Westleton is a village and civil parish in the English county of Suffolk. It is located 4 miles north of Leiston and 5 miles north-east of Saxmundham near the North Sea coast; the village is on the edge of an area of lowland heathland. The village lies along 2 miles to the east of the A12 and Darsham railway station. Westleton Heath National Nature Reserve is 0.5 miles north east of the village. The heath is crossed by a minor road from Westleton to the coastal village of Dunwich, 2 miles to the east; the famous Minsmere RSPB reserve lies to the east of the village. The fourteenth-century village church of St Peter in Westleton was built by monks from Sibton Abbey near Saxmundham; the church has twice seen the collapse of its tower: in 1776 under the strain of hurricane winds. It is a grade II* listed building. Westleton retains some other basic services, helped by its proximity to Minsmere; these include two bookshops, a garage and two pubs, the White Horse and The Crown. The latter is a historic coaching inn dating from the 12th century.
The bookshop, Chapel Books, has been immortalised in print in Julie Myerson's 2003 novel, Something Might Happen, as the location for a seduction scene. Http://westleton.onesuffolk.net/
R. W. Ketton-Cremer
Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, was an English landowner and historian. He bequeathed Felbrigg Hall, to the National Trust. Robert Wyndham Cremer was born in Plympton, Devon, on 2 May 1906 to Wyndham Cremer Ketton-Cremer and his wife Emily Bayly, he was educated at Harrow School. He and his brother assumed the surname Ketton-Cremer in 1924, he won an exhibition to Oxford where he read English Literature. While at Oxford he published poetry, he was a descendant of the Wyndham family, who owned the Felbrigg estate in Norfolk, was known as "the Last Squire". He inherited the estate on the death of his father in 1933. Wyndham Ketton-Cremer's heir, his younger brother Richard, died in Crete during the Second World War. Ketton-Cremer owned the Beeston Regis estate, including what is now Beeston Hall School. Ketton-Cremer never married, he was a closet homosexual, at a time when homosexual acts were still criminalised though close friends were aware of his sexuality. He stood godfather to the children of his friends, including Tristram Powell, son of novelist Anthony Powell, to whom the novel The Kindly Ones was dedicated.
He read suggested improvements, up to the time of his death. He was a justice of the peace, he was a major in the East Norfolk Home Guard during the Second World War. He was a trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Ketton-Cremer wrote on the history of his native Norfolk as well as number of biographies, including one of Whig statesman William Windham, one of politician Horace Walpole, one of the poet Thomas Gray, for which he won the James Tait Black Award. An annotated bibliography was published in 1995, his works include: The Early Diaries of William Windham. Faber and Faber, London, 1930. Horace Walpole: A Biography. Faber and Faber, London, 1940. Norfolk Portraits, 1944 Norfolk Gallery, 1948 Country Neighbourhood. Faber and Faber, London, 1951. Thomas Gray, 1955 Norfolk Assembly, 1957 Forty Norfolk Essays, 1961 Felbrigg: The Story of a House, 1962 Norfolk in the Civil War: A portrait of a society in conflict. Faber and Faber, London, 1969. ISBN 057109130X In 1968, Ketton-Cremer was elected a Fellow of the British Academy.
He was an elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters by the University of East Anglia in 1969. Ketton-Cremer died on 12 December 1969, he bequeathed Felbrigg Hall to the National Trust. A brief memoir was written shortly after his death by the literary scholar Mary Lascelles. To mark the 50th anniversary of the decriminalisation of sexual activity between men in England and Wales, in summer 2017 the National Trust organised a national "Prejudice and Pride" campaign highlighting the LGBT themes in its properties. At Felbrigg Hall that included displaying a short film—narrated by Stephen Fry—in which it was revealed that Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer was gay, a fact only known to his close friends. Two of Ketton-Cremer's godchildren criticised the decision, claiming that a public outing would have been against Ketton-Cremer's wishes and accusing the Trust of using their godfather's private life to generate publicity.
Fry defended the Trust's decision, arguing that Ketton-Cremer had only kept his sexuality a secret because of pervasive homophobia and fear of prosecution during his lifetime. Literary Norfolk: Ketton-Cremer, Felbrigg
Beechwood Sacred Heart School
Beechwood Sacred Heart School is a co-educational independent day and boarding school for boys and girls aged 3 – 18, which comprises a Nursery, Preparatory School and Senior School, with boarding for boys and girls aged 11 – 18. Founded by the Society of the Sacred Heart in 1915, Beechwood retains its Catholic traditions but today welcomes pupils of all faiths. Beechwood is situated on a 25 acre campus in Kent; the origins of Beechwood House date back to 1855, located on Calverley Mile Road amid a number of other Italian style Victorian villas of the time. The School celebrated its centenary in 2015; this was marked by alumni events and the collation of artifacts for a time capsule to be opened in 2065. Admission to the Senior School is via assessment in mathematics, non-verbal reasoning, creative writing. Ages of admission are at 11+, 13+ and 16+; the School offers a range of A-Level courses. Open Days are held in March. Boarding is a feature of the school with significant investment in facilities in recent years.
The School predominantly serves the local area in West Kent and East Sussex, but welcomes boarders from many different nations. Beechwood's current Headteacher is Mrs Helen Rowe,appointed in 2018, she was Deputy Headteacher at Beechwood, Assistant Headteacher at Woldingham School, Surrey. Fatima Akilu, Nigerian psychologist and author Pauline Gower, aviator Louise Mensch and former MP Libby Purves, journalist Alex Thomas, Minecraft Youtuber Network of Sacred Heart Schools Profile on the Independent Schools Council website
Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. These spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms. A ship so rigged is called a square-rigger; the square rig is aerodynamically the most efficient running rig, stayed popular on ocean-going sailing ships until the end of the Age of Sail. The last commercial sailing ships, were square-rigged four-masted barques. Square-rigged masts may have triangular staysails that are deployed fore-and-aft between masts; the term "square-rigged" can describe individual, four-cornered sails suspended from the horizontal yards, carried on either a square-rigged or a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, such as one with a bermuda rigged or gaff rigged mainsail. "Square-rigged" is used for the uniform of a rating in the Royal Navy since 1857. It is slang and refers to anyone wearing the famous blue square collar on the shoulders and bell-bottomed trousers.
The name reflects the fact that it was these men who managed the square-rigged sails. The peaked cap uniform worn by Senior Ratings and Officers is known colloquially as'fore-and-aft rig'. A mast is considered square-rigged if its lowest sail or course is square-rigged, but if this is the case it will have a complete set of square-rigged sails. If the course is fore-and-aft, square topsails can still be carried in front of the mast. In their heyday, square-rigged vessels ranged in size from small boats to full rigged ships, but this rig fell from favour to fore-and-aft gaff rigs and bermuda rigs after the development of steam power and new materials. Ocean-going sailing ships stayed square-rigged. Square rigs allowed the fitting of many small sails to create a large total sail area to drive large ships. Fore-and-aft could be sailed with fewer crew and were efficient working to windward or reaching, but creating a large total sail area required large sails, which could cause the sails and cordage to break more under the wind.
18th-century warships would achieve tops speeds of 12–13 knots, although average speeds over long distances were as little as half that. Some clipper ships that had square rigs and for whom speed was critical could be much faster; the late windjammers were as fast as the clippers. Not only could a smaller sail be managed by a smaller crew but these smaller sails constrained the impact of weapons on them. A hole from a cannonball affected only one sail's area, whilst a hole in a large sail would tear the whole larger area and reduce more of the vessel's motive power. With the development of more advanced fittings and cordage geared winches, high loads on an individual line became less of an issue, the focus moved to minimising the number of lines and so the size of the crew needed to handle them; this reduced running costs and enlarged the space available in the ship for profitable cargoes. New materials changed sail designs on hybrid vessels carrying some square-rigged sails; the low aspect ratio of square-rigged sails produces much drag for the lift produced, so they have poor performance to windward compared to modern yachts, they cannot sail as close to the wind.
The Bermuda rig is the undisputed champion of windward performance in soft sails, due to its low drag and high lift-to-drag ratio. One advantage of square rigs is that they are more efficient when running, where the high lift to drag is irrelevant and the total drag is the most important issue. Square-rigged sails are less prone to broaching when running than Bermuda rigs. Ocean-going vessels take advantage of prevailing winds such as the trade winds and the westerlies and are thus running. On a square-rigged mast, the sails had names; the lowest square sail was the course, the next sail up the mast was called the topsail, the next the topgallant sail. Many vessels shipped a fourth sail called the royal, above the other three, some more on trades with light winds. Sometimes a vessel might put out studding sails which would be fixed outboard of these sails along the yards. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, the topsails and topgallants were each split into upper and lower sails. Sails are referred to by their mast and name, e.g. "the fore mast topgallant sail" shortened to "fore t'gallant", or "fore t'gar'ns'l".
Where no mast is specified, the main mast is implied. The oldest archaeological evidence of use of a square-rig on a vessel is an image on a clay disk from Mesopotamia from 5000BC. Single sail square rigs were used by the ancient Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Celts; the Scandinavians, the Germanic peoples, the Slavs adopted the single square-rigged sail, with it becoming one of the defining characteristics of the classic “Viking” ships. The early, simple square-rigged ships, having only the one square sail, were more limited in their ability to sail into the wind than multi-sail square-riggers. That, along with the vulnerability of a single large sail after guns began to be used in naval warfare, led to the single sail square rig being abandoned beginning in the medieval period, in favor of multi-sail, multi-mast square rigs. On multi-sail, multi-mast v
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom; the trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone". The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907; the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland; the Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament. The National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests, it owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites.
Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased, on terms; the Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares of land, including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon. In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure; the review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms. The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971. It is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006, its formal purpose is: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang.
The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy; the last is a notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses.
In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers. In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Wiltshire; the building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she owned in Cumbria; the trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website