An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
The Achang known as the Ngac'ang is an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China, they live in Myanmar, where they're known as Maingtha in Shan State and Ngochang in Kachin State. The Achang number 27,700, of whom 27,600 are from Yunnan province Dehong Autonomous Prefecture; the Achang speak a Burmish language called Achang, but there is no indigenous writing system to accompany it. Chinese characters are used instead. Many Achang speak the Tai Lü language to make commercial transactions with Dai people. Speaking a distinct dialect, the Husa Achang living in Longchuan County consider themselves to be distinct and filed an unsuccessful application in the 1950s as a separate nationality; the Husa were more Sinicized than other Achang. For example, Confucian-styled ancestral memorial tablets are common in Husa homes. Most traditional Husa believe in a mixture of Theravada Taoism; the ancestors of the Achang were some of the first inhabitants of the province of Yunnan.
Their ancestors lived near the Lancang river and during the 12th century they began to emigrate towards the border the west of the river. By the 13th century, some of them settled down in the area of Longchuan, whereas others settled around Lianghe. During the Ming and Qing dynasties they were governed by local village heads. A great part of the history and traditions of the Achang has been transmitted from generation to generation through music and songs. Music is one of the mainstays of their culture, they finish all celebrations with songs and dances. Unmarried young people comb their hair with two braids that gather on their head; the typical clothes of the Achang vary according to village. Married women dress in long skirts; the men use the colors blue, or black to make their shirts, buttoned to a side. Unmarried men surround their head with a fabric of white color. In Buddhist funerals of the Achang, a long fabric tape of about 20 meters is tied to the coffin. During the ceremony, the monk in charge of the ritual, walks in front as opposed to holding the tape.
By doing this, the monk helps directs the soul of the deceased so that the soul of the deceased arrives at its final destiny. The deceased is buried without any metallic elements, not jewels, since it is believed that those elements contaminate the soul for future reincarnation. "Achang Minority" http://www.ethnic-china.com/Achang/achangindex.htm http://www.china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-achang.htm
The Han Chinese, Han people, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group; the estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese people are concentrated in mainland China and in Taiwan. Han Chinese people make up three quarters of the total population of Singapore; the Han Chinese people trace a common ancestry to the Huaxia, a name for the initial confederation of agricultural tribes living along the Yellow River. The term Huaxia represents the collective neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in northern China; the two tribes were the ancestors of the modern Han Chinese people that gave birth to Chinese civilization. In addition, the Huaxia was distinctively used to represent the Huaxia as a civilized ethnic group in contrast to what was perceived of different ethnic groups as barbaric peoples around them. In many overseas Chinese communities, the term Hua Ren may be used for people of Chinese ethnicity as distinct from Zhongguo Ren which refers to citizens of China.
The term Zhongguo Ren includes people of non-Han ethnicity. Han people may be used for people of ethnic Chinese descent around the world; the Han Chinese people are bound together with a common genetic stock and a shared history inhabiting an ancient ancestral territory spanning more than four thousand years rooted with many different cultural traditions and customs. The Huaxia tribes in northern China experienced a continuous expansion into southern China over the past two millennia. Huaxia culture spread from its heartland from the Yellow River Basin southward, absorbing various non-Chinese ethnic groups that became sinicised over the centuries at various points in China's history; the Han dynasty is considered to be the one of the first great eras in Chinese history as it made China the major regional power in East Asia and projected much of its influence on its neighbours while rivalling the Roman Empire in population size and geographical reach. The Han dynasty's prestige and prominence influenced many of the ancient Huaxia to begin identifying themselves as "The People of Han".
To this day, Han Chinese people have since taken their ethnic name from this dynasty, the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". The name Han was derived from the name of the eponymous dynasty, which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty, is considered to be the first golden age of China's Imperial era due to the power and influence it projected over much of East Asia; as a result of the dynasty's prominence in inter-ethnic and pre-modern international influence, Chinese people began identifying themselves as the "people of Han", a name, carried down to this day. The Chinese language came to be named the "Han language" since. In the Oxford Dictionary, the Han are defined as "The dominant ethnic group in China". In the Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, the Han are called the dominant population in "China, as well as in Taiwan and Singapore." According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the Han are "the Chinese peoples as distinguished from non-Chinese elements in the population."The Han dynasty's founding emperor, Liu Bang, was made king of the Hanzhong region after the fall of the Qin dynasty, a title, shortened to "the King of Han" during the Chu-Han contention.
The name "Hanzhong", in turn, was derived from the Han River, which flows through the region's plains. The river, in turn, derives its name from expressions such as Tianhan, Xinghan or Yunhan, all ancient Chinese poetic nicknames for the Milky Way and first mentioned in the Classic of Poetry. Prior to the Han dynasty, ancient Chinese scholars used the term Huaxia in texts to describe China proper as an area of illustrious prosperity and culture, while the Chinese populus were referred to as either the "various Hua" or the "various Xia"; this gave rise to a term used nowadays by overseas Chinese as an ethnic identity for the Chinese diaspora – Huaren, Huaqiao as well as a literary name for China – Zhonghua. Zhonghua refers more to the culture of Chinese people, although it may be seen as equivalent to Zhonghua minzu; the overseas Chinese use Huaren or Huaqiao instead of Zhongguoren, which refers to citizens of China. Among some southern Han Chinese varieties such as Cantonese and Minnan, a different term exists – Tang Chinese, derived from the Tang dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization.
The term is used in everyday conversation and is an element in the Cantonese word for Chinatown: "street of the Tang people" (Chinese: 唐人街. The phrase Huá Bù 華埠 is use
The Hui people are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Sinitic adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region. According to the 2011 census, China is home to 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some may practise other religions. The 110,000 Dungan people of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are considered part of the Hui ethnicity, their culture has distinct differences. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Traditional Hui clothing differs from that of the Han in that some men wear white caps and some women wear headscarves, as is the case in many Islamic cultures. However, since the industrialization and modernization of China, most of the young Hui people wear the same clothes as mainstream fashion trends.
The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups; the Hui predominantly speak Chinese, while maintaining some Arabic phrases. In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language; the Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China, but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Xi'an, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Yunnan. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the term "Hui" was applied by the Chinese government to one of China's ten Islamic minorities. Earlier, the term referred to Chinese-speaking groups with Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam was not a criterion. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty. Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri, viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to those of the Han.
Hui people are of varied ancestry, many directly descending from Silk Road travellers and expatriates. Their ancestors include Central Asians, Middle Eastern ethnic groups such as the Arabs who intermarried with the local Han Chinese. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin. Several medieval Chinese dynasties the Tang and Mongol Yuan Dynasties, encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Central Asia, with both dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In subsequent centuries, the immigrants mixed with the Han Chinese forming the Hui. Nonetheless, included among Huis in Chinese census statistics are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities; these include several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan Province, who speak an Austronesian language related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, said to descend from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well, as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.
The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Easterners and Europeans with whom the Muslims of China are not related, East Asians, Han Chinese, most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other; this indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated and that the Chinese Muslim populations are not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are. Huihui was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Qing Dynasties, it is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe or Huihu, the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries. Although the ancient Uyghurs were not Muslims the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan. and Ming Dynasties.
During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians and Jews, as Huihui. Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food: "Among all the alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you. Yet you do not eat our drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect... all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman Huihui and Zhuhu Huihui, no matter who kills will eat and must cease s
Tanka is a genre of classical Japanese poetry and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. In the time of the Man'yōshū, the term tanka was used to distinguish "short poems" from the longer chōka. In the ninth and tenth centuries, notably with the compilation of the Kokinshū, the short poem became the dominant form of poetry in Japan, the general word waka became the standard name for this form. Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki revived the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Haiku is a term of his invention, used for his revision of standalone hokku, with the same idea. Tanka consist of five units with the following pattern of on: 5-7-5-7-7; the 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku, the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku. During the Kojiki and Nihonshoki periods the tanka retained a well defined form, but the history of the mutations of the tanka itself forms an important chapter in haiku history, until the modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples as contributors.
Yosano Tekkan and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō magazine were one example, but that magazine was short-lived. A young high school student, Otori You, Ishikawa Takuboku contributed to Myōjō. In 1980 the New York Times published a representative work: Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing have had a more lasting influence; the magazine Hototogisu, which he founded, still publishes. In the Meiji period, Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, waka should be modernized in the same way as other things in the country, he praised the style of Man'yōshū as manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū, the model for waka for a thousand years, which he denigrated and called feminine. He praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate, a disciple of Fujiwara no Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. Following Shiki's death, in the Taishō period, Mokichi Saitō and his friends began publishing a magazine, which praised the Man'yōshū.
Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Their modernization aside, in the court the old traditions still prevailed; the court continues to hold many utakai both and privately. The utakai that the Emperor holds on the first of the year is called Utakai Hajime and it is an important event for waka poets. After World War II, waka began to be considered out-of-date, but since the late 1980s it has revived under the example of contemporary poets, such as Tawara Machi. With her 1987 bestselling collection Salad Anniversary, the poet has been credited with revitalizing the tanka for modern audiences. Today there are many circles of tanka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly tanka column, there are many professional and amateur tanka poets; as a parting gesture, outgoing PM Jun'ichirō Koizumi wrote a tanka to thank his supporters. The Japanese imperial family continue to write tanka for the New Year. In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose.
In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home; the exchanged waka were called Kinuginu, because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress. Works of this period, The Pillow Book and The Tale of Genji provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu uses 795 waka in her The Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story; some of these are her own. Shortly and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture, they recited a part of appropriate waka to imply something on an occasion. Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party that produced occasional poetry: Uta-awase.
Utakai was a party in which all participants recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme; the judge gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner; the first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with more formality. Ochiai Naobumi Masaoka Shiki Yosano Akiko Ishikawa Takuboku Saitō Mokichi Itō Sachio Kitahara Hakus
The Sui dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities within its territory, it was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which inherited its foundation. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an and Luoyang. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various centralized reforms, most notably the equal-field system, intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity, they spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the newly unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth. A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal. With the eastern capital Luoyang at the center of the network, it linked the west-lying capital Chang'an to the economic and agricultural centers of the east towards Hangzhou, to the northern border near modern Beijing.
While the pressing initial motives were for shipment of grains to the capital, for transporting troops and military logistics, the reliable inland shipment links would facilitate domestic trades, flow of people and cultural exchange for centuries. Along with the extension of the Great Wall, the construction of the eastern capital city of Luoyang, these mega projects, led by an efficient centralized bureaucracy, would amass millions of conscripted workers from the large population base, at heavy cost of human lives. After a series of costly and disastrous military campaigns against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his ministers in 618; the dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would induce widespread revolts and brief civil war following the fall of the dynasty.
The dynasty is compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns. Towards the late Northern and Southern dynasties, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi in 577 and reunified northern China, The century trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese by the northern dynasties, which were ruled by ethnic minority Xianbei, would become inevitable. By this time, the founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, an ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the Northern Zhou court, his daughter was the Empress Dowager, her stepson, Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, was a child. After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui. While the Duke of Sui when serving at the Zhou court, where the character "Sui 隨" means "to follow" and implies loyalty, Emperor Wen created the unique character "Sui", morphed from the character of his former title, as the name of his newly founded dynasty.
In a bloody purge, he had fifty-nine princes of the Zhou royal family eliminated, yet became known as the "Cultured Emperor". Emperor Wen reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. Having won the support of Confucian scholars who held power in previous Han dynasties, Emperor Wen initiated a series of reforms aimed at strengthening his empire for the wars that would reunify China. In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the naval forces of the Chen dynasty on the Yangtze River; the largest of these ships were tall, having five layered decks and the capacity for 800 non-crew personnel. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, or to pin them down so that Sui marine troops could use act-and-board techniques. Besides employing Xianbei and other Chinese ethnic groups for the fight against Chen, Emperor Wen employed the service of people from southeastern Sichuan, which Sui had conquered. In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan to the East China Sea.
The Chen dynasty could not withstand such an assault. By 589, Sui troops entered the last emperor of Chen surrendered; the city was razed to the ground, while Sui troops escorted Chen nobles back north, where the northern aristocrats became fascinated with everything the south had to provide culturally and intellectually. Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the state treasury with warfare and construction projects, he made many improvements to infrastructure during his early reign, he established granaries as sources of food and as a means to regulate market prices from the taxation of crops, much like the earlier Han dynasty. The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to a historical peak, only surpassed at the zenith of the Tang Dynasty more than a century later; the state capital of Chang'an, while situated in the militarily secure heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. Emperor Wen in