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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lexical analysis

In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters into a sequence of tokens. A program that performs lexical analysis may be termed a lexer, tokenizer, or scanner, though scanner is a term for the first stage of a lexer. A lexer is combined with a parser, which together analyze the syntax of programming languages, web pages, so forth. A lexer forms the first phase of a compiler frontend in modern processing. Analysis occurs in one pass. In older languages such as ALGOL, the initial stage was instead line reconstruction, which performed unstropping and removed whitespace and comments; these steps are now done as part of the lexer. Lexers and parsers are most used for compilers, but can be used for other computer language tools, such as prettyprinters or linters. Lexing can be divided into two stages: the scanning, which segments the input string into syntactic units called lexemes and categorizes these into token classes. Lexers are quite simple, with most of the complexity deferred to the parser or semantic analysis phases, can be generated by a lexer generator, notably lex or derivatives.

However, lexers can sometimes include some complexity, such as phrase structure processing to make input easier and simplify the parser, may be written or by hand, either to support more features or for performance. Lexical analysis is an important early stage in Natural Language Processing, where text or sound waves are segmented into words and other units; this requires a variety of decisions which are not standardized, the number of tokens systems produce varies for strings like "1/2", "chair's", "can't", "and/or", "1/1/2010", "2x4", "...", many others. This is in contrast to lexical analysis for programming and similar languages where exact rules are defined and known. A lexeme is a sequence of characters in the source program that matches the pattern for a token and is identified by the lexical analyzer as an instance of that token; some authors term this a "token", using "token" interchangeably to represent the string being tokenized, the token data structure resulting from putting this string through the tokenization process.

The word lexeme in computer science is defined differently than lexeme in linguistics. A lexeme in computer science corresponds to a word in linguistics, although in some cases it may be more similar to a morpheme. A lexical token or token is a string with an assigned and thus identified meaning, it is structured as a pair consisting of an optional token value. The token name is a category of lexical unit. Common token names are identifier: names. Consider this expression in the C programming language: x = a + b * 2; the specification of a programming language includes a set of rules, the lexical grammar, which defines the lexical syntax. The lexical syntax is a regular language, with the grammar rules consisting of regular expressions. A lexer recognizes strings, for each kind of string found the lexical program takes an action, most producing a token. Two important common lexical categories are comments; these are defined in the grammar and processed by the lexer, but may be discarded and considered non-significant, at most separating two tokens.

There are two important exceptions to this. First, in off-side rule languages that delimit blocks with indenting, initial whitespace is significant, as it determines block structure, is handled at the lexer level. Secondly, in some uses of lexers and whitespace must be preserved – for examples, a prettyprinter needs to output the comments and some debugging tools may provide messages to the programmer showing the original source code. In the 1960s, notably for ALGOL, whitespace and comments were eliminated as part of the line reconstruction phase, but this separate phase has been eliminated and these are now handled by the lexer. Tokenization is the process of demarcating and classifying sections of a string of input characters; the resulting tokens are passed on to some other form of processing. The process can be considered a sub-task of parsing input. For example, in the text string: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dogthe string isn't implicitly segmented on spaces, as a natural language speaker would do.

The raw input, the 43 characters, must be explicitly split into the 9 tokens with a given space delimiter. The tokens could be represented in XML, Or as an s-expression, When a token class represents more than one possible lexeme, the lexer saves enou

19th Ward Meetinghouse and Relief Society Hall

The 19th Ward Meetinghouse and Relief Society Hall, at 168 W. 500 North, Salt Lake City, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. It was built in 1896, its architecture is significant in American history as reflecting changes imposed upon The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by outside influences. Pressure included various Federal enforcement efforts following upon the Edmunds–Tucker Act of 1877, which outlawed polygamy. In effect, the LDS Church capitulated, sought to adopt different values in conformity with worldwide ones; the meetinghouse was designed by architect Robert Bowman and represented a "totally out of character" change in style. It was no longer a church when listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the building houses the Salt Lake Acting Company and their popular Saturday's Voyeur production

Labor certification

Labor certification is a United States of America immigration process step. Its stated goal is to "protect U. S. workers and the U. S. labor market by ensuring that foreign workers seeking immigrant visa classifications are not displacing qualified U. S. workers". There are several options available to US employers who wish to hire foreign, non-immigrant workers on a temporary but long-term basis: H-1B visas, L-1 visas, TN status and other options; these temporary options are sufficient to meet the needs of employer and employee. When a US employer wishes to hire the services of the foreign worker on a permanent basis, however, a complex sponsorship process for the green card begins, a process that can take years; the first step in that process is labor certification. Labor certification is a process of proving that there are no qualified US workers for the position being offered. If there are qualified US workers - in fact generally speaking if there are minimally qualified US workers - the foreign worker cannot be offered the position on a permanent basis.

This does not mean that the foreign worker will be replaced by a qualified US worker, though. The foreign worker can still serve out the remainder of their existing US temporary visa, may well be able to re-apply for labor certification and be approved, but it does create a substantial inconvenience for the US employer who wishes to hire a foreign worker, which does provide some protection to US workers, although the process is controversial. The original labor certification process, used up until about 1998, involved a lengthy interview process, whereby instructions were provided after filing the case as to how the employer was to go about recruiting for the position. After complying with those instructions, the employer needed to persuasively argue why any US applicants for the position were unqualified - otherwise the petition would be denied. Beginning in 1998, a more streamlined approach called. Under RIR, the sequence of events was reversed: the employer first did the recruiting, filed the case with evidence that no minimally qualified US workers could be found.

RIR tended to speed processing times up somewhat, so that labor certification times which were measured in years began to be measured in months. Both regular and RIR labor certification involved filing first with the Department of Labor for the individual state where the job was located and if approved at the state level, the case was transferred to the federal Department of Labor for final approval. In March 2005 a electronic labor certification system, PERM came into use. PERM is intended to reduce labor certification times to under 60 days. However, PERM may be creating as many backlogs; because of congressionally mandated annual quotas, there may not be enough visas available to grant green cards to everyone, approved by PERM, which may have played a role in the retrogression of priority dates on September 13, 2005. The standards used in making labor certification determinations under the PERM system will be based on: 1) whether there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing and available.

The employer has the option of filing an PERM application electronically or by mail. However, the Department of Labor recommends. Not only is electronic filing faster, but it will ensure the employer has provided all required information, as an electronic application can not be submitted if the required fields are not completed. Employers will not be permitted to submit PERM applications by FAX; the employer must recruit under the standards for professional occupations, if the occupation involved is on the list of occupations, published in the PERM regulation, for which a bachelors or higher degree is a customary requirement. For all other occupations not requiring a bachelor's or higher degree, employers can recruit under the requirements for nonprofessional occupations. Although the occupation involved in a labor certification application may be a nonprofessional occupation, the regulations do not prohibit employers from conducting more recruitment than is specified for such occupations. Therefore, if the employer is uncertain whether an occupation is considered professional or not, the employer is advised to conduct recruitment for a professional occupation.

As with many immigration procedures, labor certification tends to be controversial. Its backers argue that it is a rigorous procedure for determining that only foreign workers who have skills needed by the US labor market and not available locally are hired, its critics, say that US employers will first hire a foreigner on a long-term temporary visa, try to tailor the job description so that that foreigner is the only person who could be hired - thus gaming the labor certification process to guarantee a favorable outcome. However, the job requirements, as described by the petitioning employer in the labor certification application, must represent the employer’s actual minimum requirements for the job opportunity; those job requirements described on a labor certification application are reviewed and evalua

Nathalie Younglai

Nathalie Younglai is a Canadian writer, director and harpist. She is the founder of Toronto's Writers of Colour in Film group, she was the writing mentor for the Reel Asian Film Festival's Unsung Voices summer workshop for youth and speaker at Reel Asian's 2012 industry series. She is a creator optioned with Entertainment One, she studied TV writing and producing at a post-graduate program at Humber College in Toronto, ON, Canada. Younglai began her career in writing. In 2006, Younglai began her work for Canadian TV series Til Debt Do Us Part with research for 22 episodes and miscellaneous crew for 48 episodes until 2008. In 2009, she edited the story for 2 episodes. From 2008 to 2011, she directed 15 episodes. In 2010 to 2012, she directed 9 episodes for Prince$$. In 2011, she was the field director of Top Chef Canada. Younglai was the executive producer and director of her first short "Corrugated Violin" in 2010, she directed science fiction/drama short "The Sound That Broke the Silence," which premiered at the 2013 ReelWorld Film Festival and was one of the ACTRA Young Emerging Actors Assembly showcase.

She is a co-writer for Korean Canadian comedy film Stand Up Man, funded on Indiegogo on August 13, 2016. Stand Up Man is filmed in Windsor and Toronto; the film is produced by Tony Lau. Younglai was selected to participate in the 2011 Writers Guild of Canada-Bell Media Diverse Screenwriters Program, she was awarded a 2013 Ontario Arts Council playwriting grant and the 2012 Global Writers Apprenticeship. The Toronto Screenwriting Conference named Younglai as one of 5 emerging writer recipients of the 2013 Telefilm New Voices Award. Since February 1992, Younglai has composed and recorded as the harpist in duo with flutist Catherine Richardson. Younglai and Richardson have been featured as guest artists at numerous concerts, such as the Les Concerts Ponticello in Gatineau, St. MatthewsChristmas Magic Candlelight Concert, St. Paul’s Celtic Christmas concert, the Circle of Harmony’s Christmas Concert in 2008, they sponsor the Variante Harp & Flute Duo Scholarship for the Burlington Rotary Musical Festival.

Younglai started playing the Suzuki harp at age 12 under Marie Lorcini. As a harpist, she achieved awards including the Toronto Kiwanis Scholarship and the Lee Hepner Award for musical excellence, she soloed with the Hamilton Philharmonic Youth Orchestra, the Guelph Chamber Orchestra, played with Te Deum Chamber Orchestra, the Hamilton Philharmonic, Symphony Hamilton, the Toronto Youth Wind Ensemble, the Guelph Concert Band. Younglai created the soundtrack for a documentary about the Young Offender's Act. Nathalie has taught music at the Hamilton Suzuki school of Music, the Halton Waldorf School, as well as privately. Younglai lives in ON, Canada. Nathalie’s writing has been published in the Globe and Mail, the Hamilton Spectator and Amöi magazine

2009 New Democracy leadership election

The 2009 New Democracy leadership election was held on 29 November 2009, following the official announcement of the resignation of Kostas Karamanlis, after more than 12 years as leader of New Democracy, the main centre-right political party and one of the two major parties in Greece. Karamanlis announced that he would start procedures for the election of a new president on 4 October 2009, after the defeat of majority party New Democracy in the 2009 Greek legislative election, held on the same day. Antonis Samaras succeeded Karamanlis as the party's leader having won 50.06 percent of the votes at first round: for this reason, no second round was required and Samaras took office on 30 November 2009 as ND party President and Leader of Opposition. The results of the election. In March 2004, New Democracy formed a cabinet for a first time under Kostas Karamanlis after their win in the 2004 Greek legislative election and received a fresh mandate for a second term in the untimely 2007 election. On September 2, 2009, Karamanlis called early general elections for a second time during his incumbency as Prime Minister of Greece, stressing the need for economic reform to tackle the impact of the global financial crisis on Greek economy.

He blamed main opposition PASOK for these early polls, accusing them of creating a protracted pre-election climate until next March when the members of the Hellenic Parliament were to vote for the election of the President of Greece, as PASOK had proclaimed their intention to vote against incumbent Karolos Papoulias in order to force the government to call early general election, in a period when opinion polls had been giving a victory for PASOK by a large margin

Kentucky House of Representatives

The Kentucky House of Representatives is the lower house of the Kentucky General Assembly. It is composed of 100 Representatives elected from single-member districts throughout the Commonwealth. Not more than two counties can be joined to form a House district, except when necessary to preserve the principle of equal representation. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits; the Kentucky House of Representatives convenes at the State Capitol in Frankfort. The first meeting of the Kentucky House of Representatives was in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1792, shortly after statehood. During the first legislative session, legislators chose Frankfort, Kentucky to be the permanent state capital. After women gained suffrage in Kentucky, Mary Elliott Flanery was elected as the first female member of the Kentucky House of Representative, she took her seat January 1922 and was the first female legislator elected south of the Mason–Dixon line. In 2017, the Republican party became the majority party in the House.

Section 47 of the Kentucky Constitution stipulates that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. According to Section 32 of the Kentucky Constitution, a state representative must: be a citizen of Kentucky, be at least 24 years old at the time of election, have resided in the state at least 2 years and the district at least 1 year prior to election. Per section 30 of the Kentucky Constitution, representatives are elected every two years in the November following a regular session of the General Assembly; the Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives is the chief presiding officer of the Kentucky House. The Speaker's official duties include maintaining order in the House, recognizing members during debate, appointing committee chairs and determining the composition of committees, determining which committee has jurisdiction over which bill. Traditionally, the Speaker has served as Chair of the Rules Committee and the Committee on Committees; when the Speaker is absent from the floor or otherwise unavailable, the Speaker pro tempore fills in as the chief presiding officer of the House.

In addition to the Speaker and Speaker pro tem, each party caucus elects a floor leader, a whip, caucus chair. † Winner of a special election Kentucky Legislature Kentucky Senate Government of Kentucky Legislative Research Commission