The undead are beings in mythology, legend, or fiction that are deceased but behave as if they were alive. A common example of an undead being is a corpse reanimated by supernatural forces, by the application of either the deceased's own life force or that of another being; the undead may corporeal like vampires and zombies. The undead are featured in the belief systems of most cultures, appear in many works of fantasy and horror fiction; the term is occasionally used for putative non-supernatural cases of re-animation, from early experiments like Robert E. Cornish's to future sciences such as chemical brain preservation and cryonics. Bram Stoker considered using the title, The Un-Dead, for his novel Dracula, use of the term in the novel is responsible for the modern sense of the word; the word does appear in English before Stoker but with the more literal sense of "alive" or "not dead", for which citations can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary. In one passage, Nosferatu is given as an "Eastern European" synonym for "un-dead".
Stoker's use of the term "undead" refers only to vampires. Most it is now taken to refer to supernatural beings which had at one point been alive and continue to display some aspects of life after death, but the usage is variable. In Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, Van Helsing describes the Un-Dead as the following: ‘Before we do any-thing, let me tell you this, it is out of the lore and experience of the ancients and of all those who have studied the powers of the UnDead. When they become such, there comes with the change the curse of immortality, they cannot die, but must go on age after age adding new victims and multiply-ing the evils of the world. For all that die from the preying of the Undead become themselves Undead, prey on their kind, and so the circle goes on widening, like as the ripples from a stone thrown in the water... But of the most blessed of all, when this now UnDead be made to rest as true dead the soul of the poor lady whom we love shall again be free. Instead of working wickedness by night and growing more debased in the assimilating of it by day, she shall take her place with the other Angels.
So that, my friend, it will be a blessed hand for her. Other notable 19th-century stories about the avenging undead included Ambrose Bierce's The Death of Halpin Frayser, various Gothic Romanticism tales by Edgar Allan Poe. Though their works could not be properly considered zombie fiction, the supernatural tales of Bierce and Poe would prove influential on writers such as H. P. Lovecraft, by Lovecraft's own admission. In the Harry Potter series, Lord Voldemort uses reanimated dead bodies that are placed under his control by his dark magic powers as his guardians, they are known as Inferi. Banshee Ghost, Phantom, or Spectre Grim reaper Poltergeist Shadow person Wraith Draugr Ghoul Jiangshi Lich Mummy Revenant Skeleton Vampire Wight Zombie Afterlife Death Ghost story Ghouls in popular culture Grógaldr Immortality Jiangshi fiction Necromancy Philosophical zombie Resurrection True death Vampire fiction Völuspá Werewolf fiction Zombie
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, thus can be difficult to define with precision, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, is present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view; the concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have persisted throughout recorded history. They have been present or central at various times and in many diverse forms among cultures and religions worldwide, including both "primitive" and "highly advanced" cultures, continue to have an important role in many cultures today; the predominant concept of witchcraft in the Western world derives from Old Testament laws against witchcraft, entered the mainstream when belief in witchcraft gained Church approval in the Early Modern Period.
It posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was evil and associated with the Devil and Devil worship. This culminated in deaths and scapegoating, many years of large scale witch-trials and witch hunts in Protestant Europe, before ceasing during the European Age of Enlightenment. Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief, in some churches approval. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism, it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft. Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs and place in their societies.
During the Age of Colonialism, many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism accompanied and preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity. Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era, with killings both of victims for their magical body parts, of suspected witchcraft practitioners. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of often-lethal infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. Public healthcare requires considerable education work related to epidemology and modern health knowledge in many parts of the world where belief in witchcraft prevails, to encourage effective preventive health measures and treatments, to reduce victim blaming and stigmatization, to prevent the killing of people and endangering of animal species for body parts believed to convey magical abilities.
The word witch is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies. One popular belief is that it is "related to the English words wit, wisdom," so "craft of the wise." Another is from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of "wicce" and "cræft". In anthropological terminology, witches differ from sorcerers in that they don't use physical tools or actions to curse; this definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches could use physical techniques, as well as some who had attempted to cause harm by thought alone. European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune; the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators believe. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impo
Mystics in Bali
Mystics in Bali is a 1981 Indonesian supernatural horror film directed by H. Tjut Djalil. Based on the novel Leák Ngakak by Putra Mada, the film stars Ilona Agathe Bastian, Yos Santo, Sofia W. D. and W. D. Mochtar; the film focuses on black magic and borrows from Southeast Asian folklore and Balinese mythology the Leyak and the Penanggalan, spirits that appear in the form of a flying head with organs and entrails still attached. The film has been considered to be a cult classic and a landmark of Indonesian horror cinema, is in the public domain. Catherine "Cathy" Kean is an American woman who travels to Bali to write a book about voodoo and black magic, she learns of Leák magic from her lover Mahendra, who says that it is the most powerful form of black magic and that it can be used to kill. After attending a ceremonial ritual, Mahendra agrees to help Cathy study magic, they share a kiss as an unknown woman watches from afar; the next night, after a brief thunderstorm, the two meet the cackling leader of the Leák cult, an old witch with long fingernails known as the Queen of the Leák.
The Queen of the Leák shows the two her face, but says that her face changes every time she makes an appearance. Before departing, the Queen shakes hands with Cathy, her severed arm is left in Cathy's grip, she drops it in fright, the arm crawls a short distance and stops. The following night and Mahendra bring bottles of blood to quench the Queen's thirst; the Queen, revealing herself only as a prehensile tongue, orders Cathy to take off her skirt, carves a spell into Cathy's upper thigh. The Queen demands that Cathy return the next night, that Mahendra is not to join her; the next day, Cathy asks Mahendra to read the spell on her thigh, but he can only decipher the word "Leák". At midnight, wearing a tapis, Cathy ventures into the graveyard; the Queen appears and Cathy laughs maniacally and dances with her, they transform into pigs. Mahendra's uncle, teaches him mantras which can counteract Leák magic. Cathy tells Mahendra that she and the Queen could communicate telepathically, that she envisioned destroying a wall of fire, which Mahendra says means that she killed someone somewhere.
Cathy feels ill, but tells Mahendra that the Queen will cure her illness that night. In her meeting with the Queen that night, Cathy's head and entrails detach from her body. Now a floating vampiric head under the control of the Queen, Cathy's head flies into the home of a pregnant woman and sucks out the unborn baby from the mother's womb. Cathy's head returns to her body, her illness is cured, the blood she devoured invigorates the Queen's youthfulness and power, they transform into snakes, Cathy awakens as a human and vomits mice. During the night, in the form of fireballs, the Queen and Cathy defeat one of the Queen's enemies; the unknown woman witnesses Cathy's head flying, she tells Machesse, who informs his colleagues of the evil and retreats to meditate. The Queen detaches her head again. Machesse finds Cathy's headless body, the townspeople attempt to ward off the flying head. Machesse tells Mahendra that Cathy is no longer the woman he loves, they bury her body to prevent the head from reattaching.
Mahendra dreams of Cathy. That night, the flying head appear to Machesse and Mahendra in the graveyard; the Queen, revealed to be an old rival of Machesse, uses her powers to disinter Cathy's body. The head reattaches, the Queen electrocutes Machesse and slices his neck, killing him; the unknown woman, revealed to be Mahendra's former lover, is killed. Mahendra's uncle Oka attacks the Queen; the Queen transforms into a humanoid pig. Becoming a masked figure, the Queen shoots energy at Oka, who projects energy in return, causing an explosion; the Queen and Cathy are killed by the sunrise. Ilona Agathe Bastian as Catherine "Cathy" Kean Yos Santo as Mahendra Sofia W. D. as the Old Queen of the Leák Debby Cynthia Dewi as the Young Queen of the Leák W. D. Mochtar as Machesse / Oka In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Indonesian government saw films as a possible source for foreign revenue; as a result, low-budget Indonesian exploitation films were produced and exported to international markets. The most successful films in overseas markets were produced by any one of three studios—Rapi Films, Parkit, or Soraya Intercine Films.
Mystics in Bali was directed by H. Tjut Djalil, who would go on to direct the 1989 film Lady Terminator; the film draws from elements of Southeast Asian folklore and Balinese mythology, incorporating the mythological Leyak, which takes the form of a flying, disembodied head with entrails and internal organs still connected and hanging down from the neck. There are variations of this legend among different cultures, with it being known as a Penanggalan in the Malay Peninsula and a Krasue in various Indonesian countries, including Cambodia and Laos; the film's lead, Ilona Agathe Bastian, was not an actress prior to the film's production. Rather, she was a German tourist visiting Bali, chosen by the wife of one of the film's producers to portray the female protagonist. Filming took place on the Indonesian island of Java rather than on location in Bali, as Hindu locals were too superstitious to allow the black magic rituals shown in the film to be performed there; the film was not released on VHS, being distributed only to Indonesian and Japanese markets, yet it has achieved a minor cult status among horror fans.
The film was released on DVD in 2003 by the label Mondo Macabro, though this version has since gone out of print. In Oc
Wewe Gombel is a female supernatural being or ghost in Javanese mythology. It is said; this myth is taught to encourage children to stay at home at night. Traditionally, the Wewe Gombel is represented as a woman with hanging breasts. Modern representations include vampire-like fangs; this is a popular spirit that appears in comics. The ghost was named Wewe Gombel because it is related to an event that, according to ancient folklore, happened in Bukit Gombel, where long ago a married couple lived, they had been married for years, but as time went by the husband realized that his wife was barren and stopped loving her. The husband became wayward, neglecting his wife and leaving her alone for long periods of time, so that she lived in sorrow. One day she caught him in a sexual relationship with another woman. Hurt killed him. Faced with the crime, angry neighbors chased her from the village. Despairing at the ostracization and continual harassment, she committed suicide. After death her vengeful spirit became Wewe Gombel.
Sundanese folklore says that she dwells in the crown of the Arenga pinnata palm, where she has her nest and keeps the children she catches. She does not harm them and once they are under her clutches they are not afraid of her. Local traditions say that the children she abducts have been mistreated or neglected by their parents, she treats the children lovingly as a grandmother would, taking care of them and protecting them until their parents repent, at which point she returns them. Wewe Gombel has affinities with the ghost known as Hantu Kopek in Malay folklore. Wewe Gombel has been featured in Indonesian movies, such as the 1988 film Wewe Gombel and the 2012 film Legenda Wewe Gombel; the 2019 HBO Series "Folklore", Episode 1 "A Mothers Love". Representations of Wewe Gombel are sometimes part of popular local festivals. Bogeyman Calon Arang Rangda Wewe Gombel, World of Mysteries Mistis Folklore Movies
The Balinese people are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million live on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population. There are significant populations on the island of Lombok and in the easternmost regions of Java; the Balinese originated from three periods of migration. The first waves of immigrants came from Java and Kalimantan in prehistoric times and were of proto-Malay stock; the second wave of Balinese came over the years from Java during the Hindu period. The third and final wave came from Java, between the 15th and 16th centuries, about the same time as the conversion to Islam in Java, causing aristocrats and peasants to flee to Bali after the collapse of the Javanese Hindu Majapahit Empire in order to escape Mataram's Islamic conversion; this in turn reshaped the Balinese culture into a syncretic form of classical Javanese culture mixed with many Balinese elements. A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of Indian origin, while 84% are of Austronesian origin, 2% of Melanesian origin.
Balinese culture is a mix of Balinese Hindu-Buddhist Balinese customs. It is most known for its dance and sculpture; the island is known for its Wayang kulit or Shadow play theatre. In rural and neglected villages, beautiful temples are a common sight. Layered pieces of palm leaf and neat fruit arrangements made as offerings by Balinese women have an artistic side to them. According to Mexican art historian José Miguel Covarrubias, works of art made by amateur Balinese artists are regarded as a form of spiritual offering, therefore these artists do not care about recognition of their works. Balinese artists are skilled in duplicating art works such as carvings that resemble Chinese deities or decorating vehicles based on what is seen in foreign magazines; the culture is noted for its use of the gamelan in music and in various traditional events of Balinese society. Each type of music is designated for a specific type of event. For example, music for a piodalan is different from music used for a metatah ceremony, just as it is for weddings, Melasti and so forth.
The diverse types of gamelan are specified according to the different types of dance in Bali. According to Walter Spies, the art of dancing is an integral part of Balinese life as well as an endless critical element in a series of ceremonies or for personal interests. Traditionally, displaying of female breasts is not regarded as immodest. Balinese women can be seen with bared chests. In modern Bali these customs are not observed, but visitors visiting Balinese temples are advised to cover their legs. In the Balinese naming system, a person's rank of birth or caste is reflected in the name. A puputan is an act of mass suicide through frontal assaults in battle, was first noted by the Dutch during the colonization of Bali; the latest act of puputan was during the Indonesian war of Independence, with Lt. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai as the leader in the battle of Margarana; the airport in Bali is named after him in commemoration. The vast majority of the Balinese believe in Agama Tirta, "holy-water religion".
It is a Shivaite sect of Hinduism. Traveling Indian priests are said to have introduced the people to the sacred literature of Hinduism and Buddhism centuries ago; the people combined it with their own pre-Hindu mythologies. The Balinese from before the third wave of immigration, known as the Bali Aga, are not followers of Agama Tirta, but retain their own animist traditions. Balinese people celebrate multiple festivals, including the Kuta Carnival, the Sanur Village Festival, the Bali Kite Festival, where participants fly fish-, bird-, leaf-shaped kites while an orchestra plays traditional music. Balinese Hinduism Balinese architecture Balinese caste system Bali Kingdom Balinese Kshatriya Galungan Nyepi Saraswati Ngaben Legong Sanghyang Kecak Canang sari
The Flying Head is a cannibalistic spirit from Iroquois and Wyandot mythology. According to both Iroquois and Wyandot mythology, Flying Heads are described as being ravenous spirits, that are cursed with an insatiable hunger; the physical appearance of the Flying Head somewhat varies depending on the storyteller however, it is described as resembling a human head with long dark hair, "terrible eyes", a large mouth filled with razor sharp fangs. In some versions, the Flying Head has a pair of bat wings jutting from each side of its cheek, bird-like talons. Other versions replace its bat wings with those of a bird. In all instances, they're described as being larger in size than that of the tallest man, possessing a hide than no weapon can penetrate. According to folklore, the Flying Head drove the original native inhabitants who lived in the area of the state of New York near the source of the Hudson River, in the Adirondack Mountains away from their hunting grounds before the Europeans came.
In the early nineteenth century a Mohawk guide in the town of Lake Pleasant, New York, who called himself Capt. Gill, claimed it was Lake Sacandaga where the legend took place; the tribe had their village on a hill, now located behind the Hamilton County buildings. The name of the previous inhabitants has been lost to history, the legend of The Flying Head ensured that every neighboring tribe steered clear for many years; the Flying Head legend survives. The hill where the unknown tribe's village was located, is considered cursed. Three different hotels were built on the sacred site and all three had a short life span and burned to the ground mysteriously. Capt. Gill lived in a wigwam at the outlet of Lake Pleasant, he had a wife named Molly, Molly had a daughter named Molly Jr. whom Capt. Gill didn't claim as his own. "The Great God hath sent us signs in the sky we have heard uncommon noise in the heavens and have seen HEADS fall down upon the earth" Speech of Tahayadoris a Mohawk sachem at Albany October 25, 1689One version of the story says that there was once a severe winter, that killed off plants and drove the moose and deer to other areas.
Local native hunters decided against following them. The fishing too failed, according to legend, the famine became so severe that whole families began to die. Young members of the community began to talk of migrating from the area, surrounded as they were by hostile tribes to shift their hunting ground for a season was not possible, they proposed a secret march to the great lake off to the west. They believed. According to legend, the old men of the tribe were opposed to leaving their homelands and said that the journey was madness, they said too that the famine was a scourge which the Master of Life inflicted upon his people for their crimes. The legend states that the old men added that they would rather perish by inches on their native hills, that they would rather die that moment, than leave their land forever, to live with plenty upon strange lands; the legend promptly killed the old men. After killing the elders, the question of the disposal of their remains was a problem. According to the legend, they wished in some way to sanctify the deed by offering up the bodies to the Master of Life.
They agreed to decapitate the bodies, burn them, to sink the heads together to the bottom of the lake. One of the young chiefs who planned the crime died when he became entangled in the ropes that bound the heads together and drowned; the legend goes on to say that bubbles and slime appeared on the lake, heralding a terrible monster: a giant head with wings, which the tribe could never escape. The legend states that the problems brought on by the Flying Head did not stop with this group alone; the Flying Head chose to terrorize neighboring peoples as well for no particular reason. Many of the Iroquois were troubled by the Flying Head which, when it rested upon the ground, was taller than a man; this supposed monster was coated in thick black hair, it had wings like a bat, talons. One evening after they had been plagued a long time with fearful visitations, the Flying Head came to the door of a lodge occupied by a single female, she was sitting before the fire roasting acorns which, as they became cooked, she took from the fire and ate.
Terrified by the power of the woman, who he thought was eating live coals, the Flying Head left and bothered them no more. An alternate version of this part of the legend says that, rather than seeing a woman eating acorns and thinking she was eating live coals, the Flying Head stole live coals from her and tried to eat them, thinking they were acorns; the results of course disastrous, the Flying Head flees in agony, never to be seen again. Bibliography Krasue Leyak Penanggalan Zardoz
Dewi Sri, or Shridevi, Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri is the Javanese and Balinese pre-Hindu and pre-Islam era goddess of rice and fertility, still worshipped on the islands of Bali and Java. Despite her mythology being native to the island of Java, after the adoption of Hinduism in Java as early as first century, the goddess is associated with the Hindu goddess Lakshmi as both are attributed to wealth and family prosperity. Dewi Sri is believed to have dominion over the Moon. Thus, Dewi Sri encompasses the whole spectrum of the Mother Goddess- having dominion over birth and Life: she controls rice: the staple food of Indonesians, she is associated with the rice paddy snake. Most of the story of Dewi Sri is associated with the mythical origin of the rice plant, the staple food of the region. One part in Sundanese mythology tells this story of Dewi Sri and the origin of rice as written in "Wawacan Sulanjana":Once upon a time in heaven, Batara Guru, the highest god commanded all the gods and goddesses to contribute their power in order to build a new palace.
Anybody who disobeyed this commandment would lose their arms and legs. Upon hearing the Batara Guru's commandment, one of the gods, Antaboga, a Nāga god, was anxious, he didn't have arms or legs and he wasn't sure how he could do the job. Anta was shaped as a serpent and he could not work, he sought advice from the younger brother of Batara Guru. But Narada was confused by Anta's bad luck. Anta became upset and cried; as he was crying three teardrops fell on the ground. Miraculously, after touching the ground those teardrops became three beautiful shining eggs that looked like jewels or pearls. Batara Narada advised him to offer those "jewels" to the Batara Guru hoping that the gift would appease him and he would give a fair judgement for Anta's disability. With the three eggs in his mouth Anta went to the Batara Guru's palace. On the way there he was approached by an eagle. Anta could not answer the question because he is holding the eggs is in his mouth; however the bird thought that Anta was being arrogant and it became furious thus began to attack Anta.
As the result one egg was shattered. Anta tried to hide in the bushes but the bird was waiting for him; the second attack left Anta with only one egg to offer to the Batara Guru. The two broken eggs become twin boar Kalabuat and Budug Basu. Kalabuat and Budug Basu was adopted by Sapi Gumarang cow, he arrived at the palace and offered his teardrop in the shape of a shiny egg to the Batara Guru. The offer was graciously accepted and the Batara Guru asked him to nest the egg until it hatched. Miraculously the egg hatched into a beautiful baby girl, he gave the baby girl to his wife. Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri was her name and she grew up into a beautiful princess; every gods who saw her became attracted to her her foster father, Batara Guru started to feel attracted to her. Seeing the Batara Guru's desire toward his foster daughter, all the gods became so worried. Feared that this scandal could destroy the harmony in the heaven they conspired to separate Nyi Pohaci and the Batara Guru. To keep the peace in the heavens and to protect Nyi Pohaci chastity, all the gods planned for her death.
She was poisoned to her body buried somewhere on earth in a far and hidden place. However, because of Sri Pohaci's innocence and divinity, her grave showed a miraculous sign. From her head grew coconut. In some version, white rice grew from her right eye. All of the useful plants, essential for human needs and well being, are considered to come from the remnant of Dewi Sri's body. From that time, the people of Java island venerated and revered her as the benevolent "Goddess of Rice" and fertility. In ancient Sunda Kingdom, she is considered as the highest goddess and the most important deity for agricultural society. Most Dewi Sri myths involve Dewi Sri and her brother Sedana, set either in the kingdom of Medang Kamulan or in Heaven or both. In all versions where Sedana appears with Dewi Sri, they end up separated from one another: through either death, wandering, or a refusal to be married; some versions make a correlation between Sri and the large Rice Paddy Snake and Sadhana with the paddy swallow.
The nāga or snake the king cobra is a common fertility symbol throughout Asia, in contrast to being considered representative of temptation, sin or wickedness as in Judeo-Christian belief. Dewi Sri is always depicted as a youthful, beautiful, s