Ivan Franco Capelli is an Italian former Formula One driver. He participated in 98 Grands Prix, debuting on 6 October 1985, he achieved three podiums, scored a total of 31 championship points. From 1997 until 2018 he was a Formula One commentator on the Italian TV station Rai 1. Capelli began his career as a kart driver when he was 15 years old, after four years he moved to the Italian Formula Three Championship. In 1983 he became Italian Formula Three champion, after dominating the series with nine victories. After that he moved with the Coloni team to the European Formula Three Championship, here he was the champion again in 1984. In 1985 he graduated to the European Formula 3000 Championship with a Genoa Racing March-Cosworth and won one race; the same year he debuted in Formula One, driving a Tyrrell at the European Grand Prix, finished fourth in Australia. He was not picked up for a full-time Formula One drive in 1986. Instead, he contested the 1986 Formula 3000 Championship, still with Genoa Racing, raced a BMW in the European Touring Car Championship.
Despite not landing a full-time contract for 1986, Capelli started several F1 races for the AGS team. Meanwhile, Cesare Gariboldi, boss of Genoa Racing, was working with Robin Herd of March to create a new Formula One outfit. Capelli was a core component in their plans. By now and Gariboldi had an father-son relationship. In 1987 Capelli was in Formula One full-time with the March team, led by Gariboldi and running Herd's new chassis with a Cosworth V8 aspirated engine. Capelli continued with BMW touring cars for the Schnitzer team, as the March budget was tight, the Schnitzer team had works status with BMW, allowing him to be on the German company's payroll. Capelli scored March's first point with sixth at the Monaco Grand Prix and March's return to Formula One was seen as competent and promising for the future. In 1988 Capelli had a new weapon, a March chassis designed by Adrian Newey combined with a Judd V8 engine. March had hoped to be the favoured development partner for this engine, but they found themselves sharing it with the French Ligier team as well as the defending F1 Constructors' Champions Williams who had lost their supply of turbocharged Honda engines to McLaren.
Capelli was joined in the team by the British Formula 3 Champion, Brazilian rookie Maurício Gugelmin. They made the March 881 was the surprise of the year. At Spa-Francorchamps he scored his first podium with a third place behind Ayrton Senna's and Alain Prost's McLarens. Capelli's best finish was second place at the Portuguese Grand Prix. Respectful, Capelli referred to the dual World Champion as "The great Mr Prost" in post race interviews. Better was ahead for the Italian when he became the first non-turbo driver since 1983 to lead a World Championship Grand Prix; this happened on lap 16 of the Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka when Prost missed a gear coming out of the final chicane and Capelli was able to get ahead before the start/finish line and lead the lap. However, Prost used Honda's superior power and was ahead before turn 1, his Judd V8 suffered electrical failure just 3 laps later. However, the momentum did not continue. March had financial problems and a sponsor, Leyton House, acquired a controlling interest.
Gugelmin finished third in his home race at Jacarepaguá in 1989. The definitive 1989 Leyton House March was a disappointment, neither driver challenged for the top in the rest of the year. Capelli in particular seemed destined not to finish races in 1989. In fact, he only went on one further occasion far enough to be classified. Despite this Capelli was one of only six drivers to start in all of the 16 races of the 1989 season. Team spirit remained intact despite the death of Gariboldi in a car crash and midway through the season Capelli felt happy enough in the team to take up his option for 1990; the new decade started like 1989 though. Newey's car had excellent aerodynamics and exclusive use of Judd's updated V8 engine, but it was intolerant of bumps, it was so bad on the notoriously bumpy Mexico City track that neither driver could control the car and both failed to qualify. In the next at Paul Ricard in France came a complete turn around in form. Capelli led Gugelmin in a Leyton House 1–2 throughout much of the race.
Gugelmin retired, Capelli was overtaken near the end by the Ferrari of Prost with only 3 laps remaining and went on to finish a strong second. Revisions to the car had made it more competitive, but it was the billiard table-smooth track which allowed the result. Despite some promising showings at Silverstone and Hockenheim, the remainder of the year was unfulfilled. In 1991, Leyton House was responsible not only for chassis development but bankrolled the ambitious Ilmor V10 engine programme. With so many new ingre
1991 United States Grand Prix
The 1991 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on March 10, 1991 in Phoenix, Arizona. It was the first race of the 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship; the 81-lap race was won from pole position by Ayrton Senna, driving a McLaren-Honda, with Alain Prost second in a Ferrari and Nelson Piquet third in a Benetton-Ford. The race marked the respective debuts of future double World Champion Mika Häkkinen and the Jordan team, it was the first F1 World Championship race in which ten points were awarded for a win rather than nine, as part of a revised scoring system introduced for 1991. However, it was to be the last United States Grand Prix until 2000, due to poor attendances; the race was the first of the 1991 Formula One season. In the two previous years, the championship had been decided when Prost tangled at Suzuka. In 1989, their collision as team-mates secured Prost's third World Championship. Controversy regarding the nature of the 1990 incident had created great anticipation for the rematch.
Prior to arriving in Phoenix, the 1991 McLaren chassis had had only had one brief test session, the two race cars were completed about 4 am Friday, six hours before the first practice session. Working to prepare the new car, Ayrton Senna claimed he had never gotten comfortable with the increasing complexity of the sport since helping Lotus introduce the first active suspension car in 1987, he still found it hard to embrace the huge role of computers in achieving a proper setup. "Friday, to understand and interpret things properly, I worked with the engineers into the evening," Senna said. "It has been a long time. The engineers and I talked our way around the circuit we compared this with what the computer predicted, it was great because the computer confirmed everything, it showed where there was room for improvement." The Ferraris of Alain Prost and Jean Alesi were expected to be the strongest team, but their V-12s and 7-speed semi-automatic gearboxes were not well suited to the tight turns and short straights of the street circuit.
As it turned out, they were not the only ones plagued by gearbox problems throughout the race. On Sunday, Prost began his second season at Ferrari alongside Senna on the front row. At the start, he fell in behind the Brazilian, with Nigel Mansell slipping ahead of Riccardo Patrese. Alesi and Gerhard Berger followed Nelson Piquet, Roberto Moreno, Stefano Modena and Emanuele Pirro. A lap Alesi, in his first race for Ferrari, swept past Patrese, but by Senna was pulling away. After ten laps, he had a lead of ten seconds over Prost. Behind Senna, Patrese was involved in two successive three-way battles. First, after getting back by Alesi for fourth on lap 16, Patrese closed on Mansell, behind Prost. By lap 22, Patrese was close enough to attack his Williams team-mate but overshot onto the escape road, as Mansell swerved to avoid him. Upon rejoining, Patrese latched onto Alesi and Berger, as the new three-car train now covered fourth through sixth places. Patrese had gotten past Berger when two of the top six runners retired on consecutive laps.
On lap 35, Mansell pulled over when the Williams's new semi-automatic gearbox failed, on the next time around, Berger's race ended as well. Patrese passed Alesi for the second time, Alesi pitted for new Goodyear tires on lap 43, he rejoined in seventh. Three laps Prost was being hounded by Patrese, he pitted, ceding second spot to the Williams; when the Ferrari crew had problems changing his right rear tire, the Frenchman dropped to seventh behind Modena's Tyrrell-Honda. On lap 48, Senna pitted without giving up the lead. Like Mansell, Patrese was having problems with the gearbox in his Williams, when it selected neutral midway through Turn Seven, it caused him to spin out of second place; the car stopped on the outside of perpendicular to the racing line. Piquet and Mika Häkkinen managed to avoid him as they passed, but before Patrese could get out of the car, Moreno, in the second Benetton, went straight across the bow of the Williams, removing the nose of Patrese's car and the right front wheel of the Benetton.
Neither driver was injured. Patrese and Moreno's cars remained on the course throughout the race, Bertrand Gachot, driving the first race for the new Jordan team and challenging Satoru Nakajima, spun after swerving to avoid them. With Patrese out, Senna led Piquet, having to hold off Alesi, by over a minute. Alesi squeezed up to second on lap 53, while four laps Prost disposed of Modena. On lap 70, Prost went from fourth to second in one move at turn five. With Alesi and Piquet running second and third, Piquet's Benetton pulled alongside Alesi– who had set the race's fastest lap while Prost was in the pits– in Turn Four, but could not get by. Down the straight, Piquet passed Alesi for second place. Prost went by his new teammate on the left, sliced back to the right, between Alesi and Piquet, beating Piquet to the apex of Turn Five and regaining second place. By now Senna led by 40 seconds. Gearbox troubles dropped Alesi to fifth before he retired less than 10 laps from the finish, leaving third place to Piquet who, like the two Tyrrells following, had never pitted for tires.
Martini was pressing Satoru Nakajima for fifth, only to have his engine let go after 75 laps. A similar problem removed Gachot from eighth on the same lap; the race ended a lap short of the planned 82 as the two-hour limit was reached, Senna taking the win having led every lap. After the r
Larrousse Formula One was a motorsports racing team founded in 1987 by Didier Calmels and former racer Gérard Larrousse under the name Larrousse & Calmels. It was based in the southern suburbs of Paris, it was renamed Larrousse after the departure of Calmels following his murder of his wife. The team competed in Formula One from 1987 to 1994 before succumbing to financial problems, scoring a best finish of third at the 1990 Japanese Grand Prix during this time. Larrousse & Calmels commissioned a car from Lola and the result was the LC87, a car designed by Eric Broadley and Ralph Bellamy; the chassis was powered by a Cosworth DFZ V8 engine, was entered in the undersubscribed aspirated class. The team started out in 1987 with just one car for Philippe Alliot, with Yannick Dalmas joining the team in a second car the end of the year. By that time they had agreed to a three-year deal with Lola and Chris Murphy was recruited from Zakspeed to help Bellamy; the team did a deal to run Lamborghini V12 engines in 1989.
In September 1988 the team hired former Renault and Lotus designer/engineer Gérard Ducarouge but in the spring of 1989, Calmels had to quit the team due to his imprisonment for the murder of his wife. As a result, the team became known as Larrousse. For the 1989 season Alliot stayed on but Dalmas, ill with Legionnaires' disease, was dropped after Canada and replaced by rookie French driver Éric Bernard and by Michele Alboreto, who had left Tyrrell. At the end of the year, Larrousse sold 50% of his shares to the Japanese Espo Corporation, Aguri Suzuki was hired to partner Bernard for the 1990 season. At the same time the team moved from Antony to new premises at Signes in the south of France near the Paul Ricard Circuit; the 1990 season was Larrousse's best in Formula One. Although the team was forced to pre-qualify for year, Suzuki managed to score the team's first podium in front of his home fans at Suzuka in the Japanese Grand Prix, the team finished sixth in the Constructors' Championship.
Things began to unravel when Lamborghini announced it was switching to Ligier. Of greater concern was the FIA considering taking away Larrousse's points because of an alleged "false declaration" about the design of the chassis, it transpired the team had made an honest mistake by registering the car as manufactured by themselves, when in fact it was designed and built by Lola in England. Although the team lost their points from 1990, the team kept the travel benefits and prize money associated with their championship finish and did not have to take part in pre-qualifying. Larrousse signed an engine deal with Brian Hart for 1991 but early in the year Espo withdrew and the team struggled financially. Although difficult to set up, the car proved quick and was a solid midfield runner before succumbing to the inevitable breakdown or driver error. Suzuki finished sixth in the first race of the season at Phoenix, thereafter never made the chequered flag again. Bernard's season was fraught, with the Frenchman earning a single point for 6th at the Mexican Grand Prix.
A nightmare season was capped off for him when he crashed in qualifying in Japan at Suzuka's hairpin, badly breaking his leg, putting him out of the F1 limelight until he returned with Ligier in 1994. Belgian Bertrand Gachot returned for the final race in Australia, but failed to make an impression either. Thing were worse behind the scenes; as the funds began to run dry, the team sought protection from creditors with a French court in July. Japanese company Central Park soon afterwards Ducarouge left. Merger talks with AGS failed and the relationships with Lola and Hart were both ended without payment being made by Larrousse. In the autumn of 1991 Gérard Larrousse signed up Robin Herd from Fondmetal for the construction of an F1 chassis and 65% of the team was sold to the Venturi car company. A new Lamborghini engine deal was agreed and Bertrand Gachot was kept on alongside Ukyo Katayama. In a season dominated by the Williams team, Gachot scored Larrousse's only point of the season at the Monaco Grand Prix.
Gachot and Katayama collided twice in the season, in Canada and Japan. In September 1992 Venturi sold its shareholding to a group called Comstock, headed by German Rainer Walldorf. Walldorf, real name Klaus Walz, turned out to be wanted by the police of several European countries in connection with four murders. After escaping from a raid on his house in France through judicious use of a hand grenade, he was killed during a nine-hour gun battle with police in a German hotel; the team had another disappointing season in 1993 when Gérard Larrousse funded drivers Philippe Alliot and Érik Comas, the drivers could only manage two finishes in the points. In 1994 Larrousse reorganized the team again. Having failed to agree a deal to use Peugeot engines he reverted to customer Ford HB engines, which were a lesser predecessor to the Ford Zetec-R used by the works Benetton team. New partners were brought in, in the form of Swiss-based Fast Group SA, an organization headed by Ferrari dealer Michel Golay and former F1 racer Patrick Tambay.
Sponsorship was found from the vast Danone group, giving the cars two separate liveries: the cars ran in the colors of alcohol-free beer Tourtel where advertising for alcohol products was banned, in the red and white colors of Kronenbourg elsewhere. At the wheel, Olivier Beretta replaced Alliot. Reliability was very poor throughout the season. Comas scored two 6th placings in the Pacific and German GPs – the latter race had only 8 finishers after a huge start-line accident. Berett
Bicester is a town and civil parish in the Cherwell district of northeastern Oxfordshire in England. This historic market centre is one of the fastest growing towns in Oxfordshire. Development has been favoured by its proximity to junction 9 of the M40 motorway linking it to London and Banbury, it has good road links to Oxford, Brackley, Buckingham and Witney, as well as railway stations on two axes. It has its own town council a one quarter of the population hence ward contribution to the District Council and further representation as to different local governmental matters on the County Council. In 2014 the Government in concert with the local planning authority planned for Bicester to become a garden city on the basis of the size of its buffers, distance from the Metropolitan Green Belt and in part to accommodate the demand of commuters to London and Oxford. Up to 13,000 new homes will be built; as the crow flies, Bicester is halfway between Birmingham and London, being 51 miles from both cities.
Bicester's history goes back to Saxon times. The name Bicester, in use since the mid 17th century, derives from earlier forms including Berncestre, Burcester and Bissiter. Theories advanced for the meaning of the name include "of Beorna", the "Fort of the Warriors" or from Latin Bi-cester to mean "The two forts"; the ruins of the Roman settlement of Alchester are 2 miles southwest of the town and remains of an Augustinian priory founded between 1182 and 1185 survive in the town centre. The West Saxons established a settlement in the 6th century at a nodal point of a series of ancient routes. A north-south Roman road, known as the Stratton Road, from Dorchester to Towcester, passed through King's End. Akeman Street, an east-west Roman road from Cirencester to St. Albans lies 2 miles south, next to the Roman fortress and town at Alchester. St Edburg's Church in Bicester was founded as a minster in the mid 7th century after St Birinus converted Cynegils King of the West Saxons following their meeting near Blewbury.
The site was just east of the old Roman road between Dorchester and Towcester that passed through the former Roman town at Alchester. The earliest church was a timber structure serving the inhabitants of the growing Saxon settlements on either side of the river Bure, as a mission centre for the surrounding countryside. Archaeological excavations at Procter's Yard identified the ecclesiastical enclosure boundary, a large cemetery of Saxon graves suggesting a much larger churchyard has been excavated on the site of the Catholic Church car park opposite St. Edburg's; the first documentary reference is the Domesday Book of 1086 which records it as Berencestra, its two manors of Bicester and Wretchwick being held by Robert D'Oyly who built Oxford Castle. The town became established as twin settlements on opposite banks of the River Bure, a tributary of the Ray and the River Thames. By the end of the 13th century Bicester was the centre of a deanery of 33 churches, it is unclear when St Edburg's Church was rebuilt in stone, but the 12th century church seems to have had an aisleless cruciform plan.
Earliest surviving material includes parts of the nave north wall including parts of an external zigzag string course, the north and south transepts and the external clasping buttresses of the chancel. The triangular-headed opening at the end of the north wall of the nave was an external door of the early church. Three great round-headed Norman arches at the end of the nave mark the position of a 13th-century tower; the Augustinian Priory was founded by Gilbert Bassett around 1183 and endowed with land and buildings around the town and in other parishes including 180 acres and the quarry at Kirtlington, 300 acres at Wretchwick, 135 acres at Stratton Audley, on Gravenhill and Arncott. It held the mill at Clifton and had farms let to tenants at Deddington, Grimsbury and Fringford. Although these holdings were extensive and close to the market at Bicester, they appear to have been poorly managed and did not produce much income for the priory; the priory appropriated the church in the early 13th century.
The church was enlarged by a south aisle, arches were formed in the nave and south transept walls linking the new aisle to the main body of the church. A further extension was made in the 14th century; the arched openings in the north wall of the nave are supported on thick octagonal columns. The Perpendicular Gothic north chapel is on the east wall are two windows; the chapel had an upper chamber used for the vicars' grammar school, accessed from an external staircase which forms part of the north eastern buttress. In the 15th century the upper walls of the nave were raised to form a clerestory with square-headed Perpendicular Gothic windows; the earlier central tower and its nave arch was taken down and the nave roof rebuilt. The columns of the north arcade were undercut making them appear slim and the capitals top heavy. In the east bay of the nave, there is carved decoration forming part of a canopied tomb set between the columns; the west tower was built in three stages, each stage marked by a horizontal string course running round the outside.
The construction would have taken several years to complete. The battlements and crockets on the top of the tower were replaced in the
1987 Formula One World Championship
The 1987 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 41st season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1987 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1987 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that commenced on 12 April and ended on 15 November; the World Championship for Drivers was won by Nelson Piquet, the World Championship for Constructors by Williams-Honda. The season encompassed the Jim Clark Trophy and the Colin Chapman Trophy, which were contested by drivers and constructors of Formula One cars powered by aspirated engines. At first, the 1987 championship was a four-way battle between Williams drivers Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell, Lotus driver Ayrton Senna, McLaren driver and defending two-time champion Alain Prost, it became a straight fight between Piquet and Mansell, who between them finished with nine wins from the season's sixteen races. Mansell took six wins to Piquet's three; the duel was settled in Piquet's favour at the penultimate race of the season in Japan, when Mansell crashed in practice and injured his back, ending his season and handing Piquet his third Drivers' Championship.
Senna finished third having won at Detroit. Prost finished fourth despite winning three races. Ferrari's Gerhard Berger won the final two races of the season, in Japan and Australia, to finish fifth; the Constructors' Championship was comfortably won by Williams, with McLaren second, Lotus third and Ferrari fourth. For 1987 only, there were two other championships, contested by drivers and constructors of cars powered by aspirated engines: the Jim Clark Trophy for drivers, the Colin Chapman Trophy for constructors; these championships encouraged teams to switch to such engines, ahead of the ban on turbos from 1989 onwards. Tyrrell were the only team to run two "atmo" cars for the entire season and thus won the Colin Chapman Trophy, while their drivers Jonathan Palmer and Philippe Streiff came first and second in the Jim Clark Trophy. With the return of the aspirated engines, the aforementioned turbo ban in mind, the FIA introduced new rules for 1987 in an effort to reduce costs and slow down the cars with a resultant increase in safety, as well as to increase competitiveness between the two engine types.
Turbo-powered cars now had to feature a pop-off valve which restricted boost to 4.0 bar, thus limiting engine power. However, advances in engine development, aerodynamics and suspension meant that the leading teams such as Williams, McLaren and Ferrari nonetheless recorded faster times than they had in 1986, when turbo boost was unrestricted; the FIA banned super-soft qualifying tyres for 1987, thus eliminating the unpopular practice of having to find a clear lap on tyres which were good for two flying laps at best. Pirelli's withdrawal from F1 at the end of 1986 meant that Goodyear was the sole tyre supplier for 1987; the following drivers and constructors competed in the 1987 season. The dramatic end to the 1986 season in Australia, with Alain Prost winning the World Championship at the last gasp created tension between Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet but the combination was still potent and with the British Mansell and the Brazilian Piquet staying with the team it was still a powerful challenger.
McLaren was without John Barnard but had gained the services of Gordon Murray and Neil Oatley and had retained Alain Prost while Keke Rosberg's retirement had opened the way for Swede Stefan Johansson to join the team, having been dropped by Ferrari in favor of Gerhard Berger. Benetton had hired Thierry Boutsen to replace Berger as Teo Fabi's partner and with the Haas Lola team having closed down the team took over the factory Ford turbo engines, which had improved over their rushed development time. Team Lotus changed color with JPS being replaced by Camel and landed a Honda engine deal for drivers Ayrton Senna and Satoru Nakajima. Martin Brundle left Tyrrell to join Christian Danner at Zakspeed while Zakspeed's Jonathan Palmer joined Philippe Streiff at Tyrrell, which had gone back to using Cosworth DFZ engines; the only BMW engines left were the factory supply to Brabham, these being the units which the cylinders angled to create a low profile for the BT55. Derek Warwick left Brabham to join F1 returnee Eddie Cheever at Arrows with rebadged upright BMW engines which were now known as Megatrons.
The team got a new technical director Ross Brawn joining from the Haas Lola team. Riccardo Patrese was joined at Brabham by Andrea de Cesaris while his place alongside Sandro Nannini at Minardi was taken by wealthy Spanish newcomer Adrian Campos. Osella had only one Alfa Romeo-engined car in Brazil for Alex Caffi. Ligier was due to run new Alfa Romeo four-cylinder turbo engines for Rene Arnoux and Piercarlo Ghinzani but things went badly wrong: Arnoux made disparaging remarks about the Italian company's new four-cylinder turbo engine, referring to them as "used food". Alfa Romeo had only been acquired by FIAT, not keen on the Alfa name being in F1; as a result, Alfa Romeo cited a clause in the Ligier contract stating that Ligier should not do anything to damage the image of Alfa Romeo and quit the team. The news was disastrous for Ligier and the team had to miss Brazil while modifying its cars to run Megatron engines. With the rules restricting turbo engines more and more and fewer turbo engines available several teams went back to Cosworth power and the FIA dec
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract