The Dornier Libelle designated Do A, was a German open-cockpit, all-metal, parasol wing, monoplane flying boat aircraft, with fabric-covered wings. A landplane version, built without sponsons and fitted with a fixed tailwheel undercarriage was produced as the Dornier Spatz. Do A Two prototypes of the Libelle Libelle I The standard production model, five built, fitted with Siemens-Halske Sh 4 engines and two built with 59.7 kW Siemens-Halske Sh 5 engines. Libelle II The improved Libelle II was powered by Siemens-Halske Sh 5 or 75 kW Siemens-Halske Sh 11 engines. Other engines fitted to Libelle II aircraft include the ADC Cirrus. Three built. A Dornier Libelle crashed into the sea off Milford beach in Auckland, New Zealand on 12 December 1929, killing both crewmen. A Libelle II VQ-FAB, manufacturers number 117 built in 1925, which operated in Fiji, is displayed in the Deutsches Museum in the centre of Munich. Data from General characteristics Crew: one Capacity: two passengers Length: 7.18 m Wingspan: 8.5 m Height: 2.27 m Wing area: 14 m2 Empty weight: 420 kg Gross weight: 640 kg Fuel capacity: fuel 42 kg fuel + oil 10 kg Powerplant: 1 × Siemens-Halske Sh 4 5-cyl.
Air-cooled radial piston engine, 45 kW Performance Maximum speed: 120 km/h Cruise speed: 100 km/h Range: 300 km Service ceiling: 1,600 m "Dornier Spatz". Germany. Retrieved 25 February 2012. Dornier “Libelle" at http://www.jadu.de/luftfahrt "Libelle" at www.histaviation.com
Defamation, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of, depending on the law of the country, an individual, product, government, religion, or nation. Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed; some common law jurisdictions distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel. False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading. In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong; the United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 2012 that the libel law of one country, the Philippines, was inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as urging that "State parties should consider the decriminalization of libel". In Saudi Arabia, defamation of the state, or a past or present ruler, is punishable under terrorism legislation.
A person who defames another may be called a "defamer", "libeler", "slanderer", or a "famacide". The term libel is derived from the Latin libellus; as of 2017, at least 130 UNESCO Member States retained criminal defamation laws. In 2017, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Office of the Representative on Freedom of the Media issued a report on criminal defamation and anti-blasphemy laws among its Member States, which found that defamation is criminalized in nearly three-quarters of the 57 OSCE participating States. Many of the laws pertaining to defamation include specific provisions for harsher punishment for speech or publications critical of heads of state, public officials, state bodies and the State itself; the OSCE report noted that blasphemy and religious insult laws exist in around one third of OSCE participating States. In Africa, at least four Member States decriminalized defamation between 2012 and 2017; the ruling by the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights in Lohé Issa Konaté v. the Republic of Burkina Faso set a precedent in the region against imprisonment as a legitimate penalty for defamation, characterizing it as a violation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the treaty of the Economic Community of West African States.
Countries in every region have moved to advance the criminalization of defamation by extending legislation to online content. Cybercrime and anti-terrorism laws passed throughout the world have led to bloggers appearing before courts, with some serving time in prison; the United Nations, OSCE, Organisation of American States and African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression stated in a joint declaration in March 2017 that ‘general prohibitions on the dissemination of information based on vague and ambiguous ideas, including "false news" or "non-objective information", are incompatible with international standards for restrictions on freedom of expression...and should be abolished.’ The common law origins of defamation lie in the torts of "slander" and "libel", each of which gives a common law right of action. Defamation is the general term used internationally, is used in this article where it is not necessary to distinguish between "slander" and "libel".
Libel and slander both require publication. The fundamental distinction between libel and slander lies in the form in which the defamatory matter is published. If the offending material is published in some fleeting form, as by spoken words or sounds, sign language, gestures or the like it is slander. Libel is defined as defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures; the law of libel originated in the 17th century in England. With the growth of publication came the growth of libel and development of the tort of libel. An early example of libel is the case of John Peter Zenger in 1735. Zenger was hired to publish New York Weekly Journal; when he printed another man's article that criticized William Cosby, British Royal Governor of Colonial New York, Zenger was accused of seditious libel. The verdict was returned as Not Guilty on the charge of seditious libel, because it was proven that all the statements Zenger had published about Cosby had been true, so there was not an issue of defamation.
Another example of libel is the case of New York Times Sullivan. The U. S. Supreme Court overruled a State court in Alabama that had found The New York Times guilty of libel for printing an advertisement that criticized Alabama officials for mistreating student civil rights activists. Though some of what The Times printed was false, the Court ruled in its favor, saying that libel of a public official requires proof of actual malice, defined as a "knowing or reckless disregard for the truth". There are several things. In the United States, a person must prove that 1) the statement was false, 2) caused harm, 3) was made without adequate research into the truthfulness of the statement; these steps are for an ordinary citizen. For a celebrity or public official, a person must prove the first three steps, that the statement was made with the intent to do harm or with reckless disregard for the truth, specifically referred to as "actual malice". At one time, the honour of peers was protected
The Libelle was an Austrian three-wheeled microcar built in Innsbruck by Libelle Fahrzeugbau- und Vertriebsgesellschaft between 1952 and 1954. It had a one-cylinder two-stroke Rotax engine with 199 cc and 8.5 hp, 4 gears. About 50 are believed to have been built. List of microcars by country of originWalter Zeichner: Kleinwagen International, Motorbuch-Verlag. Stuttgart 1999. ISBN 978-3-613-01959-1 Photographs of the Libelle Web page of the RRRollipop Museum
The Glasflügel H-201 Standard Libelle is an early composite Standard Class single-seat sailplane produced by Glasflügel from 1967. The H-201 Standard Libelle was a follow-on Standard Class sailplane to the successful H-301 Libelle Open Class glider, it was similar to the H-301, with modifications to meet the Standard Class requirements. The prototype made its first flight with a total of 601 being built; the type soon made its mark in contest flying. The Libelle and Standard Libelle were popular and influential designs, their light wings and easy rigging set a new benchmark. Their handling is easy except that they are quite sensitive to sideslipping and have ineffective air brakes that make short landings tricky for inexperienced pilots; the Standard Libelle was superseded by the Hornet. The Standard Libelle is of similar glassfibre construction to the H-301 Libelle; the changes required consisted of removing the flaps and tail braking parachute, fitting a fixed, instead of retractable and raising the height of the canopy.
A new Wortmann wing section was featured and terminal velocity dive brakes were fitted. With a change in the Standard Class rules, the H-201B of 1969 introduced a retractable gear and a water ballast system as an option, with one 25-litre bag per wing located before the spar, with valve and dumping orifice on the fuselage underside. Other improvements in the B variant were larger upper surface dive brakes, a larger stabilizer for better low-speed handling, PVC foam sandwich core for the wing to increase durability and profile accuracy, increased gross weight and higher operating speeds; the canopy is unique in that it has a catch that enables the front to be raised by 25mm in flight to provide a blast of ventilating air instead of the more conventional small sliding panel used for this purpose. The connections for airbrakes and elevator are automatic; the aileron connections are manually connected. Glasflügel 202 Glasflügel 203 Glasflügel 204 Glasflügel 205 Club Libelle with a high-wing, T-tail and fixed undercarriage intended for rental and club use.
General characteristics Crew: One pilot Capacity: 50 kg water ballast Length: 6.19 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.25 m Wing area: 9.8 m2 Aspect ratio: 23 Empty weight: ca. 185 kg Gross weight: 350 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: ca. 38 Rate of sink: 0.57 m/s Armament Rolladen-Schneider LS1 Schempp-Hirth Standard Cirrus Schleicher ASW 15 Related lists List of gliders Thomas F, Fundamentals of Sailplane Design, College Park Press, 1999 Simons M, Segelflugzeuge 1965-2000, Eqip, 2004 Sailplane Directory
Project 131 Libelle Torpedo Boat
Project 131 Libelle Torpedo boat known as the Libelle Klasse, was a class of torpedo boats designed and used by the German Democratic Republic during the Cold War. The Libelle class was based on a welded metal hull, housing a fuel tank and a total of three soviet M-50F4 diesel engines, one to the rear and two to the front; the hull contained one 533-mm torpedo tube on each side. Project 131 carried no reloads for the torpedo tubes; the boats were designed for short ranges only and were meant to operate from floating bases, anchored close to their area of operation. Each Project 131 boat had a small compartment in the bow to accommodate the crew for some time. On the deck, there was a pilothouse with four seats and an elevated seat in the center for the helmsman. On both sides of the pilothouse, removable ejectors for sea mines could be mounted. On the aft deck, a rear facing ZU-23-2 23 mm gun was mounted for air defence; the torpedoes were ejected to the rear, but faced forward, so that they were following the boat's course after hitting the water.
30 boats were built in Rechlin and equipped in the Peene-Werft between 1974 and 1977. The 30 boats had the numbers 131.401 to 131.430 assigned to them. One was lost in a collision off Hiddensee in 1986, the others were retired around 1989, with four boats being preserved. Günther Miel. Die LTS- und KTS-Boote der Volksmarine. Vorbilder und Modelle. Villingen-Schwenningen: Neckar-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7883-1138-4
A g-suit, or the more named anti-g suit, is a flight suit worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration force. It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC caused by the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under acceleration, thus depriving the brain of blood. Black-out and g-LOC has caused a number of fatal aircraft accidents. If blood is allowed to pool in the lower areas of the body, the brain will be deprived of blood, leading to temporary hypoxia. Hypoxia first causes a greyout called brownout, followed by tunnel vision and complete loss of vision'blackout' followed by g-induced Loss Of Consciousness or'g-LOC'; the danger of g-LOC to aircraft pilots is magnified because on relaxation of g there is a period of disorientation before full sensation is re-gained. A g-suit does not so much increase the g-threshold, but makes it possible to sustain high g longer without excessive physical fatigue; the resting g-tolerance of a typical person is anywhere from 3-5 g depending on the person.
A g-suit will add 1 g of tolerance to that limit. Pilots still need to practice the'g-straining maneuver' that consists of tensing the abdominal muscles in order to tighten blood vessels so as to reduce blood pooling in the lower body. High g is not comfortable with a g-suit. In older fighter aircraft, 6 g was considered a high level, but with modern fighters 9 g or more can be sustained structurally making the pilot the critical factor in maintaining high maneuverability in close aerial combat. A g-suit is a special garment and takes the form of tightly-fitting trousers, which fit either under or over the flight suit worn by the aviator or astronaut; the trousers are fitted with inflatable bladders which, when pressurized through a g-sensitive valve in the aircraft or spacecraft, press on the abdomen and legs, thus restricting the draining of blood away from the brain during periods of high acceleration. In addition, in some modern high-g aircraft, the Anti-g suit effect is augmented by a small amount of pressure applied to the lungs, which enhances resistance to high G.
The effects of anti-g suits and partial pressure breathing are straightforward to replicate in a simulator, although only continuous g can be produced artificially in devices such as centrifuges. Various designs of g-suit have been developed, they first used water-filled bladders around legs. Designs used air under pressure to inflate the bladders; these g-suits are still in extensive use. However, the Swiss company Life Support Systems AG and the German Autoflug collaborated to design the new Libelle suit for use with the Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft, which reverts to liquid as the medium and improves on performance; the Libelle suit is under consideration for adoption by the United States Air Force. As early as 1917, there were documented cases of pilots' loss of consciousness due to g that were referred to as "fainting in the air". In 1931 a professor of physiology, Frank Cotton, from the University of Sydney described a new way of determining the center of gravity of the human body; this made it possible to describe the displacement of mass within the body under acceleration..
Cotton had recognised the need for an anti-gravity suit during the 1940 Battle of Britain. It was estimated. Spitfires, in particular, were capable of rapid turns that generated high g-forces, causing black-out when diving to avoid or deliver enemy fire. With the development of higher speed monoplane fighters in the late 1930s, acceleration forces during combat became more severe; as early as 1940 some German aircraft had foot-rests above the rudder pedals so that the pilot's feet and legs could be raised during combat in an attempt to minimize the negative effects of high speed turns. Large rudder deflections were not necessary during such manoeuvres, but being able to cut inside the opponent's turning radius was; the first g-suits were developed by a team led by Wilbur R. Franks at the University of Toronto's Banting and Best Medical Institute in 1941; the suits were manufactured by the Dunlop company and first used operationally in 1942 by the Fleet Air Arm during Operation Torch. These devices used water filled bladders around the legs and two'Mk.'
Versions were developed: Franks Mark I suits were used by RAF Hurricane and Spitfire pilots. Professor Frank Cotton of Sydney University, designed the world's first successful gas-operated anti-G suit. Research commenced late in 1940, a suit was designed with rubber sacs covered externally by inextensible material; the sacs automatically inflated. The suit was developed at the Sydney Medical School. Cotton constructed the first human centrifuge in the Anderson Stuart Building at Sydney University under tight wartime security; the volunteers, young airmen, were strapped by their legs to the centrifuge and subjected to high g-force and monitored until black-out occurred. All lost consciousness. On February 19, 1942, the day of the major Japanese air attack on Darwin, Cotton’s suit was approved by the Allied war chiefs; the Americans soon issued orders for manufacture of a suit based on Cotton’s design. The Cotton suit was flight-tested in a Hurricane and Spitfires and provided about 2G protection.
The Royal Air Force ran competitive trials of the Cotton Anti-G suit with the Frank G-Suit, adopted in 1944. The Roya
Die Libelle Op. 204 is a polka-mazurka composed by Josef Strauss in 1866. Josef Strauss and his wife Caroline visited Traunstein and lake Traunsee in 1866. At that time, Josef saw dragonflies flying on the water surface. Inspired by this experience, he composed the Polka-mazurka Die Libelle; this work was premiered on 21 October 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War, when the Austrian mood was still gloomy following its defeat. Die Libelle was recorded by Johannes Brahms, together with his own Hungarian Dance no. 1 in 1889. The recording was damaged in World War II. Josef Strauss Die Libelle / Polka mazurka op. 204 – Commentary by Wiener Johann Strauss Orchester（WJSO）