; the rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time. Marriages were an important form of political alliance during the Republic. Client state citizens and allies of Rome could receive a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the Latin Right; such citizens could not be elected in Roman elections. Slaves lacked legal personhood. Over time, they acquired a few protections under Roman law.
Some slaves were freed by manumission for services rendered, or through a testamentary provision when their master died. Once free, they faced few barriers, beyond normal social snobbery, to participating in Roman society; the principle that a person could become a citizen by law rather than birth was enshrined in Roman mythology. Freedmen were former slaves, they were not automatically given citizenship and lacked some privileges such as running for executive magistracies. The children of freedmen and women were born as free citizens. Ius suffragiorum: The right to vote in the Roman assemblies. Ius honorum: The right to stand for civil or public office. Ius commercii: The right to make legal contracts and to hold property as a Roman citizen. Ius gentium: The legal recognition, developed in the 3rd century BC, of the growing international scope of Roman affairs, the need for Roman law to deal with situations between Roman citizens and foreign persons; the ius gentium was therefore a Roman legal codification of the accepted international law of the time, was based on the developed commercial law of the Greek city-states and of other maritime powers.
The rights afforded by the ius gentium were considered to be held by all persons. Ius conubii: The right to have a lawful marriage with a Roman citizen according to Roman principles, to have the legal rights of the paterfamilias over the family, for the children of any such marriage to be counted as Roman citizens. Ius migrationis: The right to preserve one's level of citizenship upon relocation to a polis of comparable status. For example, members of the cives Romani maintained their full civitas when they migrated to a Roman colony with full rights under the law: a colonia civium Romanorum. Latins had this right, maintained their ius Latii if they relocated to a different Latin state or Latin colony; this right did not preserve one's level of citizenship should one relocate to a colony of lesser legal status. The right of immunity from some taxes and other legal obligations local rules and regulations; the right to sue in the right to be sued. The right to have a legal trial; the right to appeal the lower court decisions.
Following the early 2nd-century BC Porcian Laws, a Roman citizen could not be tortured or whipped and could commute sentences of death to voluntary exile, unless he was found guilty of treason. If accused of treason, a Roman citizen had the right to be tried in Rome, if sentenced to death, no Roman citizen could be sentenced to die on the cross. Roman citizenship was required in order to enlist in the Roman legions, but this was sometimes ignored. Citizen soldiers could be beaten by the centurions and senior officers for reasons related to discipline. Non-citizens gained citizenship through service; the legal classes varied over time, however the following classes of legal status existed at various times within the Roman state: The cives Romani were full Roman citizens, who enjoyed full legal protection under Roman law. Cives Romani were sub-divided into two classes: The non optimo iure who held the ius commercii and ius conubii The optimo iure, who held these rights as well as the ius suffragiorum and ius honorum.
The Latini were a class of citizens who held the Latin Right, or the rights of ius commercii and ius migrationis, but not the ius conubii. The term Latini referred to the Latins, citizens of the Latin League who came under Roman control at the close of the Latin War, but became a legal description rather than a national or ethnic one. Freedmen slaves, those of the cives Romani convicted of crimes, or citizens settling Latin colonies could be given this status under the law. Socii or foederati were citizens of states which had treaty obligations with Rome, under which certain legal rights of the state's citizens under Roman law were exchanged for agreed levels of military service, i.e. the Roman magistrates had the right to levy soldiers for the Roman legions from those states. However, foederat