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Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words. This may include their nature and function as symbols, their meaning, the relationship of their meaning to epistemology in general, the rules of their composition from smaller elements. Lexicology involves relations between words, which may involve semantics, derivation and sociolinguistic distinctions, any other issues involved in analyzing the whole lexicon of a language; the term first appeared in the 1970s, though there were lexicologists in essence before the term was coined. Computational lexicology is a related field that deals with the computational study of dictionaries and their contents. An allied science to lexicology is lexicography, which studies words, but in relation with dictionaries – it is concerned with the inclusion of words in dictionaries and from that perspective with the whole lexicon. Sometimes lexicography is considered to be a part or a branch of lexicology, but properly speaking, only lexicologists who write dictionaries are lexicographers.

Some consider this a distinction of theory vs. practice. The word "lexicology" derives from the Greek λεξικόν lexicon, neut. of λεξικός lexikos, "of or for words", from λέξις lexis, "speech", "word" and -λογία -logia, "the study of", a suffix derived from λόγος logos, amongst others meaning "speech, discourse, study, reason", in turn from λέγω. Semantic relations between words are of many kinds, for example homonymy, antonymy and paronymy. Semantics as involved in lexicological work is called lexical semantics. Lexical semantics is somewhat different from the semantics of larger units such as phrases and complete texts, because it does not involve the same degree of compositional semantics complexities. Outside but related to linguistics, other forms of semantics are studied, such as cultural semantics and computational semantics and ideas, meaning changes are explained as resulting from psychological processes. With the rise of new ideas after the ground break of Saussure's work, prestructuralist diachronic semantics was criticized for the atomic study of words, the diachronic approach and the mingle of nonlinguistics spheres of investigation.

The study became concerned with semantic structures and narrowly linguistic structures. Semantic structural relations of lexical entities can be seen in three ways: semantic similarity lexical relations such as synonymy and hyponymy syntagmatic lexical relations were identifiedWordNet "is a type of an online electronic lexical database organized on relational principles, which now comprises nearly 100,000 concepts" as Dirk Geeraerts states it. Generative linguists soon investigated two opposing views of the place of semantics in a grammar, which clashed in an effusive debate, these were interpretative and generative semantics. Cognitive lexical semantics is thought to be most productive of the current approaches. Another branch of lexicology, together with lexicography is phraseology, it studies compound meanings of two or more words, as in "raining cats and dogs". Because the whole meaning of that phrase is much different from the meaning of words included alone, phraseology examines how and why such meanings come in everyday use, what are the laws governing these word combinations.

Phraseology investigates idioms. Since lexicology studies the meaning of words and their semantic relations, it explores the origin and history of a word, i.e. its etymology. Etymologists analyse related languages using a technique known as the comparative method. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Proto Indo-European language. Etymology can be helpful in clarifying some questionable meanings, etc. and is used in lexicography. For example, etymological dictionaries provide words with their historical origins and development. A familiar example of lexicology at work is that of thesauri. Dictionaries are books or computer programs that represent lexicographical work, they are opened and purposed for the use of public; as there are many different types of dictionaries, there are many different types of lexicographers. Questions that lexicographers are concerned with are for example the difficulties in defining what simple words such as'the' mean, how compound or complex words, or words with many meanings can be explained.

Which words to keep in and which not to include in a dictionary. Some noted lexicographers include: Dr. Samuel Johnson French lexicographer Pi

182nd New York Volunteer Infantry

The 182nd New York Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 182nd New York Infantry was organized at New York City, New York in November 1862 and mustered in under the command of Colonel Mathew Murphy. Man of the men who enlisted were serving in the 69th New York State Militia; the regiment was attached to Newport News, Department of Virginia, to December 1862. Corcoran's Brigade, Division at Suffolk, VII Corps, Department of Virginia, to April 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VII Corps, to July 1863. Corcoran's Brigade, King's Division, XXII Corps, Department of Washington, to November 1863. 1st Brigade, Corcoran's Division, XXII Corps, to December 1863. 2nd Brigade, Tyler's Division, XXII Corps, to May 1864. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps, to July 1865. The 182nd New York Infantry mustered out of service July 15, 1865. Left New York for Newport News, November 10, 1862.

Duty at Newport News, Va. until December 1862, at Suffolk until May 1863. Action at Deserted House, Va. January 30, 1863. Siege of Suffolk April 12-May 4. Attack on Suffolk April 24. Nansemond River May 3. Siege of Suffolk raised May 4. Operations on Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad May 12–26. Holland House, May 15–16. Dix's Peninsula Campaign June 24-July 7. Moved to Washington, D. C. July 12, duty in and about the defenses of that city and guard duty along Orange & Alexandria Railroad until May 1864. Ordered to join the Army of the Potomac in the field May 1864. Rapidan Campaign May 17-June 15. Spotsylvania Court House May 17–21. North Anna River May 28-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26–28. Totopotomoy May 28–31. Cold Harbor June 1–12. Before Petersburg June 16–18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road, Weldon Railroad, June 22–23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27–29. Deep Bottom July 27–28. Demonstration north of the James August 13–20. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14–18.

Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27–28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5–7, 1865. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Boydton and White Oak Road March 29–31. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3–9. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge, April 7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington, D. C. May 2–12. Grand Review of the Armies May 23. Duty at Washington until July; the regiment lost a total of 126 men during service. Colonel Mathew Murphy - mortally wounded in action at Hatcher's Run. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co

Jan Willem Klop

Jan Willem Klop is a professor of applied logic at Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. He holds a Ph. D. in mathematical logic from Utrecht University. Klop is known for his work on the Algebra of Communicating Processes, co-author of TeReSe and his fixed point combinator Yk = where L = λabcdefghijklmnopqstuvwxyzr. Klop became a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003. Jan Willem Klop. Combinatory Reduction Systems. Utrecht University. J. C. M. Baeten, Jan Bergstra, Jan Willem Klop. "Term Rewriting Systems with Priorities". In Lescanne, Pierre. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 2nd Int. Conf. RTA-87. LNCS. 256. Springer. Pp. 83–94. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list — preceding technical report FVI 86-03 Y. Toyama, Jan Willem Klop, Henk Barendregt. "Termination for the Direct Sum of left-Linear Term Rewriting Systems -Preliminary Draft-". In Nachum Dershowitz. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 3rd Int. Conf. RTA-89. LNCS. 355. Springer. Pp. 477–491. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list — preceding technical report IEICE COMP 88-90 N. Dershowitz, Jean-Pierre Jouannaud, Jan Willem Klop.

"Open Problems in Rewriting". In Ronald V. Book. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 4th Int. Conf. RTA-91. LNCS. 488. Springer. Pp. 445–456. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Kennaway, R. and Klop, J. W. and Sleep, M. R. and de Vries, F.-J.. "Transfinite Reductions in Orthogonal Term Rewriting Systems". In Book, Ronald V.. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 4th Int. Conf. RTA-91. LNCS. 488. Springer. Pp. 1–12. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Dershowitz, N. and Jouannaud, J.-P. and Klop, J. W.. "More Problems in Rewriting". In Kirchner, Claude. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 5th Int. Conf. RTA-93. LNCS. 690. Springer. Pp. 468–487. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Kennaway, R. and Klop, J. W. and Sleep, M. R. and de Vries, F.-J.. "Infinitary Lambda Calculi and Böhm Models". In Hsiang, Jieh. 6th Int. Conf. on Rewriting Techniques and Applications. LNCS. 914. Springer. Pp. 257–270. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Klop, J. W.. "Origin Tracking in Term Rewriting". In Tobias Nipkow. Rewriting Techniques and Applications, 9th Int.

Conf. RTA-98. LNCS. 1379. Springer. P. 1. Jan Willem Klop's homepage Jan Willem Klop at the Mathematics Genealogy Project

Lucky (Waiting for Godot)

Lucky is a character from Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. He is a slave to the character Pozzo. Lucky is unique in a play where most of the characters talk incessantly: he only utters two sentences, one of, more than seven hundred words long. Lucky suffers without hesitation, he is "tied" to Pozzo by a ridiculously long rope in the first act, a ridiculous short rope in the second act. Both tie around his neck; when he is not serving Pozzo, he stands in one spot drooling, or sleeping if he stands there long enough. His props include a picnic basket, a coat, a suitcase full of sand. Lucky's place in Waiting for Godot has been debated, his name is somewhat elusive. Some have marked him as "lucky" because he is "lucky in the context of the play." He does not have to search for things to occupy his time, a major pastime of the other characters. Pozzo tells him what to do, he does it, is therefore lucky because his actions are determined absolutely. Beckett asserted, that he is lucky because he has "no expectations".

Lucky is compared to Vladimir as being the intellectual, left-brained part of his character duo. Read this way and Lucky are an extreme form of the relationship between Estragon and Vladimir, he philosophises, like Vladimir, is integral to Pozzo's survival in the second act. In the second act, Lucky becomes mute. Pozzo mourns this, despite the fact. Lucky is most famous for his speech in Act I; the monologue is prompted by Pozzo when the tramps ask him to make Lucky "think". He asks them to give him his hat: when Lucky wears his hat, he is capable of thinking; the monologue is long, rambling word salad, does not have any apparent end. Within the gibberish Lucky makes comments on the arbitrary nature of God, man's tendency to pine and fade away, towards the end, the decaying state of the earth, his ramblings may be loosely based around the theories of the Irish philosopher Bishop Berkeley. A source of various interpretations Pozzo and Lucky

Anton Stadler

Anton Paul Stadler was an Austrian clarinet and basset horn player for whom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote, amongst others, both his Clarinet Quintet and Clarinet Concerto. Stadler's name is inextricably linked to Mozart's compositions for these two instruments. Stadler was born in 1753 in a small town near Vienna. Though both became famous as clarinet and basset horn players, the Journal des Luxus und der Moden described Anton in 1801 as'a great artist on many wind instruments', in a letter to Ignatz von Beecke, applying for a position in the Wallerstein orchestra, Anton himself writes that they'can play a little violin and viol'. In the same letter he stated that both he and his brother'could supplement orchestral skills with duets, wind octets and basset horn trios', the latter together with Raymund Griesbacher. A concert on 21 March 1773 at the Kärntnertortheater, of which a programme survived, appears to mark the first public appearance of the two brothers in Vienna. Pamela Poulin writes: Until 1782 Anton and Johann held various positions.

According to the open account books of the imperial court of 1779 they were hired by the court on a per-service basis. A concert programme of 12 March identifies the brothers as being in the service of Count Carl of Palm; as of October 1780 Anton was employed by the Piaristen religious order of Maria Treu as a'manorial musician'. In 1781 Anton was in the service of count Dimitri Galizin. In the same year Kaiser Joseph II designated their services as'indispensable'. Mozart's first encounter with Stadler may have been around 1781, following his own move to Vienna. In October 1781 he wrote of the first performance of the sextet version of his E-flat Serenade K 375: "The six gentlemen who executed it are poor beggars who, play quite well together the first clarinet and the two horns." On 8 February 1782 the Stadlers were invited to join the orchestra of the Viennese imperial court, the following year they were members of the emperor's Harmonie, in which Stadler played second clarinet. Stadler's evident preoccupation with the chalumeau register is significant in view of Mozart's subsequent exploitation of its idiomatic potential.

The earliest documented evidence of Mozart's connection with Stadler dates from two later. The clarinetist's playing evoked the following response in Johann Friedrich Schink's Litterarische Fragmente: My thanks to you, brave virtuoso! I have never heard the like of. Never should I have thought that a clarinet could be capable of imitating the human voice as it was imitated by you. Indeed, your instrument has so soft and lovely a tone that no one can resist it – and I have one, dear Virtuoso. I heard music for wind instruments today, too, by Herr Mozart, in four movements, viz. four horns, two oboes, two bassoons, two clarinets, two basset horns, a double bass, at each instrument sat a master – oh, what a glorious effect it made – glorious and great and sublime! Schink here refers to a performance of Mozart's Serenade for thirteen instruments K 361/370a, which formed part of Stadler's benefit concert at the National Court Theatre advertised in the Wienerblättchen of 23 March 1784: "Herr Stadler senior, in present service of His Majesty the Emperor, will hold a musical concert for his own benefit, at which will be given, among other well chosen pieces, a great wind piece of a special kind composed by Herr Mozart."

More than a week after this first documented performance came the première of Mozart's Piano Quintet K 452 on 1 April, which included parts for both composer and clarinettist. The arrival in Vienna of the Bohemian players Anton David and Vincent Springer proved an important catalyst for Mozart's basset horn writing, they had generated considerable publicity as early as 1782, when their performance at Ludwigslust'on unknown instruments which they call basset horns' was cited by C. F. Cramer the following year. Mozart's espousal of the basset horn began in earnest in late 1783 when he produced over a period of two years thirteen works for that instrument: the Notturni K 436, 437, 438, 439 and 346/439a 25 pieces for three basset horns K 439b the Masonic funeral music K 477/479a the Adagio in B-flat K 411/484a for two clarinets and three basset horns the Adagio in F K 410/484d for two basset horns and bassoon a fragment of a Quintet in B-flat for keyboard, clarinet, basset horn and bassoon a fragment of an Allegro assai in B-flat for two clarinets and three basset horns linked to K 411/484a a fragment of an Adagio in F for clarinet and three basset horns linked to K 580a a fragment of an Allegro in F for basset hornThe latter dates from the end of 1785.

This remarkable activity was undoubtedly brought about by the availability of four excellent clarinet and basset horn players – the Stadlers and Springer – who in combination must have inspired the scoring of Mozart's Serenade K 361/370a, in addition to more ritualistic works such as the Adagio K 411/484a. Indeed, the basset horn came to be associated with Masonic ritual, for which its special character was ideally suited, Anton Stadler was admitted to the'Zum Palmbaum' lodge on 27 September 1785. On 20 October of that year he and Mozart performed at a benefit concert organised by the Palm Tree and Thre

Nanae Katō

Nanae Katō is a Japanese voice actress. Her best-known roles are as title characters in Croket!, as well the lead role of Ahiru Arima from Princess Tutu. Fancy Lala, Classmate, Old Woman, Student Eat-Man'98, Alex Magic User's Club, Madoka Masuko EX-Driver Inuyasha, Child Shiawase Sou no Okojo-san, Yuuta Kudoo Magical Play, Mustard Magical Play 3D, Mustard UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie, Maid D Shrine of the Morning Mist, Chika Yurikasa Princess Tutu, Ahiru/Princess Tutu Pokémon Advance, Pacchiru Croquette!, Croquette Godannar, Hayashi The Galaxy Railways, Sarai Peacemaker, Hana Rockman. EXE Stream, Hazuki Yui Agatha Christie's Great Detectives Poirot and Marple, Annie Kujibiki Unbalance, Kenji Suzuki Transformers: Cybertron, Skids Shakugan no Shana, Domino Animal Yokocho, Macchi Fushigiboshi no Futagohime Gyu!, March Bakegyamon, Mikiharu Kawaguchi, Theme Song Performance Kamichama Karin, Shii-chan/Nike Shakugan no Shana Second, Domino Tamagotchi!, Kuromametchi Shugo Chara!, Miki Inazuma Eleven, Kakeru Megane Noramimi, Noramimi Shugo Chara!!

Doki—, Miki Hayate the Combat Butler!!, Lost Children B Princess Tutu creator Ikuko Itoh had chosen Katō as the voice of Ahiru long before animation production had begun on the series. Nanae Katō at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Nanae Katō at Ryu's Seiyuu Infos Nanae Katō at GamePlaza-Haruka Voice Acting Database Nanae Katō at Hitoshi Doi's Seiyuu Database