1891 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1891 was held on March 5 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 7th Parliament of Canada. It was won by the Conservative Party of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald; the main issue of the 1891 campaign was a policy of protective tariffs. The Liberals supported reciprocity with the United States. Macdonald led a conservative campaign emphasizing stability, retained the Conservatives' majority in the House of Commons, it was a close election and he campaigned hard. Macdonald died a few months after the election, which led to his succession by four different Conservative Prime Ministers until the 1896 election. Senator John Abbott succeeded Macdonald as Conservative leader and Prime Minister after Macdonald's death on June 6, 1891. Abbott's most famous political comment was "I hate politics." He had in fact supported John Sparrow David Thompson to succeed Macdonald. Abbott, in failing health, was succeeded by Thompson in 1892. Mackenzie Bowell, another senator, succeeded Thompson after his sudden death from a heart attack on December 12, 1894.
Bowell was ousted by several of his own cabinet ministers and replaced by Charles Tupper in April 1896, who led the Conservatives in the June 1896 election. It was Wilfrid Laurier's first election as leader of the Liberals. Although he lost the election, he increased the Liberals' support, he returned in 1896 to win a solid majority, despite losing the popular vote. Canadian voters would return to the issue of free trade 20 years in the 1911 federal election. Notes: * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. 1 One Nationalist candidate was elected by acclamation. 2 The Parliamentary website identifies two candidates in Nova Scotia as being "Progressives". This may be an error. Acclamations: The following Members of Parliament were elected by acclamation.
Right to property
The right to property or right to own property is classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions. A general recognition of a right to private property is found more and is heavily constrained insofar as property is owned by legal persons and where it is used for production rather than consumption. A right to property is recognised in Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but it is not recognised in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights; the European Convention on Human Rights, in Protocol 1, article 1 acknowledges a right for natural and legal persons to "peaceful enjoyment of his possessions", subject to the "general interest or to secure the payment of taxes". The right to property is one of the most controversial human rights, both in terms of its existence and interpretation; the controversy about the definition of the right meant that it was not included in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights.
Controversy centres upon, deemed to have property rights protected, the type of property, protected and the reasons for which property can be restricted. In all human rights instruments, either implicit or express restrictions exist on the extent to which property is protected. Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the right to property as follows: The object of the right to property as it is understood nowadays consists of property owned or possessed, or of property acquired or to be acquired by a person through lawful means. Not in opposition but in contrast to this, some proposals defend a universal right to private property, in the sense of a right of every person to receive a certain amount of property, grounded in a claim to Earth's natural resources or other theories of justice; the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights protects the right to property most explicitly in Article 14, stating: Property rights are furthermore recognised in Article 13 of the ACHPR, which states that every citizen has the right to participate in the government of his country, the right to equal access to public services and "the right of access to public property and services in strict equality of all persons before the law".
Article 21 of the ACHPR recognises the right of all peoples to dispose of their wealth and natural resources and that this right shall be exercised in the exclusive interest of the people, who may not be deprived of this right. Article 21 provides that "in case of spoliation the dispossessed people shall have the right to the lawful recovery of its property as well as to adequate compensation"; when the text of the UDHR was negotiated, other states in the Americas argued that the right to property should be limited to the protection of private property necessary for subsistence. Their suggestion was opposed, but was enshrined in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, negotiated at the same time and adopted one year before the UDHR in 1948. Article 23 of the declaration states: The definition of the right to property is influenced by Western concepts of property rights, but because property rights vary in different legal systems it has not been possible to establish international standards on property rights.
The regional human rights instruments of Europe and the Americas recognise the right to protection of property to varying degrees. The American Convention on Human Rights recognises the right to protection of property, including the right to "just compensation"; the ACHR prohibits usury and other exploitation, unique amongst human rights instruments. Article 21 of the ACHR states: After failed attempts to include the right to protection of property in the European Convention on Human Rights, European states enshrined the right to protection of property in Article 1 of Protocol I to the ECHR as the "right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions", where the right to protection of property is defined as such: Therefore European human rights law recognises the right to peaceful enjoyment of property, makes deprivation of possessions subject to certain conditions and recognises that states can balance the right to peaceful possession of property against the public interest; the European Court of Human Rights has interpreted "possessions" to include not only tangible property, but economic interests, contractual agreements with economic value, compensation claims against the state and public law related claims such as pensions.
The European Court of Human Rights has held that the right to property is not absolute and states have a wide degree of discretion to limit the rights. As such, the right to property is regarded as a more flexible right than other human rights. States' degree of discretion is defined in Handyside v. United Kingdom, heard by the European Court of Human Rights in 1976. Notable cases where the European Court of Human Rights has found the right to property having been violated include Sporrong and Lonnroth v. Sweden, heard in 1982, where Swedish law kept property under the threat of expropriation for an extended period of time; the highest economic compensation following a judgment of the Strasbourg Court on this matter was given in case Beyeler v. Italy. Property rights are recognised in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination which
Libertarian Party of Canada
The Libertarian Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada founded in 1973. The party subscribes to classical liberal tenets of the libertarian movement across Canada; the mission of the party is to reduce the size and cost of government. Policies the party advocates for include ending drug prohibition, ending government censorship, lowering taxes, protecting gun rights and non-interventionism; the party was founded on 7 July 1973 by seven others. Evoy ran for election to Parliament in the 1974 federal election in the Toronto riding of Rosedale; the party achieved registered status in the 1979 federal election by running more than fifty candidates. The party described itself as Canada's "fourth party" in the 1980s, but it has since been displaced by new parties such as the Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada; the party declined to join the Reform Party of Canada when it was formed in 1987. Many libertarians were attracted to provincial Progressive Conservative parties that moved to the right during the 1990s in Ontario under Mike Harris and in Alberta under Ralph Klein.
The decline in the party's membership and resources resulted in Elections Canada removing their status as a registered party before the 1997 federal election when the party failed to run the minimum fifty candidates needed to maintain its registration. Jean-Serge Brisson led the party from 22 May 2000 until 18 May 2008, when he was succeeded by Dennis Young. Young defeated outgoing party president Alan Mercer for the leadership. Savannah Linklater was elected deputy leader. In May 2011, Katrina Chowne was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In May 2014, Tim Moen was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In the 2015 federal election, the party fielded 72 candidates and solidified their position as the 6th federal party in Canada, with growth over 500% from the 2011 federal election; the next Federal Libertarian Party of Canada Convention took place in Ottawa from 5 July through 7 July 2018, concluding on the 45th anniversary of the party. On 17 September, Moen announced he was considering merging the Libertarian Party with the newly formed People's Party of Canada led by former Conservative MP Maxime Bernier.
The matter is to be put to a party vote at an as of yet undisclosed date. The party nominated a number of candidates to run in by-elections: 1980 by-election: 1 1981 by-election: 1 1982 by-election: 1 1990 by-election: 2 1995 by-election: 1 2008 by-election: 1 2010 by-election: 1 2012 by-election: 3 2013 by-election: 3 2014 by-election: 2 2016 by-election: 1 2017 by-election: 4SourcesLibertarian Party of Canada News. 4. 1979-2006. "Parliament of Canada History of the Federal Electoral Ridings since 1867". British Columbia Libertarian Party Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1988 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1993 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2006 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2008 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2011 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2015 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Manitoba Ontario Libertarian Party Official website.
Libertarian Party of Canada - Canadian Political Parties and Political Interest Groups. Web archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations. It includes a spectrum of different economic policies, such as freedom of movement, but its basis is on strong support for a market economy and private property in the means of production. Although economic liberals can be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition. Economic liberalism is associated with private ownership of capital assets. Economic liberalism arose in response to mercantilism and feudalism. Today, economic liberalism is considered opposed to non-capitalist economic orders, such as socialism and planned economies, it contrasts with protectionism because of its support for free trade and open markets. An economy, managed according to these precepts may be described as a liberal economy.
Arguments in favor of economic liberalism were advanced during the Enlightenment, opposing mercantilism and feudalism. It was first analyzed by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which advocated minimal interference of government in a market economy, though it did not oppose the state's provision of basic public goods with what constitutes public goods being seen as limited in scope. Smith claimed that if everyone is left to his own economic devices instead of being controlled by the state the result would be a harmonious and more equal society of ever-increasing prosperity; this underpinned the move towards a capitalist economic system in the late 18th century and the subsequent demise of the mercantilist system. Private property and individual contracts form the basis of economic liberalism; the early theory was based on the assumption that the economic actions of individuals are based on self-interest and that allowing them to act without any restrictions will produce the best results for everyone, provided that at least minimum standards of public information and justice exist, e.g. no one should be allowed to coerce, steal, or commit fraud and there is freedom of speech and press.
The economic liberals had to contend with the supporters of feudal privileges for the wealthy, aristocratic traditions and the rights of kings to run national economies in their own personal interests. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, these were defeated. Economic liberalism opposes government intervention on the grounds that the state serves dominant business interests, distorting the market to their favor and thus leading to inefficient outcomes. Ordoliberalism and various schools of social liberalism based on classical liberalism include a broader role for the state, but do not seek to replace private enterprise and the free market with public enterprise and economic planning. For example, a social market economy is a free market economy based on a free price system and private property, but is supportive of government activity to promote competitive markets and social welfare programs to address social inequalities that result from free market outcomes. Adams, Ian.
Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-719-06020-5. Balaam, David N. Introduction to International Political Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-34730-9. Turner, Rachel S.. Neo-Liberal Ideology: History and Policies. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-748-68868-5. Quotations related to Economic liberalism at Wikiquote
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God and Country". Tories advocate monarchism, were of a high church Anglican religious heritage, opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction; the philosophy originates from a royalist group during the English Civil War. The Tories political faction that emerged in 1681 was a reaction to the Whig-controlled Parliaments that succeeded the Cavalier Parliament, it has exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America, who opposed American secession during the American War of Independence. The loyalists that fled to the Canadas at the end of the American Revolution, the United Empire Loyalists, formed the support base for political cliques in Upper and Lower Canada. Toryism remains prominent in the United Kingdom.
The British Conservative Party and Conservative Party of Canada, their members, continue to be referred to as Tories. The term Tory is used regardless of. Adherents to traditional Toryism in contemporary times are referred to as High Tories; the terms Blue Tory and Red Tory have been used to describe the two different factions of the federal and provincial Conservative/Progressive Conservative parties in Canada. In addition, Pink Tory is used in Canadian politics as a pejorative term to describe a member of the Conservative/Progressive Conservative party, perceived as liberal; the word Tory derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe. The term was applied in Ireland to the isolated bands of guerrillas resisting Oliver Cromwell's nine-month 1649–1650 campaign in Ireland, who were allied with Royalists through treaty with the Parliament of Confederate Ireland, signed at Kilkenny in January 1649, it was used to refer to a Rapparee and applied to Confederates or Cavaliers in arms. The term was thus a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as "Whig".
Towards the end of Charles II's reign there was some debate about whether or not his brother, Duke of York, should be allowed to succeed to the throne. "Whigs" a reference to Scottish cattle-drovers, was the abusive term directed at those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. Those who were not prepared to exclude James were labelled "Abhorrers" and "Tories". Titus Oates applied the term Tory, which signified an Irish robber, to those who would not believe in his Popish Plot and the name became extended to all who were supposed to have sympathy with the Catholic Duke of York; the suffix -ism was added to both Whig and Tory to make Whiggism and Toryism, meaning the principles and methods of each faction. The term Tory was first used to designate the pre-Confederation British ruling classes of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, known as the Family Compact and the Château Clique, an elite within the governing classes and members within a section of society known as the United Empire Loyalists.
The United Empire Loyalists were American loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolutionary War. In post-Confederation Canada, the terms "Red Tory" and "Blue Tory" have long been used to describe the two wings of the Conservative and the Progressive Conservative parties; the dyadic tensions arose out of the 1854 political union of British-Canadian Tories, French-Canadian traditionalists and the monarchist and loyalist leaning sections of the emerging commercial classes at the time—many of whom were uncomfortable with the pro-American and annexationist tendencies within the liberal Clear Grits. Tory strength and prominence in the political culture was a feature of life in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Manitoba. By the 1930s, the factions within Canadian Toryism were associated with either the urban business elites, or with rural traditionalists from the country's hinterland. A "Red Tory" is a member of the more moderate wing of the party.
They are unified by their adherence to British traditions in Canada. Throughout the course of Canadian history, the Conservative Party was controlled by MacDonaldian Tory elements, which in Canada meant an adherence to the English-Canadian traditions of Monarchy, Empire-Commonwealth, parliamentary government, protectionism, social reform and acceptance of the necessity of the welfare state. By the 1970s, the Progressive Conservative Party was a Keynesian-consensus party. With the onset of stagflation in the 1970s, some Canadian Tories came under the influence of neo-liberal developments in Great Britain and the United States, which highlighted the policies for privatization and supply-side interventions. In Canada, these tories have been labeled neoconservatives—which has a somewhat different connotation in the United States. By the early 1980s, there was no clear neoconservative in the Tory leadership cadre, but Brian Mulroney came to adopt many policies from the Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan governments.
As Mulroney took the Progressive Conservative Party further in this direction, with policy initiati
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, a variety of other government regulations. Proponents claim that protectionist policies shield the producers and workers of the import-competing sector in the country from foreign competitors. However, they reduce trade and adversely affect consumers in general, harm the producers and workers in export sectors, both in the country implementing protectionist policies, in the countries protected against. There is a consensus among economists that protectionism has a negative effect on economic growth and economic welfare, while free trade and the reduction of trade barriers has a positive effect on economic growth; some scholars have implicated protectionism as the cause of some economic crises, most notably the Great Depression. However, trade liberalization can sometimes result in large and unequally distributed losses and gains, can, in the short run, cause significant economic dislocation of workers in import-competing sectors.
A variety of policies have been used to achieve protectionist goals. These include: Tariffs and import quotas are the most common types of protectionist policies. A tariff is an excise tax. Imposed to raise government revenue, modern tariffs are now more designed to protect domestic producers that compete with foreign importers. An import quota is a limit on the volume of a good that may be imported established through an import licensing regime. Protection of technologies, patents and scientific knowledge Restrictions on foreign direct investment, such as restrictions on the acquisition of domestic firms by foreign investors. Administrative barriers: Countries are sometimes accused of using their various administrative rules as a way to introduce barriers to imports. Anti-dumping legislation: "Dumping" is the practice of firms selling to export markets at lower prices than are charged in domestic markets. Supporters of anti-dumping laws argue that they prevent import of cheaper foreign goods that would cause local firms to close down.
However, in practice, anti-dumping laws are used to impose trade tariffs on foreign exporters. Direct subsidies: Government subsidies are sometimes given to local firms that cannot compete well against imports; these subsidies are purported to "protect" local jobs, to help local firms adjust to the world markets. Export subsidies: Export subsidies are used by governments to increase exports. Export subsidies have the opposite effect of export tariffs because exporters get payment, a percentage or proportion of the value of exported. Export subsidies increase the amount of trade, in a country with floating exchange rates, have effects similar to import subsidies. Exchange rate control: A government may intervene in the foreign exchange market to lower the value of its currency by selling its currency in the foreign exchange market. Doing so will raise the cost of imports and lower the cost of exports, leading to an improvement in its trade balance. However, such a policy is only effective in the short run, as it will lead to higher inflation in the country in the long run, which will in turn raise the real cost of exports, reduce the relative price of imports.
International patent systems: There is an argument for viewing national patent systems as a cloak for protectionist trade policies at a national level. Two strands of this argument exist: one when patents held by one country form part of a system of exploitable relative advantage in trade negotiations against another, a second where adhering to a worldwide system of patents confers "good citizenship" status despite'de facto protectionism'. Peter Drahos explains that "States realized that patent systems could be used to cloak protectionist strategies. There were reputational advantages for states to be seen to be sticking to intellectual property systems. One could attend the various revisions of the Paris and Berne conventions, participate in the cosmopolitan moral dialogue about the need to protect the fruits of authorial labor and inventive genius...knowing all the while that one's domestic intellectual property system was a handy protectionist weapon." Political campaigns advocating domestic consumption Preferential governmental spending, such as the Buy American Act, federal legislation which called upon the United States government to prefer US-made products in its purchases.
In the modern trade arena many other initiatives besides tariffs have been called protectionist. For example, some commentators, such as Jagdish Bhagwati, see developed countries efforts in imposing their own labor or environmental standards as protectionism; the imposition of restrictive certification procedures on imports are seen in this light. Further, others point out that free trade agreements have protectionist provisions such as intellectual property and patent restrictions that benefit large corporations; these provisions restrict trade in music, pharmaceuticals and other manufactured items to high cost producers with quotas from low cost producers set to zero. Protectionism was associated with economic theories such as mercantilism, import substitution. In the 18th century, Adam Smith famously warned against the "interested sophistry" of industry
Libertarianism is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Traditionally, libertarianism was a term for a form of left-wing politics; such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty. Classical libertarian ideologies include—but are not limited to—anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism and egoism, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism.
Modern right-libertarian ideologies, such as minarchism and anarcho-capitalism, co-opted the term in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land and natural resources. The first recorded use of the term libertarian was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in the context of metaphysics; as early as 1796, the word libertarian came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty in the political and social spheres, when the London Packet printed on 12 February the following: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians". The word was again used in a political sense in 1802 in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir" and has since been used with this meaning; the use of the word libertarian to describe a new set of political positions has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.
Déjacque used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social, printed from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861 in New York City. Sébastien Faure, another French libertarian communist, began publishing a new Le Libertaire in the mid-1890s while France's Third Republic enacted the so-called villainous laws which banned anarchist publications in France. Thus, libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and libertarian socialism since this time; the term libertarianism was first used in the United States as a synonym for classical liberalism in May 1955 by writer Dean Russell, a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself. Russell justified the choice of the word as follows: "Many of us call ourselves'liberals.' And it is true that the word'liberal' once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons.
As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trade-mark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word'libertarian'". Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs began to describe themselves as libertarian. One person responsible for popularizing the term libertarian in this sense was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s. Rothbard describes this modern use of the words overtly as a "capture" from his enemies, saying that "for the first time in my memory, we,'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy.'Libertarians' had long been a polite word for left-wing anarchists, for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over". Robert Nozick was responsible for popularizing this usage of the term in philosophical circles and Europe instead.
According to common meanings of conservative and liberal, libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues and liberal on personal freedom and it is often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state. Left-libertarianism encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka and David Ellerman believe the appropriation of land must leave "enough and as good" for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property. Libertarian socialists promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism, collectivism and mutualism.
They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery. Right-libertarianism developed in the United States in the mid-20th century from the works of Euro