Dezhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the southeast, Liaocheng to the southwest, Binzhou to the northeast, the province of Hebei to the north; the King of Sulu Paduka Pahala from the first royal family on Sulu before the Hashemites went on a tribute mission to the Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor. He died of natural causes in China and his two sons were left in the care of Hui Muslims in Dezhou, Shandong; the two families descended from the two sons were given the surnames An and Wen by the Ming Emperors. They lived through the Qing dynasties and still live in Dezhou today; the Kingdom of Sulu was converted to Islam, the Hashemite Sharif ul-Hāshim of Sulu arrived in Sulu and married a princess of the previous non-Hashemite royal family, founding the Sulu Sultanate. Tausug delegations from Sulu have visited Dezhou to see the descendants of the previous royal family; the municipality of Dezhou comprises thirteen county-level sub divisions: DistrictsDecheng District.
The government of the prefecture-level city is located in this sub division. Lingcheng District CitiesCities administered by Dezhou are: Leling Yucheng CountiesCounties administered by Dezhou are: Pingyuan Xiajin Wucheng Qihe Linyi Ningjin Qingyun Development zonesDezhou Economic Development District Dezhou Yunhe Economic Development District Dezhou lies on the main rail route from Beijing to Shanghai, known as Jinghu Railway, it is one of the 23 stations on the exclusive Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. Dezhou has always been an important transport hub since ancient times, with its reputation of "Junction of Nine Arteries" （九达天衢）and "Portal of the Capital" （神京门户）gradually established. In addition to two railways, National Highway 104, 105 and some provincial roads cross the city as well; the Yellow River and the Grand Canal both run through it. Dezhou's biggest historical attraction is the tomb of Sultan Paduka Pahala of Sulu, who died in Dezhou on his return journey from a visit to the Yongle Emperor in 1417.
The tomb has been declared a national heritage site. Descendants of the sultan's Muslim followers still live in Dezhou today, are classified as the Hui minority. One of Dezhou's county Lingxian used to be a big county in China in history, when it was called Pingyuan County. Now part of the ancient city wall of Tang Dynasty still exists in the south of the region. Before the Three Kingdoms formed, one of the three emperors Liu Bei used to be the chief of the county, together with his fellows Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. In addition, it is the hometown of Dongfang Shuo, the most well-known adviser during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. Today, a memorial hall for the two historic figures is built in the People's Park of Lingxian, where a lot of materials of Dongfang Shuo and stone inscriptions of Yan Zhenqing are preserved. For tourist attractions, there is a famous temple in Qingyun County. It's called Haidao Jinshan Temple, one of the biggest centers of Buddhism in Northern China; the most attractive scene is the underground aisle where the portrait of the hell is presented using high technology.
A new industrial zone hailed as the "Solar Valley" is being built for experimenting with clean- energy urban projects and massive use of household utilities such as solar-powered water-heaters. The Washington Post describes Dezhou's Solar Valley as the "clean-tech version of Silicon Valley". Nowadays one of the biggest and most famous industries in Dezhou is solar energy industry, with two main corporations included—Himin Group and its partner Ecco Solar Group. Dezhou increased its international reputation when it was selected to follow previous hosts, South Korea, Oxford, UK and Adelaide, Australia as host of the 2010 International Solar City Congress. Himin Group has developed into the world's largest solar water heater manufacturer and is discovering new areas such as photoelectricity. Greenpeace China cited Dezhou in May 2009 as an example of how renewable energy can become a more common reality throughout the world. Dezhou houses the world's largest solar-powered office building, covering around 75,000 square meters.
"Dezhou College"is a comprehensive college, approved by the National Education Committee in March 2000. It is the aggregation of Dezhou Teachers’ College, Dezhou Education College and Evening College Municipality, which has a 30-year history. Dongfang Shuo and poet Yan Zhenqing, poet Ma Dehua, best known for his role as Zhu Bajie in the television series Journey to the West Han Hong, songwriter, music producer, director Zhang Yuqi, Chinese actress Ma Tianyu, Chinese actor Dezhou is well known for its braised chicken and watermelon; the name of Dezhou is the same as the abbreviation of the Chinese name for the U. S. state of Texas. Pingyuan, Dezhou is the foundation place of Yihetuan against the Eight Power Allied Force during the 1900s. 德州鲁北热线 陵县旅游 Dezhou Himin Group Dezhou University Government website of Dezhou
Blacktown is a suburb in the City of Blacktown, in Greater Western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Blacktown is located 34 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district. Blacktown is the largest of any suburb or township in New South Wales and is one of the most multicultural places in Sydney. Prior to the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, the area of today's Blacktown was inhabited by different groups of the Darug people including the Warmuli, based around what is now Prospect, their neighbours the Gomerigal from the South Creek area and the Wawarawarry from the Eastern Creek area, it is estimated that fifty to ninety percent of the Darug died of smallpox and other introduced diseases within a few years of the British arrival. Governor Arthur Phillip began granting land in the area to white settlers in 1791. In 1819 Governor Lachlan Macquarie granted land to two indigenous men and Nurragingy as payment their service to The Crown, for showing the passage over the Blue Mountains and for assisting in dealing with Aboriginal issuesIn 1804, the battle of Vinegar Hill was fought at Rouse Hill on 5 March.
Convicts escaping from the Castle Hill barracks clashed with government troops under major George Johnson, declaring themselves to be for'liberty or death'. The convicts were defeated and died in the battle. A few years in 1823, the Native Institution was moved from Parramatta to the site where Richmond Road meets Rooty Hill Road North, named "The Blacks Town"; the institution was known as Black Town Native Institute and it was synonymous with the stolen generation. Although the institution closed in 1833, the road heading out to the internment camp became known as the Black Town Road. In 1860 the Railway Department gave the name of Black Town Road Station to the railway station at the junction of the railway and the Black Town Road, with the name shortening to Blacktown by 1862; the arrival of the railway led to the formation of a town around the station. A post office was opened in 1862 and a school in 1877. In 1906, the Shire of Blacktown was formed and in 1930, electricity was introduced to the town.
The population in 1933 was around 13,000. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a large amount of suburban development both in the current suburb of Blacktown and the new suburbs that sprung up around it; this led to civic development in the town centre with the hospital opening in 1965, the courthouse and police station in 1966, the library in 1967 and the TAFE college in 1969. In 1973, the Westpoint shopping centre opened, soon followed by the cinema complex; the Blacktown Commercial Business District is located close to Blacktown railway station. Westpoint Blacktown is a major shopping centre and there are a number of small shops and hotels in the surrounding area. Westpoint houses a western suburb television studio of the Nine Network; the Blacktown CBD features the following landmarks: Blacktown City Council corporate head office Blacktown Courthouse Blacktown Hospital Blacktown Workers Club Cucina Locale Revolving Restaurant Max Webber Library – Blacktown City Council's newly completed central library Patrician Brothers' College Blacktown Nagle College BlacktownA notable Blacktown retailer in the 1950s was Frank Lowy who conducted a delicatessen and small goods shop in Main Street.
According to the 2006 census, the most common way of getting to work from Blacktown was by car with public transport used by just under twenty percent. Most public transport was done by train with five percent catching buses for all or part of their journey. Blacktown railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line and the Cumberland Line of the Sydney Trains network. A major bus interchange is located next to the station and an underground bus station is at the entrance to Westpoint. Blacktown is a terminus of the North-West T-way. Busways provides services to Northern areas:, West areas: and South districts, whilst Hillsbus provides services: Eastern services of Blacktown; the first school, a single-storey brick building with gables, was opened in 1877. While no longer in use as a school, the building in Flushcombe Road is now used as a Visitor Information Centre, it is heritage-listed. There are a large number of schools in the suburb. Government-run primary schools in the area include: Blacktown North Public School, Blacktown South Public School, Blacktown West Public School, Lynwood Park Public School, Marayong South Public School, Shelley Public School, Walters Road Public School.
Public high schools include: Blacktown Boys High School, Blacktown Girls High School, Evans High School and Mitchell High School. There is the Coreen School, which caters to older children with learning difficulties. There are two Catholic primary schools, St Michaels Primary School and St Patricks Primary School, two Catholic high schools, Nagle College for girls and Patrician Brothers' College Blacktown for boys. Tyndale Christian School is a private school covering children from kindergarten to year 12. Blacktown Arts Centre is located at 78 Flushcombe Road on the highest point of land in the Blacktown CBD. Built in the 1950s as an Anglican church, the building was deconsecrated in 1999. Acquired by Blacktown Council as a site for a car park, the Council in partnership with Arts NSW subsequently refurbished the building as a multi-a
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Zhou (country subdivision)
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han dynasty, zhou exist continuously until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912—a period of over 2000 years. Zhou were previously used in Korea and Japan. Zhou is rendered by several terms in the English language: The large zhou before the Tang dynasty and in countries other than China are called "provinces" The smaller zhou during and after the Tang dynasty are called "prefectures" The zhou of the Qing dynasty are called either "independent" or "dependent departments", depending on their level; the Tang dynasty established fǔ, zhou of special importance such as capitals and other major cities. By the Ming and Qing, fǔ became predominant divisions within Chinese provinces. In Ming and Qing, the word fǔ was attached to the name of each prefecture's capital city, thus both Chinese and Western maps and geographical works would call the respective cities Hangzhou-fu, Wenzhou-fu, Wuchang-fu, etc. Following the Meiji Restoration, fu was used in Japanese for the urban prefectures of the most important cities.
In the People's Republic of China, zhou today exists only in the designation "autonomous prefecture", administrative areas for China's designated minorities. However, zhou have left a huge mark on Chinese place names, including the province of Guizhou and the major cities of Guangzhou, Hangzhou and Suzhou, among many others. Although modern Korean and Japanese provinces are no longer designated by zhou cognates, the older terms survive in various place names, notably the Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu, the Korean province Jeju-do, Lai Châu in Vietnam. Zhou were first mentioned in ancient Chinese texts, notably the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu, section of the Book of Documents. All agreed on the division of China into nine zhou, though they differed on their names and position; these zhou were geographical concepts, not administrative entities. The Han dynasty was the first to formalize the zhou into actual administrative divisions by establishing 13 zhou all across China; because these zhou were the largest divisions of the China at the time, they are translated as "provinces".
After the Han Dynasty, the number of zhou began to increase. By the time of the Sui dynasty, there were over a hundred zhou all across China; the Sui and Tang dynasties merged zhou with the commanderies or jùn. The Tang added another level on top: the circuit or dào. Henceforth, zhou were lowered to second-level status, the word becomes translated into English as "prefecture". Thereafter, zhou continued to survive as second- or third-level political divisions until the Qing dynasty; the Republic of China abolished zhou altogether, leaving the word only in the names of cities such as Guangzhou and Hangzhou. The People's Republic of China recycled the name, using it to refer to the autonomous prefectures granted to various ethnicities. Administrative divisions of China Provinces of China
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f
Linqing is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Liaocheng in western Shandong Province, China. It is located north-northwest of Liaocheng; the city is situated at the confluence of the Grand Canal. It is 380 kilometres from Beijing on the Jingjiu railway line to Hong Kong. Elevation within Linqing County ranges from 29 to 38 m above sea level; the area of the county is 955 km2. The annual average temperature is 12.8 °C, the highest recorded temperature 41.4 °C, the lowest recorded temperature −22.1 °C. Annual mean precipitation is 590.4 mm. There are 205 frost-free days per year on average and the average annual sunshine is 2661 hours. Linqing has played an important role in the history of China. In Ming and Qing times it was a great center for the distribution of textiles and bricks and is famous as the place where the tiles of the Great Wall and the Forbidden City were produced. Today the city's flourishing economy is based on a number of light industrial enterprises.
Aside from the Grand Canal, sights include a distinctive promontory, a stupa, a Ming-Dynasty Hui mosques, ruins of the old customs house, Linqing City Museum. In particular, the Sheli Pagoda near the Grand Canal is a well-known local landmark; the city proper has about 143,000 residents, whereas Linqing as a whole had 709,328 inhabitants in 1999. Once visited by the missionary and sinologist Matteo Ricci, Linqing has been the seat of a Latin Catholic Mission sui juris of Linqing / Lintsing since it was split off from the Apostolic Vicariate of Tsinanfu on 24 June 1927, it was promoted to Apostolic prefecture of Linqing / Lintsing / Lintsingen on 5 April 1931. It remains exempt, i.e. directly dependent on the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. The see has been vacant, without Apostolic administrator, since the third incumbent's death in 1981. Ecclesiastical Superiornone available Apostolic Prefects Father Gaspar Hu Xiu-shen, died 1945 Fr. Joseph Li Chao-gui Fr. Paul Li Ben-liang Tang Dynasty wangyanchao Ming Dynasty poet Xie Zhen national hero Zhang Zizhong contemporary renowned educator lv yu lan.
List of Catholic dioceses in China Article on Linqing from China Today, no.78 Official website of Linqing city government GCatholic Catholic missionary jurisdictions Another Linqing site, but with pictures
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi