Piper J-3 Cub
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft, built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft. The aircraft has a simple, lightweight design which gives it good low-speed handling properties and short-field performance; the Cub is Piper Aircraft's most-produced model, with nearly 20,000 built in the United States. Its simplicity and popularity invokes comparisons to the Ford Model T automobile; the aircraft is a strut-braced monoplane with a large-area rectangular wing. It is most powered by an air-cooled, flat-4 piston engine driving a fixed-pitch propeller, its fuselage is a welded steel frame covered in seating two people in tandem. The Cub was intended as a trainer and had great popularity in this role and as a general aviation aircraft. Due to its performance, it was well suited for a variety of military uses such as reconnaissance and ground control, it was produced in large numbers during World War II as the L-4 Grasshopper. Many Cubs are still flying today. Notably, Cubs are prized as bush aircraft.
The aircraft's standard chrome yellow paint has come to be known as "Cub Yellow" or "Lock Haven Yellow". The Taylor E-2 Cub first appeared in 1930, built by Taylor Aircraft in Pennsylvania. Sponsored by William T. Piper, a Bradford industrialist and investor, the affordable E-2 was meant to encourage greater interest in aviation. In 1930, the company went bankrupt, with Piper buying the assets, but keeping founder C. Gilbert Taylor on as president. In 1936, an earlier Cub was altered by employee Walter Jamouneau to become the J-2 while Taylor was on sick leave.. When he saw the redesign, Taylor was so incensed. Piper, had encouraged Jamouneau's changes and hired him back. Piper bought Taylor's share in the company, paying him $250 per month for three years. Although sales were slow, about 1,200 J-2s were produced before a fire in the Piper factory, a former silk mill in Bradford, ended its production in 1938. After Piper moved his company from Bradford to Lock Haven, PA; the changes amounted to integrating the vertical fin of the tail into the rear fuselage structure and covering it with each of the fuselage's sides, changing the rearmost side window's shape to a smoothly curved half-oval outline and placing a true steerable tailwheel at the rear end of the J-2's leaf spring-style tailskid, linked for its steering function to the lower end of the rudder with springs and lightweight chains to either end of a double-ended rudder control horn.
Powered by a 40 hp engine, in 1938, it sold for just over $1,000. A number of different air-cooled engines, most of flat-four configuration, were used to power J-3 Cubs, resulting in differing model designations for each type: the J3C models used the Continental A series, the J3F used the Franklin 4AC, the J3L used the Lycoming O-145. A few examples, designated J3P, were equipped with Lenape Papoose 3-cylinder radial engines; the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939, along with the growing realization that the United States might soon be drawn into World War II, resulted in the formation of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. The Piper J-3 Cub became the primary trainer aircraft of the CPTP and played an integral role in its success, achieving legendary status. About 75% of all new pilots in the CPTP were trained in Cubs. By war's end, 80% of all United States military pilots had received their initial flight training in Piper Cubs; the need for new pilots created an insatiable appetite for the Cub.
In 1940, the year before the United States' entry into the war, 3,016 Cubs had been built. Prior to the United States entering World War II, J-3s were part of a fund-raising program to support the United Kingdom. Billed as a Flitfire, a Piper Cub J3 bearing Royal Air Force insignia was donated by W. T. Piper and Franklin Motors to the RAF Benevolent Fund to be raffled off. Piper distributors nationwide were encouraged to do the same. On April 29, 1941, all 48 Flitfire aircraft, one for each of the 48 states that made up the country at that time, flew into La Guardia Field for a dedication and fundraising event which included Royal Navy officers from the battleship HMS Malaya, in New York for repairs, as honored guests. At least three of the original Flitfires have been restored to their original silver-doped finish; the Piper Cub became a familiar sight. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt took a flight in a J-3 Cub, posing for a series of publicity photos to help promote the CPTP. Newsreels and newspapers of the era featured images of wartime leaders, such as Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton and George Marshall, flying around European battlefields in Piper Cubs.
Civilian-owned Cubs joined the war effort as part of the newly formed Civil Air Patrol, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast in a constant search for German U-boats and survivors of U-boat attacks. Piper developed a military variant, variously designated as the O-59, L-4 and NE; the L-4 Grasshopper was mechanically identical to the J-3 civilian Cub, but was distinguishable by the use of a Plexiglas greenhouse skylight and rear windows for improved visibility, much like the Taylo
De Havilland Dragon Rapide
The de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide was a 1930s short-haul biplane airliner developed and produced by British aircraft company de Havilland. Capable of accommodating 6–8 passengers, it proved an economical and durable craft, despite its primitive plywood construction. Developed during the early 1930s, the Dragon Rapide was a smaller, twin-engined version of the four-engined DH.86 Express, shared a number of common features, such as its tapered wings, streamlined fairings and Gipsy Six engines. First named the "Dragon Six", the type was marketed as "Dragon Rapide" and simply known as the "Rapide". Upon its introduction in summer 1934, it proved to be a popular aircraft with airlines and private civil operators alike, attaining considerable foreign sales in addition to its domestic use. Upon the outbreak of the World War II, many of the civil Rapides were impressed into service with the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. Referred to in military service by the name de Havilland Dominie, the type was employed for radio and navigation training, passenger transport and communications missions.
Other Rapides continued to be operated by British airlines throughout the war under the auspices of the Associated Airways Joint Committee. Postwar, many military aircraft were returned to civilian service. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, de Havilland introduced a Dragon Rapide replacement, the de Havilland Dove. During summer 1933, the de Havilland aircraft company commenced work upon an aircraft to meet an Australian requirement, producing a four-engined faster passenger aircraft capable of seating ten passengers, the DH.86 Dragon Express. An important feature of the DH.86 was the newly developed and powerful Gipsy Six engine, a six-cylinder variant of the four cylinder Gipsy Major engine. The DH.86 would serve as the a key starting point for the DH.89. During late 1933, a team at de Havilland, led by aircraft designer Arthur Ernest Hagg, began working on a new design, intended to be a faster and more comfortable successor to the earlier DH.84 Dragon. The new aircraft was, in effect, a twin-engined, scaled-down version of the four-engined DH.86 Express.
It shared many common features with the earlier DH.86 Express, including its tapered wings, streamlined fairings and fuselage, as well as the same Gipsy Six engines. However, the DH.89 demonstrated none of the operational vices of the Express. On 17 April 1934, the prototype conducted its maiden flight at Hertfordshire. Flown by senior de Havilland test pilot H. S. Broad, it was powered by a pair of 200 hp Gypsy Six engines. Prior to the prototype's first flight, plans to proceed with serial production of DH.89 had received the go-ahead from management. During May 1934, airworthiness trials commenced at RAF Martlesham Heath using the prototype. In response to this event, a maximum permissible speed of 160 MPH was implemented for all DH89. Upon the conclusion of trials, the prototype was sold. By November 1934, series production of the Rapide had reached full swing. Referred to as the "Dragon Six", the aircraft was first marketed as the "Dragon Rapide", although the type came to be popularly referred to as the "Rapide".
Prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, 205 aircraft were manufactured for airlines and other private owners all around the world. The Rapide is the most successful British-built short-haul commercial passenger aircraft to be produced during the 1930s. In response to the issuing of Specification G.18/35 by the British Air Ministry, de Havilland decided to design and produce a single prototype of a modified Rapide for undertaking coastal reconnaissance. Trials using the prototype, K4772, were performed between April and June 1935 at RAF Martlesham Heath and RAF Gosport. However, it lost out to its rival, the Avro Anson. K4772 was used by the Royal Aircraft Establishment in automatic landing trials before being broken down for spares. Work on a militarised version of the Rapide was not wasted as multiple sales were soon completed with other military customers, the first of which being to the Spanish government in December 1935. Sensing demand for the type, de Havilland continued to modify the Rapide's design following its entry to service, creating both refinements and new derivatives as a result.
Aiming to produce a faster version of the Rapide, a smaller and externally cleaner version, designated as the DH.90 Dragonfly, emerged. In November 1935, the 60th airframe to be produced, G-ADWZ, was modified and used by de Havilland as a trials aircraft. Fitted with elongated rear windows, cabin heating, thickened wing tips, a strengthened airframe to allow for an elevated gross weight of 5,500 lb, G-ADWZ participated in trials at Martlesham Heath, after which the higher gross weight was cleared for service. In response to the announcement of an air race between Britain and Johannesburg, South Africa, de Havilland's design team produced a specialised variant of the Rapid, designated as the DH.92 Dolphin. This one-off derivative featured a retractable undercarriage, an expanded wingspan of 53 ft 7 in, a modified nose section, an increased all-up weight of 6,600 lb. In November 1936, in response to suggestions that the addition of flaps would aid in landing, a
Air medical services
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet aircraft; the use of air transport to provide medical evacuation on the battlefield dates to World War I, but its role was expanded during the Korean and Vietnam wars. On, aircraft began to be used for the civilian emergency medical services. Helicopters can bring specialist care to the scene and transport patients to specialist hospitals for major trauma cases. Fixed-wing aircraft are used for long-distance transport. In some remote areas, air medical services deliver non-emergency healthcare such as general practitioner appointments. An example of this is the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, who provide emergency care.
Air medical services can operate in a wider coverage area than a land ambulance. This makes them useful in sparsely-populated rural areas. Air medical services have a particular advantage for major trauma injuries; the well-established theory of the golden hour suggests that major trauma patients should be transported as as possible to a specialist trauma center. Therefore, medical responders in a helicopter can provide both a higher level of care at the scene of a trauma and faster transport to a trauma center, they can provide critical care when transporting patients from community hospitals to trauma centers. Effective use of helicopter services for trauma depends on the ground responder's ability to determine whether the patient's condition warrants air medical transport. Protocols and training must be developed to ensure. Excessively stringent criteria can prevent rapid transport of trauma victims. Crew and patient safety is the single most important factor to be considered when deciding whether to transport a patient by helicopter.
Weather, air traffic patterns, distances must be considered. Another reason for cancelling a flight is based on the comfort of the flight crew with the flight; the general rule of safety is upon the crew, when there is one pilot and two medical crew is: "3 to go, 1 to say'NO'". If one flight member is not comfortable with the flight for whatever reason, the flight is cancelled; some have questioned the safety of air medical services. While the number of crashes may be increasing, the number of programs and use of services has increased. Factors associated with fatal crashes of medical transport helicopters include flying at night and during bad weather, postcrash fires. An air ambulance is a specially outfitted helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft that transports injured or sick people in a medical emergency or over distances or terrain impractical for a conventional ground ambulance. Fixed-wing aircraft are more used to move patients over long distances and for repatriation from foreign countries.
These and related operations are called aeromedical. In some circumstances, the same aircraft may be used to search for wanted people. Like ground ambulances, air ambulances are equipped with medical equipment vital to monitoring and treating injured or ill patients. Common equipment for air ambulances includes medications, ventilators, ECGs and monitoring units, CPR equipment, stretchers. A medically staffed and equipped air ambulance provides medical care in flight—while a non-medically equipped and staffed aircraft transports patients without care in flight. Military organizations and NATO refer to the former as medical evacuation and to the latter as casualty evacuation. Air Traffic Control grants special treatment to air ambulance operations, much like a ground ambulance using lights and a siren, only when they are operating with a patient; when this happens, air ambulance aircraft take the call sign MEDEVAC and receive priority handling in the air and on the ground. As with many Emergency Medical Service innovations, treating patients in flight originated in the military.
The concept of using aircraft as ambulances is as old as powered flight itself. Although balloons were not used to evacuate wounded soldiers at the Siege of Paris in 1870, air evacuation was experimented with during the First World War; the first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in Turkey when a soldier in the Camel Corps, shot in the ankle was flown to hospital in a de Havilland DH9 in 45 minutes. The same journey by land would have taken some 3 days to complete. In the 1920s several services, both official and unofficial, started up in various parts of the world. Aircraft were still primitive at the time, with limited capabilities, the effort received mixed reviews. Exploration of the idea continued and France and the United Kingdom used organized air ambulance services during the African and Middle Eastern Colonial Wars of the 1920s. In 1920, the British, while suppressing the "Mad Mullah" in Somalialand, used an Airco DH.9A fitted out as an air ambulance. It carried a single stretcher under a fairing behind the pilot.
The French evacuated over 7,000 casualties during that period. By 1936, an organized military air ambulance service evacuated wounded from the Spanish
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
The Polikarpov Po-2 served as a general-purpose Soviet biplane, nicknamed Kukuruznik, NATO reporting name "Mule". The reliable, uncomplicated concept of the Po-2's design made it an ideal trainer aircraft, as well as doubling as a low-cost ground attack, aerial reconnaissance, psychological warfare and liaison aircraft during war, proving to be one of the most versatile light combat types to be built in the Soviet Union; as of 1978 it remained in production for a longer period of time than any other Soviet-era aircraft. It is one of the most produced aircraft, may be the most produced biplane in history, with as many as 30,000 Po-2s built between 1928 and 1959. However, production figures for Polikarpov U-2 and Po-2 bombers and trainers combined are between 20,000 and 30,000. With production ending as early as 1952. Correct figures are hard to obtain since low-rate production by small repair shops and air clubs continued until 1959; the aircraft was designed by Nikolai Polikarpov to replace the U-1 trainer, itself known as Avrushka to the Soviets.
Its name was changed to Po-2 in 1944, after Polikarpov's death, according to the then-new Soviet naming system using the first two letters of the designer's family name, or the Soviet government-established design bureau that created it. The prototype of the U-2, powered by a 74 kW Shvetsov M-11 air-cooled five-cylinder radial engine, first flew on 7 January 1928 piloted by M. M. Gromov. Aircraft from the preproduction series were tested at the end of 1928 and serial production started in 1929 in Factory number 23 in Leningrad. Production in the Soviet Union ended in 1953, but license-built CSS-13s were still produced in Poland until 1959. From the beginning, the U-2 became the basic Soviet civil and military trainer aircraft, mass-produced in a "Red Flyer" factory near Moscow, it was used for transport, as a military liaison aircraft, due to its STOL capabilities. From the beginning it was produced as an agricultural aircraft variant, which earned it its nickname Kukuruznik. Although outclassed by contemporary aircraft, the Kukuruznik served extensively on the Eastern Front in World War II as a liaison and general-supply aircraft.
It was useful for supplying Soviet partisans behind the German front line. Manufacturing of the Po-2 in the USSR ceased in 1949, but until 1959 a number were assembled in Aeroflot repair workshops; the first trials of arming the aircraft with bombs took place in 1941. During the defence of Odessa, in September 1941, the U-2 was used as a reconnaissance aircraft and as a light, short-range, bomber; the bombs, dropped from a civil aircraft piloted by Pyotr Bevz, were the first to fall on enemy artillery positions. From 1942 it was adapted as a light night ground attack aircraft. Nikolay Polikarpov supported the project, under his leadership, the U-2VS was created; this was a light night bomber, fitted with bomb carriers beneath the lower wing, to carry 50 or 100 kg bombs up to a total weight of 350 kg and armed with ShKAS or DA machine guns in the observer's cockpit. Wehrmacht troops nicknamed it Nähmaschine for its rattling sound and Finnish troops called it Hermosaha as the Soviets flew nocturnal missions at low altitudes: the engine had a peculiar sound, described as nerve-wracking, therefore the name.
Luftwaffe pilots were soon given special instructions for engaging these aircraft. The material effects of these missions may be regarded as minor, but the psychological effect on German troops was noticeable, they attacked by surprise in the middle of the night, denying German troops sleep and keeping them on their guard, contributing to the high stress of combat on the Eastern front. The usual tactic involved flying only a few meters above the ground, climbing for the final approach, throttling back the engine and making a gliding bombing run, leaving the targeted troops with only the eerie whistling of the wind in the wings' bracing-wires as an indication of the impending attack. Luftwaffe fighters found it hard to shoot down the Kukuruznik because of two main factors: the pilots flew at treetop level where they were hard to see or engage and the stall speed of both the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was similar to the U-2s maximum speed, making it difficult for the fighters to keep a Po-2 in weapons range for an adequate period of time.
The success of the Soviet night harassment units inspired the Luftwaffe to set up similar Störkampfstaffel "harassment combat squadrons" on the Eastern Front using their own obsolete 1930s-era, open cockpit biplanes and parasol monoplane aircraft building up to larger Nachtschlachtgruppe units of a few squadrons each. The U-2 became known as the aircraft used by the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, composed of an all-woman pilot and ground crew complement; the unit was notorious for daring low-altitude night raids on German rear-area positions. Veteran pilots Yekaterina Ryabova and Nadezhda Popova on one occasion flew eighteen missions in a single night; the women pilots observed that the enemy suffered a further degree of demoralization due to their antagonists being female. As such, the pilots earned the nickname "Night Witches"; the unit earned numerous Hero of the Soviet Union citations and dozens of Order of the Red Banner medals.
Messerschmitt Bf 108
The Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun was a German single-engine sport and touring aircraft, developed by Bayerische Flugzeugwerke in the 1930s. The Bf 108 was of all-metal construction. Designated the M 37, the aircraft was designed as a four-seat sports/recreation aircraft for competition in the 4th Challenge International de Tourisme; the M 37 prototype flew first in spring 1934, powered by a 250 PS Hirth HM 8U 8.0 litre displacement, air-cooled inverted-V8 engine, which drove a three-blade propeller. Although it was outperformed by several other aircraft in the competition, the M 37's overall performance marked it as a popular choice for record flights. Particular among these traits was its low fuel consumption rate, good handling, superb takeoff and landing characteristics; the Bf 108A first flew in 1934, followed by the Bf 108B in 1935. The Bf 108B used the larger, 12.67 litre displacement Argus As 10 air-cooled inverted V8 engine. The nickname Taifun was given to her own aircraft by Elly Beinhorn, a well-known German pilot, was adopted.
Soon after the first production aircraft began to roll off the assembly line in Augsburg, several Bf 108s had set endurance records. The Bf 108 was adopted into Luftwaffe service during World War II, where it was used as a personnel transport and liaison aircraft; the aircraft involved in the Mechelen Incident was a Bf 108. Production of the Bf 108 was transferred to occupied France during World War II and production continued after the war as the Nord 1000 Pingouin. Bf 108A Initial version designed in 1934 for use in Challenge 1934. Six were built with the Hirth HM 8U, one other had a 220 PS Argus As 17B inline engine and a 160 PS Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial. Bf 108B Revised version, built from late 1935; the prototype had a Siemens-Halske Sh 14A radial, but production machines used the 240 PS Argus As 10C or the 270 PS Argus As 10E. A quadrant-shaped rather than rectangular rear window, tailwheel replacing skid, revision of shape of empennnage and removal of tailplane upper bracing. Bf 108C Proposed high-speed version, powered by a 400 PS Hirth HM 512 engine.
Not built. Me 208 enlarged version with a retractable tricycle landing gear. Two prototypes were built by SNCAN in France during the war. After 1945 Nord continued its production as the Nord Noralpha. Nord 1000 Pingouin Bf 108 built after the war by SNCAN in France. BrazilVarig BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Six aircraft purchased, used for training. ChinaChinese Nationalist Air Force Independent State of CroatiaAir Force of the Independent State of Croatia CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Air Force operated this type postwar under designation K-70. FranceArmée de l'Air operated captured Bf postwar-built Nord 1000 aircraft. Nazi GermanyLuftwaffe HungaryRoyal Hungarian Air Force operated seven Bf 108s from 1937 to 1945 ItalyRegia Aeronautica JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Service ManchukuoManchukuo National Airways NorwayRoyal Norwegian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force operated a few captured Bf 108s postwar. RomaniaRoyal Romanian Air Force SpainSpanish Air Force SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force operated several captured Bf 108s.
United KingdomRoyal Air Force impressed four Bf 108s on the outbreak of World War II and put into service, who designated them "Messerschmitt Aldon". It was the fastest light communications aircraft the RAF had but they were mistaken for Bf 109s. Postwar, 15 more captured. United StatesUnited States Army Air Corps - A single Bf 108B was purchased by the U. S. Military Attaché for Air in the spring of 1939 for $14,378 and designated XC-44, it was repossessed by the Nazi government in December 1941. Kingdom of YugoslaviaYugoslav Royal Air Force Data from Jane's AWA 1938General characteristics Crew: one Length: 8.3 m Wingspan: 10.5 m Height: 2.3 m Wing area: 16 m² Empty weight: 806 kg Loaded weight: 1,350 kg Powerplant: 1 × Argus As 10C air-cooled inverted V-8, 240 PS Performance Maximum speed: 305 km/h Range: 1,000 km Service ceiling: 6,200 m with 4 people and baggage Rate of climb: 5.21 m/s to 1,000 m Wing loading: 83.4 kg/m² Power/mass: 0.133 kW/kg Bf 108s and postwar Nord 1000s played the role of Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters in war movies, including The Longest Day, The Great Escape, 633 Squadron, Mosquito Squadron, Von Ryan's Express.
Related development Messerschmitt Bf 109 Nord PingouinAircraft of comparable role and era Klemm Kl 36 Fieseler Fi 97 Related lists List of military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the RAF List of military aircraft of the United States N. Z. Warbirds Association Messerschmitt 108 to Nord 1002 Rare Aircraft – Messerschmitt Bf.108