The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan abbreviated to LDP or Jimintō, is a conservative political party in Japan. The LDP has continuously been in power since its foundation in 1955—a period called the 1955 System—with the exception of a period between 1993 and 1994, again from 2009 to 2012. In the 2012 election it regained control of government, it holds 285 seats in the lower house and 113 seats in the upper house, in coalition with the Komeito, the governing coalition has a supermajority in both houses. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and many present and former LDP ministers are known members of Nippon Kaigi, an ultranationalist and monarchist organization; the LDP is not to be confused with the now-defunct Liberal Party, which merged with the Democratic Party of Japan to become the Democratic Party, the main opposition party until 2017. The LDP is not to be confused with the Liberal Party, a former minor social liberal party founded in 2016; the LDP was formed in 1955 as a merger between two of Japan's political parties, the Liberal Party and the Japan Democratic Party, both right-wing conservative parties, as a united front against the popular Japan Socialist Party, now Social Democratic Party.
The party won the following elections, Japan's first conservative government with a majority was formed by 1955. It would hold majority government until 1993; the LDP began with reforming Japan's international relations, ranging from entry into the United Nations, to establishing diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union. Its leaders in the 1950s made the LDP the main government party, in all the elections of the 1950s, the LDP won the majority vote, with the only other opposition coming from left-wing politics, made up of the Japan Socialist Party and the Japanese Communist Party. From the 1950s through the 1970s, the United States Central Intelligence Agency spent millions of dollars attempting to influence elections in Japan to favor the LDP against more leftist parties such as the Socialists and the Communists, although this was not revealed until the mid-1990s when it was exposed by The New York Times. For the majority of the 1960s, the LDP were led by Eisaku Satō, beginning with the hosting of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, ending in 1972 with Japanese neutrality in the Vietnam War and with the beginning of the Japanese asset price bubble.
By the end of the 1970s, the LDP went into its decline, where though it held the reins of government many scandals plagued the party, while the opposition gained momentum. In 1976, in the wake of the Lockheed bribery scandals, a handful of younger LDP Diet members broke away and established their own party, the New Liberal Club. A decade however, it was reabsorbed by the LDP. By the late 1970s, the Japan Socialist Party, the Japanese Communist Party, the Komeito along with the international community used major pressure to have Japan switch diplomatic ties from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China. By the early 1990s, the LDP's nearly four decades in power allowed it to establish a stable process of policy formation; this process would not have been possible. LDP strength was based on an enduring, although not unchallenged, coalition of big business, small business, professional groups, other interests. Elite bureaucrats collaborated with the party and interest groups in drafting and implementing policy.
In a sense, the party's success was a result not of its internal strength but of its weakness. It lacked a nationwide organization or consistent ideology with which to attract voters, its leaders were decisive, charismatic, or popular. But it functioned efficiently as a locus for matching interest group money and votes with bureaucratic power and expertise; this arrangement resulted in corruption, but the party could claim credit for helping to create economic growth and a stable, middle-class Japan. But by 1993, the end of the miracle economy and other reasons led to the LDP losing its majority in that year's general election. Seven opposition parties—including several formed by LDP dissidents—formed a government headed by LDP dissident Morihiro Hosokawa of the Japan New Party. However, the LDP was still far and away the largest party in the House of Representatives, with well over 200 seats. In 1994, the Socialist Party and New Party Sakigake left the ruling coalition, joining the LDP in the opposition.
The remaining members of the coalition tried to stay in power as a makeshift minority government, but this failed when the LDP and the Socialists, bitter rivals for 40 years, formed a majority coalition. The new government was dominated by the LDP, but it allowed a Socialist to occupy the Prime Minister's chair until 1996, when the LDP's Ryutaro Hashimoto took over. In the 1996 election, the LDP was still 12 seats short of a majority. However, no other party could form a government, Hashimoto formed a solidly LDP minority government. Through a series of floor-crossings, the LDP regained its majority within a year; the party was unopposed until 1998, when the opposition Democratic Party of Japan was formed. This marked the beginning of the opposing parties' gains in momentum in the 2003 and 2004 Parliamentary Elections, that wouldn't slow for another 12 years. In the paced 2003 House of Representatives elections, the LD
Doushin: Same Heart is a dating sim/eroge single player game created for Windows-based personal computers. It was developed by Crowd, translated into English by Peach Princess; the game offers a multiple-choice, "zapping" interface with heavy use of CG. In the game, the player takes the role of one of the three Suruga sisters: Maki or Miho; each character has her own story line. The story lines are intertwined; each sister has a secret they cannot tell anyone because of an unexplained physical phenomenon where one sensation experienced by one Suruga sister is felt by her other two sisters no matter where they are. The player assumes the role of one of three sisters, each unlocking different areas for exploration and assuming different roles. To achieve the best possible ending, the player must pay close attention to all of the clues. At times, the player must use the "switching" mechanism; the player can turn on a reference that gives a letter grade indicating how close he or she is to completing their objectives.
"Switching" in the game allows players to switch from playing one of the sisters to another. The player can sometimes switch between any of the three sisters while at other times choices are limited. "Switching" is supposed to help lead to further discussion in conversations, started during the same time slot. Sometimes, one can switch to a time 5 minutes in the future. "Switching" between characters not only helps the player encounter different story lines, but changes the story and allows the player to see all of the endings. This may block other story lines, so the player should be careful and use this feature wisely. Ryoko Suruga Ryoko is the eldest of the three sisters, she works as an administrative assistant, along with her colleague and friend. Ryoko has been responsible for her younger sisters, she is popular with the male employees at her company. The player must find a way to make Ryoko stand out and be noticed by male employees, who follow her around the office. Maki Suruga Maki is 20 years old.
She is full of energy. Maki goes to college with her boyfriend, Ippei Takebayashi and a foreign exchange student, Chamsi "Cham" Benenetty. Maki is the top player of the tennis team; the three sisters and their arch-rival, Alice Kagurazaka, are on the tennis team. The storyline progresses through the game as Maki deals with her college life. Miho Suruga The youngest of the three, complains about looking younger than she is despite being in high school, she has only one friend at school, her classmate, Kei Satonaka. Miho has a secret crush on another classmate, Yusuke "Nasshi" Nashimoto, only known about by Kei; the story follows Miho's high school life as turmoil erupts between Miho and Kei over Miho's feelings for Nasshi. Kazuhiro Natsume Chief of the General Affairs office, age 29, is a capable manager, but has a tendency for a wandering eye when it comes to female employees, he is a charming man with a powerful will. As the story progresses he becomes involved with Ryoko. Misaki Suou Best friend of another office lady at the same branch.
She has a pure heart. She tries to do everything she can to help Ryoko though she keeps her distance. Ippei Takebayashi Ippei, known as Ippei-chan by Maki, hangs around with Maki despite him being a male; the relationship is questionable as a boyfriend/girlfriend. Ippei is cheerful and full of energy just like Maki, but he is very laid back as well, he is a part of the Tennis Club and, according to Maki, could be better than her, but because he does not like it, he ditches the club most of the time. He is friends with Cham. Chamsi Benenetty Cham is a foreign exchange student from Thailand. Maki and Ippei appear to be her only friends, although Alice seems to tolerate her and get along with her at times, she has an unusual sense of taste in food compared to her friends. Because of her cluelessness, Maki tries to protect Cham. Alice Kagurazaka President of the Tennis Club, Alice comes from a rich family and is competitive, she is Maki's self-proclaimed arch-rival, though she falls short of Maki. The rivalry includes everything from tennis playing to seeing who can eat the fastest or Alice retaking classes just to beat Maki in that session.
Kei Satonaka Kei has a crush on Hashiba-senpai. She is the best friend of Miho. Kei wants to see romance bloom between Miho and Nasshi and, though the former dislikes it tries to force them together at times; as the story progresses, she thinks Miho is trying to steal Hashiba-senpai from her and becomes jealous. Yusuke Nashimoto Yusuke Nashimoto, nicknamed "Nasshi" by Kei, is reserved, he is oblivious to Miho's feelings for him. He is classmates with and friends with both Miho and Kei and tries to help them out when they need it. Hashiba-senpai Hashiba is a senior in Miho's school and the class heartthrob, he has a tendency to use women as objects; as the game progresses, Miho and Hashiba get involved in a love triangle, Kei becomes jealous of Miho. The zapping interface featured in Doushin: Same Heart has had mixed reviews. On one hand, it showed a new innovative twist to the redund
The Centre on Barton is an outdoor shopping centre in the Lower City of Hamilton, Canada. The centre is located on Barton Street East bounded by Ottawa Street North in the western-end and Kenilworth Avenue North on the eastern-end, it was known as the Centre Mall and before that, the Greater Hamilton Shopping Centre. It was a "plaza" for many years before being closed in as a "mall" and access to the stores was available through a front and back door of the plaza. In 2008, the mall was rebuilt back to an outdoor shopping centre; the Centre Mall was one of the first shopping malls in North America. The mall had 1 floor; the Centre Mall used to be the site of the Jockey Club racetrack but in the years after the Second World War the push for Hamilton's eastward expansion had engulfed the Jockey Club property. On 26 September 1952 the racetrack was sold; the site became the Greater Hamilton Shopping Centre. The Centre Mall owners announced the plans for a 23-building power centre, named The Centre on Barton, on the property of Barton Street East.
The cost had been estimated to be around the $100-million mark and the project took up 700,000 square feet of retail space. This was the largest redevelopment project in the history of Hamilton's east-end; the buildings on the property are grouped around the edge of the property and create a pedestrian-oriented design rather than a commercial island in a sea of parking. The overhaul took about two-and-a-half years to complete but the bulk of the work had been done by the end of the summer of 2008; some new buildings were completed. The redevelopment of Centre Mall transformed the entire neighbourhood from Ottawa Street to Kenilworth Avenue; the $100-million investment in the mall boosted Ottawa Street North – the city's No.1 tourist destination. The garment district became a holistic home decor destination area, with lighting, design & glass stores; the Ottawa Street Business Improvement Area had the most applications and grants under the commercial property improvement program in 2007 with 33, it had an effect on the property values and real estate activity in the district.
Official website Hamilton Centre Mall Construction details
This article deals with the history of tanks employed by military forces in Czechoslovakia from the interwar period, the more conventional tanks designed for the Czech Army before World War II, the tanks that ended up as Panzers of the German Wehrmacht during World War II, or in the use of other countries who purchased them before the war began. The first armored tanks and vehicles in Czechoslovakia were like most countries based on others designs and evolved into their own tank designs; the Czech Army bought three Carden Loyd tankettes and a production license for them in 1930, Českomoravská Kolben-Daněk building four copies that same year as prototypes for future orders. The Carden Loyds were evaluated during the Fall maneuvers and revealed numerous problems: the crews had poor vision through the narrow slits, the machine gun had a narrow field of fire, the crewmen had a difficult time communicating. Furthermore, they were slow and broke down. One of the P-1 prototypes was rebuilt to address these issues with additional vision ports in all directions, internal ammunition storage and the machine gun's field of fire increased to 60°.
It was extensively tested during 1931—2 and a few other changes were made as a result. The armor was increased from 6 to 8 mm and from 9 to 12 mm and a fixed machine gun was added for the driver. Two of the other prototypes were rebuilt to the same standard; the other prototype was given to the Shah of Iran. The order for seventy was placed on 19 April 1933, all being delivered by October 1934. After the first World War and the regions of Bohemia, Moravia and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon. In 1919, during the chaos following the breakup of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous Germans and Hungarians within the newly set borders. A Slovak patriot Milan Rastislav Štefánik, who helped organize Czechoslovak regiments against Austria-Hungary during the First World War, died in a plane crash. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state, it provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities and remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.
During the Interwar period, democratic Czechoslovakia was allied with France, with Romania and Yugoslavia. Both Czechs and Slovaks enjoyed a period of relative prosperity. There was progress not only in the development of the country's economy, but in culture and educational opportunities; the German minority came to accept their role in the new country and relations with Austria were good. Yet the Great Depression caused a sharp economic downturn, followed by political disruption and insecurity in Europe. Thereafter, Czechoslovakia came under continuous pressure from the revisionist governments of Germany and Hungary; this led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which allowed Nazi Germany to dismember the country by occupying what was called the Sudetenland, a region with a German-speaking majority bordering Germany and Austria. The Germans seized a large amount of the Czechoslovakian designed tanks and armored vehicles when they occupied Bohemia-Moravia in March 1939; the remainder of "rump" Czechoslovakia was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and included a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy.
After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award, Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary or Poland unless independence was declared. Thus, Slovakia seceded from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939 and allied itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition; the government of the First Slovak Republic, led by Jozef Tiso and Vojtech Tuka, was influenced by Germany and became a puppet regime in many respects. After it became clear that the Soviet Red Army was going to push the Nazis out of eastern and central Europe, an anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising, near the end of summer 1944. A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed; the territory of Slovakia was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces by the end of April 1945. After World War I, the Polish army began designing tankettes, light tanks, armored vehicles, many by Škoda; the German engineer Joseph Vollmer joined Škoda and designed a wheel/track light tank, the KH-50.
This design had roadwheels mounted on the drive sprockets and jockey wheels behind them to support the tracks. During World War I, Vollmer was chief designer for the German War Department's motor vehicle section, he had designed the World War I German tanks A7V, K-Wagen, LK I and LK II. Despite the design for the KH-50 having impressive specifications for the period - 13 mm armour, 37 mm turret-mounted armament, a 50 hp engine capable of driving the tank at 8 miles per hour and 22 miles per hour - it was rejected by the Czech army; the army was, impressed by the hybrid wheel/track concept and commissioned further studies, which resulted in the KH-60 and the KH-70. In these two designs the engine power was increased to 60 hp and 70 hp and a better system was developed for switching between track and wheel use which allowed a change in less than 10 minutes. Two KH-50 prototypes were built, one of, converted to a KH-60. Actual production included two
Smack On You is the Finnish rock band Smack's debut album. It was released in 1984. A remastered version was released in 1997 and it included 5 bonus tracks. "Good Morning Headache" 2:33 "Run Rabbit Run" 2:22 "Through the Glass" 4:01 "Skin Alley" 2:41 "Little C**t" 2:30 "Completely Alone" 4:23 "Some Fun" 1:51 "Ten Foot Cell" 3:46 "Primitive" 2:15 "Cemetery Walls" 3:47 "Criminal" 3:17 "No Peace on Earth" 1:23 "Criminal" 3:15 "Little C**t" 2:04 "Walkin' on the Wire" 4:20 "Blank" 2:48 "I Wanna Be Your Dog" 3:51 "Criminal" 3:15 "Little C**t" 2:04 Claude – vocals Manchuria – guitar Kartsa – guitar Cheri – bass Kinde – drums Smack
H. Jonathon Rendina is an American social and health psychologist, he is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Hunter College and the Director of the Applied Intersectionality & Minority Stress Lab in the PRIDE Health Research Consortium. His research focuses on intersectionalities sexual minority stress, LGBT health disparities, the stigma of living with HIV. Rendina completed a B. Phil in interdisciplinary studies with a focus on sexuality and health and minors in psychology and human development and family studies at the Schreyer Honors College at Pennsylvania State University in 2008, his thesis was titled Predictors of high risk sexual behavior among young bisexual males. Rendina's thesis supervisor was Anthony D'Augelli, he earned a M. A. in psychology at the Graduate Center, CUNY in 2012. His master's thesis was titled Concealing and revealing: The nature and function of possible selves for HIV status disclosure. In 2013, Rendina completed an M. P. H. in epidemiology and biostatistics at Hunter College and CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy.
His thesis was titled Stigma and sexual compulsivity in a community-based sample of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual men. He completed a Ph. D. in basic and applied social psychology in 2014 at the Graduate Center, CUNY. His dissertation was titled Hot and bothered: the role of arousal and rejection sensitivity in dual process sexual decision making for gay and bisexual men, his doctoral advisor was Sarit Golub. Rendina joined Hunter College in 2016 as a full-time faculty member, he is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Hunter College and the Director of the AIMS Lab, part of the PRIDE Health Research Consortium. In 2017, he became the principal investigator of a $3.6 million NIH grant to study stigma and HIV-related health outcomes. Co-investigators include Sarah Feldstein Ewing. Rendina's lab studies the intersectionalities of sexual minority stress, LGBT health disparities, the stigma of living with HIV. Rendina is gay. Jonathon Rendina publications indexed by Google Scholar