The Sino-Sikh War or the Dogra-Tibetan War was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of the Dogra nobleman Gulab Singh of Jammu, under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire, Tibet under the suzerainty of Qing China. Gulab Singh's commander was the able general Zorawar Singh Kahluria, who after the conquest of Ladakh, tried to attempt to extend its boundaries in order to control the trade routes into Ladakh. Zorawar Singh's campaign, suffering from the effects of inclement weather, suffered a defeat at Missar and Singh was killed; the Tibetans advanced on Ladakh. Gulab Singh sent reinforcements under the command of his nephew Jawahir Singh. A subsequent battle near Leh in 1842 led to a Tibetan defeat; the Treaty of Chushul was signed in 1842 maintaining the status quo ante bellum. From the early 18th century, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty had consolidated its control of Tibet after defeating the Dzungar Khanate. From until late into the 19th century, the Qing rule of the region remained unchallenged.
South of the Himalayas, Ranjit Singh established his empire in the Punjab region in 1799. In 1808, Ranjit Singh conquered Jammu, under control of the Hindu Rajput Dogra dynasty from Dougar Desh in Jammu and incorporated them into his empire as vassals. Historians continue to debate the reasons for the invasion. Zorawar Singh knew that western Tibet was connected to the rest of Tibet by the Mayum La, so his plan consisted of advancing as as into enemy territory, capturing the pass before winter, building up his forces for a renewed campaign in the summer; as Zorawar Singh had done in Ladakh, so too in the newly conquered Baltistan, Zorawar recruited the Baltis into his army, which now had men from the Jammu hills and Ladakh. This five or six thousand-strong army was divided into three columns that marched parallel into Tibet in May 1841. One column under the Ladakhi prince Nono Sungnam followed the course of the Indus River to its source at Lake Manasarovar. Another column of 300 men under Ghulam Khan marched along the mountains leading up to the Kailash Range south of the Indus.
Zorawar himself led 3000 men along the plateau region where the vast and picturesque Pangong Tso is located. The invaders met with success in the beginning of the invasion, thanks to the quality of their weapons, but the Tibetans resisted using guerrilla tactics and their knowledge of the local terrain. Sweeping all resistance before them, the three columns passed Lake Manasarovar and converged at Gartok, defeating the small Tibetan force stationed there; the enemy commander fled to Taklakot but Zorawar stormed that fort on September 6, 1841. Envoys from Tibet now came to him as did agents of the Maharaja of Nepal, whose kingdom was only fifteen miles from Taklakot; the Sikh army now controlled the urban centers of Daba, Tsaparang Rudok and Taklakot. He set up an administration to rule the occupied territories. Meanwhile, in the Punjab, the British envoys pressured the Maharaja to order his withdrawal while the Nepalis helped the Qing forces against him; the fall of Taklakot finds mention in the report of the Chinese Imperial Resident, Meng Pao, at Lhasa: On my arrival at Taklakot a force of only about 1,000 local troops could be mustered, divided and stationed as guards at different posts.
A guard post was established at a strategic pass near Taklakot to stop the invaders, but these local troops were not brave enough to fight off the Shen-Pa and fled at the approach of the invaders. The distance between Central Tibet and Taklakot is several thousand li…because of the cowardice of the local troops. Reinforcements are essential in order to withstand these unruly invaders. Zorawar and his men went on pilgrimage to Mount Kailash, he had extended his communication and supply line over 450 miles of inhospitable terrain by building small forts and pickets along the way. The fort Chi-T’ang was built near Taklakot, where Mehta Basti Ram was put in command of 500 men, with 8 or 9 cannon. With the onset of winter all the passes were blocked and roads snowed in; the supplies for the Dogra army over such a long distance failed despite Zorawar’s meticulous preparations. As the intense cold, coupled with the rain and lightning continued for weeks upon weeks, many of the soldiers lost their fingers and toes to frostbite.
Others starved to death. The Tibetans and their Han Chinese allies regrouped and advanced to give battle, bypassing the Dogra fort of Chi-T’ang. Zorawar and his men met them at the Battle of Toyo on December 12, 1841. In the early exchange of fire the Rajput general was wounded in his right shoulder, but he grabbed a sword in his left hand; the Tibetan horsemen charged the Dogra position and one of them thrust his lance in Zorawar Singh’s chest. Wounded and unable to escape he was pulled down off his horse and beheaded; the battle marked the end of the invasion, with the death of their general and 300 dead and 700 soldiers captured, the army of Punjab hurriedly retreated to Ladakh with the Sino-Tibetan forces on their heels until they halted the pursuit just a day from Leh. The Sino-Tibetan force mopped up the other garrisons of the Dogras and advanced on Ladakh, now determined to conquer it and add it to the Imperial Chinese dominions; however the force under Mehta Basti Ram withstood a siege for several weeks
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Transition from Ming to Qing
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a decades-long period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria, the Ming dynasty of China in the south. Leading up to the Qing conquest, in 1618, Aisin Gioro leader Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances, which enumerated grievances against the Ming and began to rebel against their domination. Many of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, a major Manchu clan, Ming favoritism of Yehe. Nurhaci's demand that the Ming pay tribute to him to redress the seven grievances was a declaration of war, as the Ming were not willing to pay money to a former tributary. Shortly afterwards, Nurhaci began to rebel against the Ming in Liaoning in southern Manchuria. At the same time, the Ming dynasty was fighting for its survival against fiscal turmoil and peasant rebellions. On April 24, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who proclaimed the Shun dynasty.
The last Ming emperor, the Chongzhen Emperor, hanged himself from a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. When Li Zicheng moved against him, the Ming general Wu Sangui shifted his alliance to the Manchus. Li Zicheng was defeated at the Battle of Shanhai Pass by the joint forces of Wu Sangui and Manchu prince Dorgon. On June 6, the Manchus and Wu entered the capital and proclaimed the young Shunzhi Emperor as Emperor of China; the conquest was far from complete, it required forty more years before all of China was securely united under Qing rule. The Kangxi Emperor ascended the throne in 1661, in 1662 his regents launched the Great Clearance to defeat the resistance of Ming loyalists in South China, he fought off several rebellions, such as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui in southern China, starting in 1673, countered by launching a series of campaigns that expanded his empire. In 1662, Zheng Chenggong drove out the Dutch colonists and founded the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan, a Ming loyalist state with a goal of reconquering China.
However, Tungning was defeated in 1683 at the Battle of Penghu by Han admiral Shi Lang, a former admiral under Koxinga. The fall of the Ming dynasty was caused by a combination of factors. Kenneth Swope argues that one key factor was deteriorating relations between Ming Royalty and the Ming Empire's military leadership. Other factors include repeated military expeditions to the North, inflationary pressures caused by spending too much from the imperial treasury, natural disasters and epidemics of disease. Contributing further to the chaos was a peasant rebellion in Beijing in 1644 and a series of weak emperors. Ming power would hold out in what is now southern China for years, though would be overtaken by the Manchus; the Manchus are sometimes misdescribed as a nomadic people, when in fact they were not nomads, but a sedentary agricultural people who lived in fixed villages, farmed crops, practiced hunting and mounted archery. Their main military formation was infantry wielding bows and arrows and pikes while cavalry was kept in the rear.
The Jianzhou Jurchen chief, Nurhaci, is retrospectively identified as the founder of the Qing dynasty. In 1616 he declared himself Khan, his unifying efforts gave the Jurchen the strength to assert themselves backed by an army consisting of majority Han defectors as well as Ming produced firearms. In 1618 he proclaimed Seven Grievances against the Ming and the Ming General Li Yongfang surrendered the city of Fushun in what is now Liaoning province in China's northeast, after Nurhaci gave him an Aisin Gioro princess in marriage and a noble title; the Princess was one of Nurhaci's granddaughters. In a series of successful military campaigns in Liaodong and Liaoxi, the Jurchens seized a number of Ming cities including Shenyang, which they made into the capital of their newly founded "Later Jin" dynasty, named after a Jurchen polity that had ruled over north China several centuries earlier. Under the inspirational leader Yuan Chonghuan, the Ming used western artillery to defeat the Jin forces at the Battle of Ningyuan in 1626.
Nurhaci was injured and died soon afterwards, but the Ming failed to seize the chance to counter-attack. The Jurchens' nemesis Yuan Chonghuan was soon purged in a political struggle, while under the leadership of the new khan Hong Taiji the Jurchens kept seizing Ming cities, defeated Joseon, a crucial vassal of the Ming, in 1627 and 1636, raided deep into China in 1642 and 1643; the Chahar Mongols were fought against by Dorgon in 1628 and 1635. After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon. In 1650 Dorgon married the Korean Princess Uisun; the Princess' name in Korean was Uisun and she was Prince Yi Kaeyoon's daughter. Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan. During the second invasion, many Korean women were kidnapped and raped at the hand of the Qing forces, as a result were unwelcomed by their families if they were released by the Qing after being ransomed. In their years, the Ming faced a number of famines and floods as well as economic chaos, rebellions.
Li Zicheng rebelled in the 1630s in Shaanxi in the north, while a mutiny led by Zhang Xianzhong broke out in Sichuan in the 1640s. Many people were killed in this self-proclaimed emperor's reign of terror. Just as Dorgon and his advisor
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo
The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor—a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus until his death in 1799; as a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy. As a military leader, he led military campaigns expanding the dynastic territory to the largest extent by conquering and sometimes destroying Central Asian kingdoms; this turned around in his late years: the Qing empire began to decline with corruption and wastefulness in his court and a stagnating civil society.
A British valet who accompanied his diplomat master to the Qing court in 1793 described the emperor: The Emperor is about five feet ten inches in height, of a slender but elegant form. His dress consisted of a loose robe of yellow silk, a cap of black velvet with a red ball on the top, adorned with a peacock's feather, the peculiar distinction of mandarins of the first class, he wore silk boots embroidered with gold, a sash of blue girded his waist. Hongli was adored by both his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, his father, the Yongzheng Emperor; some historians argue that the main reason why the Kangxi Emperor appointed the Yongzheng Emperor as his successor was because Hongli was his favourite grandson. He felt that Hongli's mannerisms were similar to his own; as a teenager, Hongli possessed literary ability. After his father's enthronement in 1722, Hongli was made a qinwang under the title "Prince Bao of the First Rank". Like many of his uncles, Hongli entered into a battle of succession with his elder half-brother Hongshi, who had the support of a large faction of the officials in the imperial court, as well as Yinsi, Prince Lian.
For many years, the Yongzheng Emperor did not designate any of his sons as the crown prince, but many officials speculated that he favoured Hongli. Hongli went on inspection trips to the south, was known to be an able negotiator and enforcer, he was appointed as the chief regent on occasions when his father was away from the capital. Hongli's accession to the throne was foreseen before he was proclaimed emperor before the assembled imperial court upon the death of the Yongzheng Emperor; the young Hongli was the favourite grandson of the Kangxi Emperor and the favourite son of the Yongzheng Emperor. In the hope of preventing a succession struggle from occurring, the Yongzheng Emperor wrote the name of his chosen successor on a piece of paper and placed it in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity; the name in the box was to be revealed to other members of the imperial family in the presence of all senior ministers only upon the death of the emperor.
When the Yongzheng Emperor died in 1735, the will was taken out and read before the entire Qing imperial court, after which Hongli became the new emperor. Hongli adopted the era name "Qianlong", which means "Lasting Eminence"; the Qianlong Emperor was a successful military leader. After ascending the throne, he sent armies to suppress the Miao rebellion, his campaigns expanded the territory controlled by the Qing Empire. This was made possible not only by Qing military might, but by the disunity and declining strength of the Inner Asian peoples. Under the Qianlong Emperor's reign, the Dzungar Khanate was incorporated into the Qing Empire's rule and renamed Xinjiang, while to the west, Ili was conquered and garrisoned; the incorporation of Xinjiang into the Qing Empire resulted from the final defeat and destruction of the Dzungars, a coalition of Western Mongol tribes. The Qianlong Emperor ordered the Dzungar genocide. According to the Qing dynasty scholar Wei Yuan, 40% of the 600,000 Dzungars were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to the Russian Empire or Kazakh tribes, 30% were killed by the Qing army, in what Michael Edmund Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."
Historian Peter Perdue has argued that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of massacre launched by the Qianlong Emperor. The Dzungar genocide has been compared to the Qing extermination of the Jinchuan Tibetan people in 1776, which occurred during the Qianlong Emperor's reign; when victorious troops returned to Beijing, a celebratory hymn was sung in their honour. A Manchu version of the hymn was sent to Paris; the Qing Empire hired Zhao Yi and Jiang Yongzhi at the Mili
Polhané Sönam Topgyé
Polhané Sönam Topgyé was one of the most important political personalities of Tibet in the first half of the 18th century. Between 1728 and 1747 he was the ruling prince of Tibet and carried royal titles during the period of Qing rule of Tibet, he is known as a fearsome warrior and a grand strategist. After the troubled years under the reign of Lhazang Khan, the bloody invasion of Tsering Dhondup and the civil war, his government ushered in a long period of stability and internal and external peace for Tibet. Polhané Sönam Topgyé was born in 1689 in Polha as the son of the general Pema Gyalpo and his wife Drolma Butri, his father was an experienced warrior who took part in the war against Ladakh in 1679-1684. He participated in campaigns against Bhutan and Nepal, his forefathers were local officials in Tsang in the 17th century. It was here. In his young years he received teachings in the Mindroling Monastery which belonged to the Nyingma school, by the Panchen Lama. While his given name was Sönam Topgyé, he is known by the cognomen Polhané.
Shortly after his marriage in 1707, Polhané traveled to Lhasa where he was presented to the ruler Lhabzang Khan. The ruler confirmed him in his possession of the estate that he had inherited from his deceased father. Now he was educated in the Ministry of Finance in Lhasa. After some years he was appointed district judge in Gyangtse. In 1714 he received his first military command, he led an entire detachment against Bhutan, although the war as such was lost by the Tibetans. After the invasion of Tibet by the Dzungars he took part in the organization of the Tibetan defense lines, he was present during the final defense of Lhasa. Lhasa fell in the hands of the Dzungars because of treason from some defenders, Lhabzang Khan was killed in the melée. Pholhané managed to take refuge in the Drepung Monastery. In the following months the Dzungars tried to eliminate followers of Lhabzang Khan. Pholhané was brought naked through the streets of Lhasa. After having been whipped with 15 lashes he was cast in prison.
He managed to survive. He was released through the intervention of Tagtsepa, leader of the Tibetan government, formed under the Dzungars. Pholhané returned to Tsang. Here he began to collaborate with Khangchenné Sönam Gyalpo, appointed governor of Ngari by Lhabzang Khan and continued to rule there in spite of the Dzungars, they organized resistance against the invaders until the grand Chinese army sent by the Kangxi Emperor marched into Lhasa in September 1720. After their arrival to Lhasa, the representatives of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty organized a provisional military government under the general Yansin. After the return of the imperial army, a garrison of 3,000 men stayed in Lhasa; this troop was replaced in 1723. Two officials called zongli and two other termed xieli were placed as representatives of the emperor and advisers to the Tibetan government; the provisional military government was replaced in 1721 by a cabinet under the leadership of Khangchenné, who retained the jurisdiction over Ngari.
The other two ministers were Lumpané Tashi Gyalpo. Khangchenné appointed Polhané as personal adjutant, he received the jurisdiction over the Tsang province, he submitted a proposal that the hundreds of Nyingma monasteries and temples, ruined by the Dzungars should be restored with government assistance. This was taken up badly by many by the Seventh Dalai Lama and his father who viewed the Nyimgma as heretic. In 1723 he and Charaba Lotro Gyalpo were appointed regular members of the cabinet, which from now on consisted of five members; the basic principle of this new administrative structure of Tibet was, that the members of the cabinet acted as ruling princes over the regions standing under them, having their particular military resources and means of income. This weakened the position of Tibet vis-à-vis its neighbours, but raised the danger of inner dissent, if the leading politicians could not agree. In fact there was great disharmony between the cabinet members from the start; the tension exploded in 1727 when Khangchenné died under the knives of his peers.
Polhané was luckily absent from Lhasa at the time, since his wife was ill and he had hastened to her sickbed at his estate. After Khangchenné's assassination, Ngaphöpa, Lumpané and Charaba took over power in Lhasa, supported by the father of the Dalai Lama, Sönam Dargye, they mobilized the troops in their respective territories, in particular from Kongpo and Ü. 300 men were sent to catch Polhané, but failed to do so. The latter boded up troops from Tsang, he allied with Khangchenné's brother Gashiba Tseten Tashi who had taken over governance in Ngari in 1725. Meanwhile, he sent an express envoy to inform the court in China. After a half year of fighting at Gyangtse, Ngaphöpa was defeated. Polhané marched towards Lhasa with 9,000 troops, occupied the city and laid siege to the Potala Palace where his opponents and the ambans had taken refuge. Dalai Lama was allowed to take sanctuary in the Drepung Monastery, but Polhané's adversaries were taken prisoners on 5 July 1728. Polhané communicated his victory to the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
As the imperial troops arrived on 4 September 1728 the civil war had been
Amban is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government. For instance, members of the Grand Council were called Coohai nashūn-i amban in Manchu and Qing governor-generals were called Uheri kadalara amban; the word amban was transcribed into Chinese as 昂邦. By far the most known ambans were the Qing imperial residents in Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang, which recognized Qing authority, but were not governed as regular provinces and retained many of their existing institutions; the Qing imperial residents can be compared to a European resident in a protectorate, the real rapport depending on historical circumstances rather than a general job description for every amban, while his authority was extensive, rather like a provincial governor. The Qing Emperor appointed an amban in Tibet, who represented Qing authority over the Buddhist theocracy of Tibet, commanded over 2,000 troops stationed in Lhasa; the chief amban was aided by an assistant amban and both of them reported to the Qing Lifan Yuan.
Their duties included acting as the Hindu kingdom of Nepal. Three Chinese commissioners, of the class of sub-prefects, were stationed at Lhasa and Ngari; the Qing imperial resident in Tibet was introduced in 1727 and most ambasa were appointed from the Manchu Eight Banners, a few were Han Chinese or Mongol. The Emperors used ambasa to supervise Tibetan politics, the Qianlong and Daoguang Emperors each decreed that the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama were bound to follow the leadership or guidance of the ambasa in carrying out the administration of Tibet. Zhao Erfeng, a Han Chinese Bannerman, was appointed as Amban of Tibet by the Qing government, he was killed during the Xinhai Revolution by Chinese Republican Revolutionary forces intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty. After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the Manchu Amban Lien Yu and his Chinese soldiers were expelled from Lhasa. Altishahr, meaning six cities, consisted of Uyghur cities of Yarkand, Khotan, Kuche and Yangi Hisar; the Qing dynasty's wars with the Zunghar Khanate pushed them into the area and by 1759 they had obtained control of this region.
After the rebellion of Yakub Beg, Altishahr was incorporated into the administration of Xinjiang, which became a formal province in the Qing empire in 1884. Between 1761 and 1865, the Qing Empire appointed an imperial resident to Altishahr, which today forms part of southern Xinjiang; the imperial resident, who resided in Kashgar, Ush Turfan or Yarkand and exercised Qing authority over the region. The imperial resident was controlled with local imperial agents, who were sent to most important cities in the region, where they ruled in conjunction with the local officials, who were given ranks in the Qing civil service and were accountable to the imperial agent. In the holy city of Urga, an amban was stationed in order to assert Qing control over the Mongol dependencies, he controlled all temporal matters, was specially charged with the control of the frontier town of Kiakhta and the trade conducted there with the Russians. Urga was the residence of the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the spiritual head of the Mongol Khalkha tribes.
The Khutuktu ranked third in degree of veneration among the dignitaries in the Tibetan Buddhism, after the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. He resided in a sacred quarter on the western side of the town and acted as a spiritual counterpart of the Qing amban. After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the Manchu amban was expelled by Mongol forces, fleeing to China proper via Russia. In the early Qing, the word amban was used in the title of the military governors in the northeastern provinces of the Qing Empire, viz. Jilin and Heilongjiang; the first amban-jianggin appointed in the region was the Ninguta garrison commander Sarhuda, who became the amban-jianggin of Ninguta in June 1653. Qing dynasty in Inner Asia Lifan Yuan Ho, Dahpon David. "The Men Who Would Not Be Amban and the One Who Would: Four Frontline Officials and Qing Tibet Policy, 1905-1911." Modern China 34, no. 2: 210-46. Kolmaš, Josef; the Ambans and Assistant Ambans of Tibet, Archiv Orientální. Supplementa 7. Prague: The Oriental Institute, 1994.
Mayers, William Frederick. The Chinese Government: A Manual of Chinese Titles, Categorically Arranged and Explained, with an Appendix. 3rd edition revised by G. M. H. Playfair ed. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1897. Newby, Laura J; the Empire and the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations with Khoqand C. 1760-1860. Leiden. Norman, Jerry. A Concise Manchu-English Lexicon. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1978. Shakya, Tsering; the Dragon In The Land Of Snows Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11814-7 Media related to Ambans at Wikimedia Commons